Knowledge and Data Management in Charity




Executive summary-------------------------------------------------------


Research problem---------------------------------------------------------

Research methodology---------------------------------------------------

Literature review----------------------------------------------------------

A description of the business--------------------------------------------

Outline of the overall objectives of Business--------------------------

Current organizational position in respect to knowledge------------ management implementation---------------------------------------------

Drivers of the organization for a KM system--------------------------

Potential benefits of KM-------------------------------------------------

Key components the company could consider------------------------

Challenges for the implementation--------------------------------------



Knowledge Management is the systematic approach that invents, understands, shares, creates, and utilizes knowledge in order to create values.

Such as customers value, employee’s value, stock holder’s value, Business partner value and social value to achieve the vision and the goal of the organization.

Knowledge Management develops and operates effective system which realizes for right persons at right time to transfer smoothly and utilize their knowledge.

Knowledge holds the highest value, it is the extract of the human contribution, the most relevant decisions and actions, and the most appropriate solution to a context.

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It directly relates to human mind so it’s the most difficult area to manage, so people who have knowledge are the greatest repositories of information who not only store the information in their minds but they also have the ability to meaningfully integrate that information and deliver it within the specific context relating to their expertise, judgment and their experience.

This knowledge allows the creation of new ideas and solution which stems out from these people. This knowledge forms the base of all the processes, technology and solutions.

Relation between data, information, knowledge management and wisdom is described by Fleming(1996) as


Information relates to description, definition, or perspective (what, who, when, where).

Knowledge comprises strategy, practice, method, or approach (how).

Wisdom embodies principle, insight, moral, or archetype (why).

Concepts in knowledge management

Explicit Knowledge:

Explicit knowledge is expressed explicitly and can be codified easily, recognized by anybody

[Ex. Reports, methods, manual, etc]

Tacit Knowledge :

Tacit Knowledge is the knowledge embedded in the brain which everyone has or share tacitly.

[Ex. Experience, image, skillful technique, corporate culture, etc.

Knowledge processes:

This process encompasses three subprocesses

Knowledge generation, codification and knowledge realization



The organisation’s mission to help the suffering and relieve the needy, homeless and vulnerable individuals. It is served by 4500 sisters and over a million co workers and volunteers. The full time volunteers mostly remain for 2 years which gives a huge workload of training staff every year. They have some shops where they collect the donations which include money and used items. Even though most of the money for care comes from donations. They have central offices which monitor the funding and check the operations, they communicate through e-mail generally. The shops communicate with the offices generally using fax and customers offering goods communicate either by phone or simply turning up, usually at the shops.

The main purpose of this research would help this organization in Asset management, process management and Developmental. So the organization will be building up a library which will store all valuable key knowledge assets and processes as self-helping procedure manuals which will help and make staff training more effective.

The main reason for this Knowledge management approach were

  • They don’t engage in data collection which could be used for generating reports and patterns
  • Computer support availability is limited.
  • They don’t possess any key knowledge asset which could be readily or easily shared with new staff
  • The knowledge can not be implemented for new innovative ideas.
  • Current knowledge distribution activity includes a lot of training and very less training materials which tells about the real world scenarios.

This Research was a new experience for us since we've never had to market anything before. We’ve learned a lot about how to put together projects and reports and manage our time. We needed to stay very organized with our project in order to complete all of our tasks on time. When we were pressed for time we also learned how to distribute work so that it would be easier to complete a task. We also learned how to deal with people when they don't give you to overcome many obstacles and how to deal with people when they don't give you information

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that you need. We needed to work around missing information in the creation of the Research methodology and our target by pretending we had it, and then adding it in when we received it. we also improvised on our project, such as in the creation of Assignment.


We came across various KM strategies. Some strategies focuses on the knowledge, some on business processes, and some on the final results. Based on this the various strategies can be classified as

Classification by Knowledge: Nonaka & Takeuchi's Matrix of Knowledge Types and Boisot's I-Space Model

Classification by Business Process: APQC International Benchmarking Clearinghouse Study and Mckinsey & Company

Classification by End Results: Treacy & Wiersema's Value Disciplines

Linking Knowledge And End Results: Zack's Knowledge Strategy

The best way to classify knowledge classification is matter of some debate. The most frequently and helpful classification of Knowledge Management for Knowledge Management practicing are focus on a mixture of knowledge accessibility for example where we stored knowledge or location and in what form? And knowledge Travelling from one place to another and from person or persons to another person or persons. This key points underlines the analyzing of Nonaka and Takeuchi in their Knowledge spiral. Innovation or learns occurs as an output of the flow the transformation of knowledge.

One of the commonly accepted and widely quoted approaches to clarify knowledge from a Knowledge Management is the Knowledge matrix of Nonaka and Takeuchi. This matrix of knowledge classifying knowledge as either explicit or tacit, and either individual or collective. Nonaka and Takeuchi are also introduce corresponding knowledge processes that transmit knowledge from one place to another; socialisation from tacit to tacit, an individual acquiring tacit knowledge forwardly from others through sharing experience, observation, imitation and etc; externalising combination from explicit to explicit, through as systematic of concepts flow chart on different formats of explicit knowledge; and internalising from explicit to tacit, through processing of learning by done and through a verbalising and documenting of experiences. Nonaka and Takeuchi reference model the process of organization knowledge creation as a spiral which knowledge is depending through these four models of knowledge conversation. They also considered that the knowledge becomes purified within the organization at the upper levels moving from the individual through the organization and even inter organizational level.

After classifying the knowledge we need to map the knowledge into the Knowledge spectrum. The knowledge here is mapped into Asset management, Process management and Developmental.

Binney’s KM Spectrum provided the classification a spectrum of Knowledge Management approaches. The six categories of KM activities as suggested by Binney’s model are grouped as.

  • Transactional KM: Knowledge is technology Embedded
  • Analytical KM: Knowledge is input from external resources focussing mostly on information relating customer
  • Asset Management KM: Management of Knowledge assets Explicitly
  • Process-based KM: Codifying and Improving the business practice and sharing these practices within the organisation
  • Developmental KM: Capability Improvement of the Knowledge Workers capabilities through the process of staff development and training.
  • Innovation/Creation KM: Formation of an environment which helps in creating new Knowledge like R&D.

This Binney’s categories of activities helps to map these activities to KM Classifications. This can be mapped to other KM classifications too.

KM Spectrum mapped to other KM Classifications

KM Spectrum



Asset Management



Innovation & Creation

K. Accessibility:




K. Conversion:





SLC (Boisot)

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Problem Solving

Scanning / Abstraction




K. Type

Mostly procedural

Mostly declarative





We conducted a series of activities which helped identify the appropriate KM initiative

  1. List the External business driver
  2. Perform SWOT Analysis which will identify the service.
  3. Identification of the Value of Organisation
  4. The findings about the organisation will help to identify the KM area to consider by asking self examining questions, like
  • Who are knowledge providers and users?
  • What are the resources being used in the business process? Ex material, equipments etc
  • What is the culture of organisation?
  • What kind of knowledge is used? Symbolic, geometrical or based on perception.
  • How much time will humans take to solve the problem.
  • And how is this knowledge available?

5. Find the knowledge activities undertaken by the organisation and identify

  • Knowledge assets
  • The knowledge is explicit, Implicit or Tacit
  • The form and quality of these Assets

6. Map the activities in KM Spectrum and look for the appropriate KM strategy

7. Check for the feasibility check for the KM approach.

In this case of Missionaries of charity

Factors in ‘Missions of Charity’ which influenced the selection of a KM Strategy


Mission’s of Charity

Current KM Strategy

Staff training, seminars, manuals of procedure

Business Characteristics

Business is Regulated, almost stable, Less competition.

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis

Strengths and weakness:

Good reputation, knowledge is used in practice, stable knowledge, most of the knowledge is stored in the staff’s mind.


Some perform better than others, Knowledge can be replicated easily, much time is wasted in training

Value of organisation

Operational Excellence and Customer Intimacy.

Structure of Organisation

Organization is Loosely structured.

Organisational Culture

Team working, Sharing nature, Learning environment, Caring culture.

Nature of Knowledge

Configuration (shop layout); Scheduling (van pickup deliveries, staff rotas); Assessment (funding agencies against potential clients); etc. Also considerable tacit knowledge on the caring side (in terms of understanding clients and their reactions).


They don’t possess data which can be used for analysis of patterns;

Computer support is limited.




The Missionaries of Charity is an international religious Charity of pontifical right compose of there activity they have many charities with perpetual pepole vows of chastity, poverty, obedient, and open hearted and they provide free of charge to the poorest of the poor, Trained each sister to the sincere love of God and there neighbor and they creating the Church fully present in the nation of today.

Mother M. Teresa is the founder of Missionaries of Charity , M.C. is Calcutta one of the biggest city in India, and now has houses on all over the world or we can say in every continent of the world. Their target mission is to help poorest of the poor in every single country on the world. Each Missionaries of Charity member of the Society goes happily where she is sent and without choosing the place or type of work. Charity Candidates should be between 18 and 35; Charity guided by the right intention; must be physically good in health and mind, and so able to face the hardships of this vocation; able to gain knowledge, especially the language because different countries have different languages So the Charity individual must know the language of the people they help; of wishing to disposition; and able to judge sound judgment.

Initial formation of charity candidates training periods are 6 months pre aspirancy, 6 months aspirancy,1-year postulancy, and 2-year novitiate. All candidates should be come for a two week "come-and-watch" in the Bronx, New York house there before they can be consider for entry in Missionaries of charity.


Every organization works in an environment which decides the way an institution should conduct its business. There are a number of drivers for various sectors which decide how that company should go about knowledge management,




Knowledge is information based

Knowledge is regulated

Knowledge involves management of Risk

Includes knowledge which is highly competive

fast reaction times.

Professional Services

Service is knowledge

people as primary source

mobile workforce



This provides a clear way to choose the most appropriate knowledge management for the sector. Financial firms generally focus on Analytical Knowledge management since Information is the knowledge they posses.

Professional services on developmental KM because people are their primary source of Knowledge

Law firms focus on innovation KM and/or Best Practice supporting Knowledge Management

Process and oil industries will focus process management/transactional KM or on innovation Knowledge management due to heavy R&D emphasis.

Public sector will focus generally on analytical Knowledge management or developmental Knowledge Management since their focus is generally customer focussed . Questions that be asked would include:

  • What is the Sector of Business?
  • What is the Purpose or Service of the Organisation?
  • What are the key drivers in the business?


  • New Value is produced and conserved like Intellectual Property Assets
  • Generate new Wealth and increasing returns
  • Revenue increases as invaluable knowledge is shared
  • Innovation and knowledge multiplication opens new Markets
  • Enable Sustainable, Organic Growth
  • Decision making Improves
  • Risk factor is mitigated
  • Knowledge which is carefully extracted helps Develop new Business Models
  • Better relations can be made with customers as their mind set can be read.
  • Productivity and efficiency improves
  • Innovation speeds up as Ideas and Creativity.
  • A more Adaptive, responsive, dynamic, and flexible organization is created.
  • Facilitate the evolution of a more Intelligent Enterprise and produce smart engaging products
  • Helps better prepare for the future development.
  • Documented knowledge improves training process
  • Excellent Competitive Intelligence is gained
  • Co-ordination improves as Common Knowledge is shared
  • Maximize the organization's use of available collective wisdom, experience, and the Brain-Power of human capital assets
  • Helps an organization to better Manage Change
  • Support and services to customers improves.
  • Employees are not seen as expense but as Knowledge Investors in the organization.
  • Knowledge flow is channelized and stimulated.
  • Attract, and retain motivated, loyal, and committed Talent
  • Be better positioned for Knowledge Workers to cope with increasing Information-Overload
  • Helps Knowledge Conversion by turning the technological Know-how to Corporate asset.
  • Lower Operating Costs by substituting information and knowledge stores for inventory
  • Knowledge management reuse reduces Knowledge waste and duplication.
  • Create a more knowledge aware, knowledge friendly culture, and Community of Practice(s) better suited to the emerging knowledge-based economy context
  • In general, be better able to Create, Capture, Share, Protect, Disseminate, Package and Exploit knowledge, intellectual capital, and intangibles
  • Enables proper Transfer of Knowledge
  • Extend the global Reach, Richness, and Scope of the enterprise
  • It is an excellent way to exchange the ideas within the workers.
  • Bring a new level of sophistication to managing the brand, reputation, and Intangibles that customers value


We Evaluate if there is an association between the KM spectrum and value of knowledge which we gain from Missionaries of Charity assets, before and after Missionaries of Charity have been managed;

Surveying Missionaries of charity attitudes to knowledge assets generated by standards of knowledge management approaches.

Considering potential false factors that suppose to selecting a Knowledge Management approach in the Missionaries of Charity Case study, insufficient of Funds was a common factor against transacting or analytical Knowledge Management.

Analyzing past case studies in Missionaries of Charity of Knowledge Management succession and failures to explain if selecting right things Knowledge Management approach was extremist factor.


Gillham, Bill. (2000). Case Study Research Methods. London: Continuum.

Patton, Michael Quinn. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (2nd ed.).

Newbury Park, California: Sage.

Patton, Michael Quinn. (1987). How to Use Qualitative Methods in Evaluation.

Binney D., 2001, The knowledge management spectrum - understanding the KM landscape, Journal of Knowledge Management

Abell A. and N. Oxbrow, 2001, Competing with Knowledge, Library Association Publishing, London.

Beckman T.J., 1999, The Current State of Knowledge Management, in the Knowledge Management Handbook, ed. J. Liebowitz, CRC Press.

Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, June 2003 Knox Haggie, John Kingston, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh