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Introduction of Multi-skilled, ward-based teams of supports workers in hospital.
Implementing of pilot scheme, by the manager Denise Lipton, where men were assigned to do cleaning job and workload of women can be shared.
There were tensions between Hotel services and nursing staff because of the pilot scheme the duties of dispensing food to patients were changed from nurse to domestic staff.
There was inadequate number of porters and they had lack of motivation and poor sickness record.
There was no service-level agreement so that porters performance can be measured.
There was problem with new pilot systems as gender issued raised, porters were not happy in doing cleaning job as they thought it was women work to do.
Areas of Theories:
Theory helps in building generalised models applicable to a range of organisations or situations. It further, provides a conceptual framework and gives a perspective for the practical study of the subject.
Management and Leadership
Management can be defined as an effort for getting things done in order to achieve the pre- determined goals of the concern through co-ordination of humans and other elements.
Leadership refers to a method of influencing the activities as an individual or group towards achievement of a definite goal.
Difference between Manager and Leader:
Manager execute plan and deliver goods for business while Leader are visionary they focus on where should be heading in future.
Manager create environment of stability and deal with reality, whereas Leader see big picture envisions.
Manager does a formal way of communication, general authorative and Leaders inspire, motivate people working with them.
Thus, manager manages work and leader leads people.
Motivation is the force which creates eagerness to work with inducement and inspiration with the help of innate tendency of human being.
High level of performance of employees.
Less employee turnover and absentees.
Acceptance of organisation change.
Groups, Teams and Team leadership:
A group is a collection of individual, interacting and interpedently, who worked together to achieve organisational objectives.
Important factors in the behaviour of groups are:
The size of the Group
Nature of task
Motivator and individual nature of members
Individual roles (G.A.Cole, Management theory and practise )
G. Moorhead and R.W.Griffin says a team is a small number of individual with different skills committed to common goals, objectives and they hold themselves mutually accountable. Teams help in,
Indentifying and solving work - related problems
Speeds up innovation
Improves performance and quality
Increase staff participation.
Leadership is a method of influencing the individuals, group, teams toward achievement of a definite goals .
There are different types of leadership theories such as
Trait theories- a personal trait of an individual which differentiate him from non-lenders.
Behaviour theories- leadership can be observed in behaviour of leader.
Different types of behaviour theories like Directive, Supportive, participate, Achievement-oriented leadership behaviour.
Situations and contingency leadership
New leadership theory
New leadership indicate new leaders as inspirational visionary, motivating its followers to achieve organisational goals.
Types of new leadership
New leadership also known as transformational leader .Transformational leadership inspires people to accomplish more than what is expected of them.
Long term goods
2) Charismatic leadership
Followers are influence by the charisma of an individual leader. They see them as attributions of heroism.
Visionary leadership is the ability to create and articulate realistic, credible attractive visionof the future for an organisation (Robbins.P.S pg 375,2005)
7) Female leadership
In female leadership is mostly based on there traits and behaviour suited for relationship-oriented leadership. They are co-operative, empowering style that includes nurturing team member.
In general female leadership is full of controversy when it comes to female leadership then there is a great deal of different gender leadership style.
Three areas of issues in relationship with following theories
The case study issues can be related to the following theories are as follows
Staff are rigid to changes
As seen In Rossett NHS hospital the staff lacked motivation towards there work. The porters was inadequate in numbers and had poor sicken records , there was no service level agreement so that porters performance can be measured . due to lack of motivation the new pilot system which was implemented faced lot of difficulties.
Groups, teams, team leadership
Multi skilled- task implementation
the management introduced multi skilled ward based work. There was different groups, teams in the hospital. Hotel service team comprised of domestic staff team, porters staff team and cleaning staff .there was group of nurses, doctors, PAMS, supervisor, of each teams and group. There was boundaries between them as a result it was impossible for the managers of teams to make them work as a team.
The pilot systems was implemented by the female manager Denise Lipton who thought women working in domestic level will see men cleaning and they will really enjoy the varied workload they was 80%. A personnel out of 2500 staffs who were female. This gave rise to gender issue where men thought it women work for cleaning not there. They was conflict between the hotel service staff and nurses as because of the shift of jobs of food dispensing from nurse to hotel staffs. There was no rotas, no proper scheduling of work , confusing was prevailing among every one.
(2) Critical review of the three areas of issues using the theoretical, perspective and recent research to develop a suitable analytical framework.
1) staffs were rigid to change
Staffs were less motivated toward the work which made new implementation difficult to be adapted. Staffs were having problem amongst themselves. There was no method of measuring staffs performance. Staffs were irregular in work. In this scenario motivation theory applies where staff need motivation to deliver high quality performance.
The concept of motivation have been identified many different ways, the term motivation comes from the motive which donates the expression of human needs by human being.
In words of L.A.Allen (1964) the work a manager performs to inspire, encourage and impel people to take required action is called motivation. William.G.Scott (1977) has defined motivation as a process of the stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals. Lohen Taylor introduces scientific management school, especially different wages system in order to motivate employees, a good member of researchers and managers have been expressing their opinions in this regard. Different scholars discuss the theories of motivation differently. Haynes and Masie management analysis, concepts and cases (1961) ch-7, have been classified motivation theories into two categories - monistic which relates to motivating by increasing monetary reward. It says it pay rise effort rise.
Pluralistic which says human being perform work to satisfy his various needs like physiological needs and self needs.
V.H.Vroom and E.L.Deci (management and motivation selected readings 1970 pg 11-13) has divided theories of motivation into three categories .
1) the paternalistic approach that employees can be motivated by offering them more rewards. So they will apply more effort.
2) the scientific management approach suggests that employees can be motivated if rewards and punishment both can be adopted .
3) the participative theory which suggests to integrate planning and work performance , and use less authority as mean of employees control.
According to Abraham Maslow ( motivation and productivity,1954) has listed human needs chronologically as physiological needs, social needs, safety needs , esteem needs, and self actualisation needs in his hierarchy of needs theory for motivation. Maslows theory can be criticised from three view, first, he did not mention the needs relating employees work, he expressed the common needs within preview of the work of employees and their families. Secondly, the way he listed the needs it reveals from a study that there is no hard or first rule hierarchy of needs. A divergence of option have been notices among the employees needs. Thirdly, this theory states that subject of motivation, there is no clear indication about how the human behaviour and work performance influence by this need theory. Then, there was two factors theory of Herzberg which was by an American management expert Frederic Herzberg. In 1950 he and his two associates interviewed as many as 200 engineers and accountants, regarding the satisfaction of there job. On this base he concluded that needs of the employees are of two types
Maintenance or hygience factors, which related to working environment.
Motivated factors, such as works, success, advancement, etc.
This theory can be criticised from various aspects which are limited application, defective observation, he ignored other matter like salary, dignity, work performance.
McGregor theory X and theory Y approach stated that how managers observe themselves in the eye of others and to observe this attitude, they needs insight thought on the nature of human being. Theory X and theory Y denotes good or bad. But this theory can be criticised that human nature changes in different situations, thus, it can be said that today employees are more motivated of salaries are high, self development and better working condition are present.
2) Multi skilled- work implementation
The management introduced multi skilled- work based work. There was different groups and teams in hospital, hotel service team comprising of domestic staffs and porters, group, of nurses, and doctors with internal problems prevailing between them. In the issue group, team, team leadership theory applies.
According to Robbin S.P - A group is defined as two or more individual, international and interdependent who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
Different types of theories are, theory of propinquity according to which people associate with one another due to geographical proximity.
Balance theory - According to which people who have similar attitudes toward certain objects and goods tend to form a group.
Exchange theory- According to which the reward - cost outcomes of interactions serve as the basis for group formation. There are formal groups which are basically on organisational level. They are formed to carry out to specific tasks.
Informal group are formed by the employees friendship and interest group.
It can be criticised that in groups some time people have self interest of performing, the nature of member may be different , they interact with each other is to achieve the task given .
According to Guridham.M interactive behaviour at work, says self categorisation is the process that transform a number of individual into a group, Halsam refers to relationship between individuals and groups in an understanding of organisational behaviour agrees that understanding only study of psychology of individuals, as individuals are not enough, one has to understand how bounds are created between individuals social identities, in terms of group members (mullins 2010, pg 319).
Teams occurs when people have common interests or goals and recongnise their personal success is dependant on the success of others (mullins 2010, pg 307).
According to Holpp, while people are paying homage to terms, teamwork, other have become disillusioned. Holpp poses the question What are teams ? why do you want teams. In Robbins.S (2005,pg 259 ) team are of different type i.e , self managed work teams, cross- functional teams, size of team and nature of team.
(3) In the case study it is evitable that gender issues were on its highest peak. The pilot system was implemented by a female manager who included men in cleaning job who thought it was women work. This lead to the closure of this implementation. There was no proper work rotas, nurse were threated by the domestic male staff who consider themselves to be better in dispensing food. In this scenario female leadership is applicable.
Some researches like Powell(1990), Bars(1990), Ferario(1991), Gibson(1995), Bolman and Deal(1991) suggested that once women becomes a leader she behaviours no differently as men. In (1992) Lipman- bluemen said that female resort to masculine leadership strategies to make colleagues respect them. Further Eagerly and Johnsons (1990) meta analysis suggested in the same manner as men ,in task and interpersonally - oriented. Another is experimental settings where women leadership is participative or democratic than man. According to Rosener(1990,1997) suggested women leadership as concerned for community and culture derives influence from relationships rather than position and authority. Further in 2003, Eagley, Johnson and Van engen .M, meta -analysis concluded that womens style of leadership are transformational than men, engage more in contigent reward behaviour than men.
Critisim can be done on the fact that women are always critisied by men. Some of the women leaders was removed from their position in organisation and was forced to open their own organisation. Women generally are more of caretakers, helpmates and pacemakers in role as leaders.
Evaluation of the leadership and organisational behaviour issues with the help of models and theories-
Abraham Maslows hierarchy of need theory for motivation is being consider here for the issue of- staff rigid for change-
According to him the needs of the employees may be arranged chronologically from lowest to highest level. There are two features of human needs , first, humans needs has been satisfied which does not affect his behaviour. For, example human being lives of eating, the conception remains valid till he cannot provide for it, once this need is fulfilled , he has no more desire for eating and its importance as an element of motivation reduces. Secondly, human-needs can be arranged hierarchically when lower level need have been fulfilled, higher-level needs come to the scene and required to be fulfilled.
Maslow has arranged the human needs chronologically in this way - physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self actualisation needs. These have been depicted below
The human needs as suggested by maslow have been discussed in the below with relation to the issue of case study-
Physiological needs -
Physiological needs include homeostairs ( such as satisfaction of hunger, maintain temperature regulation, sleep, pleasures, organisational factors like pay, pleasant working conditions, cafeteria, etc.
According to the case study the staff physiological needs was pay which was different 2%for porters and 8% to domestic staff which was increased with new implementation but still there was difference in pay and it was multi- tasking so each work equal to another , so the staff are trained in all fields and pay should also be equal that is