Integrative Paper on Leadership and the Skills Required to be a Leader

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It can be said that leadership is the skill set for an individual to have an influence on a group of people, making this group work with enthusiasm in achieving common goals. It is defined as the ability to, manage, promote, take initiative, hold, motivate, encourage, and evaluate a group or team. In business management leadership is the exercise of executive activity in a project effectively and efficiently, whether personal or institutional management (within the organization's administrative process).

Managerial Leadership is the process of directing the work activities of the members of a group and to influence them. This definition has four important implications. First, leadership involves other people, employees or followers. Members of the group, given their willingness to accept the orders of the leader helps define the leader's position and allow the lapse of the leadership process, otherwise who would send the manager's leadership qualities would be irrelevant. Second, leadership involves an unequal distribution of power between leaders and members of the group, as stated in Being a better leader. Group members are not without power, as they are able to shape, and indeed they do the group's activities in different ways. However, as a rule, the leader will have more power. The third aspect of a leadership is the ability to use different forms of power to influence the behavior of the followers of different ways. The fourth is the combination of the first three, but recognizes that leadership is about values.

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Types of leadership are: the opinion of experts in organizational development, there are few types of leadership. For others, there are no several types of leadership: leadership is one and, as leaders are people (individuals with personal characteristics defined), the classifications are the way they exercise or have acquired the power to direct, a fact not necessarily imply that it is a leader. Three types of leadership that refer to various forms of authority: "Traditional leader" is one who inherits the power of habit or for high office, or belongs to a family group of elite that has held power for generations. Examples: a reign.

Legitimate leader: We could think of "legitimate leader" and "illegitimate leader." The first is a person who acquires power through procedures authorized under the laws, while the illegitimate leader is the one that acquires its authority through the use of illegality. Illegitimate leader cannot even be considered a leader, since one of the characteristics of leadership is the capacity to convene and to convince, so a "leadership through strength" is not nothing but lack of it. It is a contradiction. All that can be told about a leader is to have followers, no leader exists without followers, as stated in Strategic Leadership: Individual and Organizational strategy.

Arieu defines a leader as "a person capable of inspiring and associate others with a dream. It is therefore important that organizations have a mission high transcendent, since it is a powerful way to strengthen the leadership of its directors". There is a fundamental rule of leadership, that is the basis for a good leader, whatever it is, to perform effective leadership. Most authors named the gold standard in personal relationships, and it is easy, simple and very effective: "Do not put people in your place: put yourself in the place of the people." In short, as well as you treat the people, they will treat you. Charismatic leader: is a person, who has the ability to generate enthusiasm, as described in Being a better leader.  

For the concept of leadership, there are different definitions classified differently by the theoretical approach adopted. According to the different meanings that the different approaches give, the figure of the leader depends on the parameters taken into account by researchers, there will be three categories of definitions, each of which focuses on some factors that influence the development of a definition. The first category of definitions is characterized by attention to features and capabilities of the leading characteristics or function of tenure. This set of definitions considers only the intrinsic qualities of the leader, ignoring the context.

The second set of definitions focuses on the control on the thrust, the direction of the actions or attitudes that a person is able to give to others or a group, with the acquiescence of the followers more or less, without using coercion. With these definitions do not recognize a special category of people who are leaders, nor that particular actions or which gives rise to leadership. This is a set of definitions also called the functionalist.

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The third category of definitions is dedicated to the action of influence, whatever it may be, determines that a change is needed to achieve the goals of the group. This third meaning appears to be evaluative: it seems to imply that leadership is self-centered and is not true, and that everything should be or would otherwise reduce to a problem of influence, in addition to one route. It is in any case a kind of definition to classify it as behavioral and situational, as described in Strategic Leadership: Individual and Organizational strategy.

Leadership Development. According to this classification, there are various styles of leadership: autocratic leader - an autocrat leader assumes all responsibility for decisions, initiates actions, directs, motivates and controls the ratings. Entrepreneurial leader: a leader who adopts the participatory style uses the query to practice leadership. Not delegating their right to make final decisions and points out specific guidance to his subordinates, but checks their ideas and views on many decisions that affect them. Liberal Leader: uses this style of leadership, the leader delegates authority to subordinates to make decisions. Proactive leader: this type of leadership promotes the development of the potential of people, the way a gardener looks and powers your garden. Fearless Leader: this type of person is able to relate to many institutions and individuals, persuasive, critical, with positive outlook. It has the ability to consult others for decision makers.

Type of leadership and characteristics: frequently Ratings - according to the formality of your choice; Formal leadership: preset by the organization. Informal leadership: emerging in the group. According to the relationship between leader and followers leadership dictator forces their own ideas in the group instead of allowing other members to be responsible, allowing them to be independent. It is inflexible and appreciates order, as well as destroys the creativity of others. Autocratic leadership: the leader is the only one in the group that makes decisions about work and organization of the group without having to justify them at any time. The evaluation criteria used by the leader are not known to the rest of the group. Communication is unidirectional: from leader to subordinate. Democratic leadership: the leader makes decisions after group discussion enhance, thanked the opinions of their followers. The evaluation criteria and standards are explicit and clear. When it comes to solving a problem, the leader offers several solutions, among which the group has to choose.

Paternalistic leadership is confident in his followers, making most of the decisions giving rewards and punishments at a time. His work is that employees work harder and better, encouraging, motivated and excited to potential rewards if they achieve a goal. Liberal leadership is when the leader adopts a passive role, leaving the power in the group. At no time judges or evaluates the contributions of other group members, as described in Strategic Leadership: Individual and Organizational strategy. Group members enjoy complete freedom, and have the support of the leader only if asked.

Depending on the leader's influence over his subordinates, there is transactional leadership: members of the group recognize the leader as an authority and leader. The leader provides the resources considered valid for the group. Transformational or charismatic leadership: the leader has the ability to modify the scale of values, attitudes and beliefs of the followers. The main actions of a charismatic leader are discrepancies with the established and wishes to change, proposed a new alternative with the ability to excite and convince their followers, and the use of unconventional and innovative means to achieve change and be able to take personal risks. Authentic Leadership: the one leader who focuses on lead in the first place of himself. He is a leader with great self, fair, spiritual, compassionate and generous. Only once the leader's mind can lead others. Lateral Leadership: takes place between persons of the same rank within an organization, or can also be defined as the process of influencing people of the same organizational level to achieve common goals with the organization. Leadership at work: business evaluates two important features in the executive, with the intention of assessing its capacity to address: firstly, the ability and, secondly, the attitude. 

The first is obtained by learning new methods and procedures, such as the ability to construct a balance sheet, cash flow, floor plan or marketing plan. But in many cases these skills are not applicable, because managers lack a good attitude, that is, appropriate behavior to try to implement these methods. Among the most requested and attitudes is required leadership ability, the same can be cultivated but, according to many authors, it is part of the individual personality. How to know if we are configured as leaders and, otherwise, how to develop these skills in ourselves? This is a topic of considerable debate and study, but it is necessary to discover if we have some leaders and what do we lack to fully achieve the goals, as stated in Strategic Leadership: Individual and Organizational strategy.

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Other classifications: A classification of the type of leadership is the formal, which represents the direction of a working group or designated officially, another less obvious is the recognition by members of an informal institution that has great influence. In sociological studies of community development and participatory observation, these people are the key to the field. In the decade of 1970, several Spanish sociologists studied the issue of the role of 'informal leaders' as a relevant topic of the sociology of the organization.

Leadership can also be classified as follows: individual leadership (role model); executive leadership (planning, organization, direction and control of a project); institutional leadership. When leadership is needed, usually for office in an organization, we speak of formal leaders. Thus, this leader should have certain skills: communication skills, organizational skills and administrative efficiency, which is to say that a good leader is a person responsible, communicative, and organized. Credibility: The Basis of Successful Leadership: According to the authors of the book, The Credibility is gaining, losing, and because people are claiming, the key to successful leadership is based on credibility. Credibility is defined as having the quality of being believable or seems real. Credibility is important for any leader since people are more willing to follow someone if you can believe what that person says and does. One must remember that there is a difference between management and leadership, as stated in Being a better leader. 

There are six disciplines that are key to credibility:

1. Discovering oneself;

2. Appreciating constituents;

3. To assert shared values;

4. Build capacity;

5. Serve a purpose;

6. Sustaining hope.

Individual leadership or group. Leadership can come from an individual, a group of people or even disembodied features - if not mystical - a famous figure (compared to a hero). However, there is other, who uses the word "leadership" without active leadership, but to which followers show great respect (often derived from tradition).

Followers often attribute the leader a status or prestige. Besides the prestige, role sometimes is granted to opinion of the leaders, the use of the word "leadership" can be used to characterize the influence between competitors, for example within a company or a market economic or technical, without it there is continuity of leadership. There may be occasional or situational leadership, as stated in 7 Keys to being a leader. Thus we can make an important distinction between being in command and leadership process. Leadership implies a relationship of power - the power to direct others to a particular time or in specified circumstances.

After communication with my colleagues and after interview with my family members I managed to find out their opinion considering my leadership skills. I have found out many interesting things, including their opinion, their critique and their advices. They have given me advice considering the improvement of my skills, of my goals and the leadership impact. I was also told about the fact, that leadership impact has to work only at work, and that I have to broaden my areas of development. Some respondents stated that I have to devote more time to the trainings and seminars to improve my leadership skills. I was told by my parents that it would be better to practice more and to get new knowledge, as the leadership skills without the proper knowledge do not help. I also was told about the courage and intentions that have to be present. I think that the best way is to understand the concrete purpose and to do everything possible to reach it. Nowadays, there are plenty of resources where the knowledge considering the leadership can be obtained and used effectively. Practice is one of the main components of the development of leadership. That is why, I think to devote a considerable amount of time to developing my skills, to communicating with people and to observing different areas that may be interesting to me. And only that way I will be able to get positive results, the team of professionals, the effective leadership skills and new possibilities.

PART II

The leadership of law and fact. Leadership is influencing the group. Legal definition of leadership - the leadership authority of law is based on his status and the opportunity to exercise its acknowledged incentives or sanctions. Examples: This is the boss, the leader, the captain. Definition of leadership is to the de facto leadership, which has an authority that is based on a particular ascendant, exceptional prestige. Leadership can come from personality, and personal qualities. In this case, the leader emerges from the group in which he plays an influential role. He is listened to by all, without being officially appointed.

The word "leadership" itself can mean a collective group of leaders, or it can mean special features of a celebrity (like a hero). Other use this word, in which the leader does not direct, but it is a figure of respect (as a scientific authority, through its work, its findings, its contributions to the community). Along with the role of prestige that is associated with inspiring leaders, most superficial use of the word "leadership" can designate innovation agencies, those that for a period taking the lead in an area such as a corporation or product that take the first position in any market. There has been much said about the leadership and its role in the society, and I know that I would like to have leadership skills in future.

The process of leadership lies in the interaction of those who were involved in a structure of the higher position, otherwise known as leaders, with the rest of the group. A key feature of the members of a group of high status is to propose ideas and activities in the group used in this way means to influence the members of the group to change their behavior, as described in 7 Keys to being a leader. But, as the social influence is always a mutual process, what characterizes the leaders is that they can influence others in the group more than they influenced themselves. For this reason, in the latest theories of leadership, they ask us to consider a report from the leadership, because as Peter Drucker says, the leader is one who has followers, without followers there can be a leader.

When it comes to leadership, one realizes that often the influence is resulted from the great leader, does not come from direct contact with him, but some is done through intermediaries. I am convinced that I would not like to be an intermediary, as I am devoted to the sphere of work I have chosen, and I would like to obtain the leadership skills along with the knowledge that will help me become successful. I think that in five years I will have more experience, better results and more perspectives that I have today. It is necessary therefore to adopt a clear distinction between direct leadership, including the relationships and interactions between a recognized leader and his immediate staff and the leadership is also called indirect leadership 'remotely', which is a recognized leader in the influence on people, who are not directly subordinate to him / her, as described in The key roles of leadership.

There must be seen an important distinction between two concepts often inaccurate in the literature: the formal leadership, which is often associated with the leader imposed from outside, in the psychology of work to managers, and informal leadership, stemming from the group, this distinction corresponds to the limit, to that which exists between leaders imposed from outside and expressed from the leader of the group (the "prophet" or "guru" driver). You can distinguish, in English, leadership (which is defined as the ability to influence), and the headship ("capacity", how to be in charge of, act as a "leader" of something), as described in Being a better leader.

Except for the leadership following types of leadership are distinguished:

management - as the goal-oriented design, management and development of a company (after bleaching), which is exercised by a business leader who acts as an entrepreneur or top manager.  Nowadays, being a leader is very important, and many people need to be leaders at work. The competition is very high and each person has to have something special that will attract employers. Successful leader has to have certain abilities to manage people, to know certain possible future in advance and to be able to predict.

As a fact, I consider myself a leader in five years. I think that I will achieve good results, all my goals and I will have a plan for the career promotion. Using my vision in action, I think that leadership will be a part of my life. I think that it is important to have leadership strengths and skills, as it helps a lot in life. I hope that I will impact other people and I think that I will be able to create a team of people that I can trust, and this way, I will be able to create a team of professionals with a leader. I am interested in the updates and new technologies, and that is why I think my strengths and skills will be aimed at international aspects. The strengths and the skills I will be best known for, I think that they will be the professionalism, loyalty, modern outlook, creativity, confidence and trust. I think that a successful leader needs to take decisions, to take risk, to constantly look for the new information and updates in the sphere he works. I think that people will seek out my specific leadership because they would like to cooperate with a person that has certain knowledge in the area they need it, that a person ahs experience and potential in the further development.

Today I think, that in 5 years a lot of things will be different in the strengths, approaches and behaviors that people today see in me. With my current age people perceive my knowledge and experience on way, and when I get older, my reputation, image and experience will help me to show people what I know and that I am a professional in the sphere I have chosen. Being a good leader and a true professional is very valuable and will always be. That is why I think that each person has to have a goal to become someone in the sphere he is interested in, and this way he will be satisfied with his work and with the people's opinion considering his results.

All in all, being a leader is challenging experience, which requires proper skills and knowledge. Communication is one of the most important aspects in life that leads to the success in the leadership. Being a leader is not simple, but it is interesting and perspective.