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Generally, small organizations they don't have an HR department, and line manager will be responsible for all functions. Similarly large organizations have hundred of employees. Manager will deal the HRM duties and report to the chief executive officer.
The basic function of Human Resource Management consists of the following:
Procurement is concerned with the "obtaining of the proper kind and number of personnel necessary to accomplish organization goals". It deals specifically with such subjects as the determination of human resources requirements and their recruitment, selection, and placement. The determinants of human resources required most rest upon a prior design of job duties, a decision that is increasingly being affected by the personnel manager's objective meeting human need
2. Performance Appraisals.
Once a talented candidate is recruited in the organization, next the managers test the individual performance appraisal in work place. Actually line managers conduct the appraisal according to (Monody and none 1996).
Development deals the increase of employee skills, by training that is necessary to job performance. This is an activity of very great importance and will continue to grow
The equitable remuneration of personnel for their contributions for companies Compensation in the fume of payment ,salaries and benefits pensions, vacation, insurance, sick days stock options etc. and employee performance influenced by benefits and compensations.
According to ( cherrrington, 1995 )
It is concerned with the attempts to effect a reasonable reconciliation of individual, societal and organizational interests. It rests upon a foundation of belief that significant overlapping of interests to exist in our society
If the first function of Personnel Management is to secure the employee, it is logical that the last should be the separations and return of that person to society. Most people do not die on the job. The organization is responsible for meeting certain requirements of due process in separation.
Human Resources Planning Model
Human resources planning are to collect information. A forecast or plan cannot be any better than the data on which it is based. Human resources planning require two steps of information. Data from the external environment and from inside the organization.
Data from the external environment includes information on current conditions and predicted changes in the general economy, the economy of the specific, the relevant industry. Technologie and the competition. Any of these factors may affect the organizations business plans and thus the need for human resources.
I. Collect Information
A. From the External Environment
1. Economy - General and Specific Industry
4. Labor Market
5. Demographical Social trends
6. Government Regulations
B. From Inside the organization
2. Business Plans
3. Current Human Resources
4. Rates of turnover and mobility
II. Forecast Demand for Human Resources
A. Short and Log Term
B. Aggregate or individual positions
III. Forecast Supply of Human Resources
A. Internal Supply
B. External Supply
IV. Plan and Conduct Needed Programmes
A. Increase or reduce work force size
B. Change Skill Mix
C. Develop managerial succession plans
D. Develop career plans
V. Feedback on the planning process
A. Were the forecasts Accurate?
B. Bid the programmers meet the need?
Benefits of Human Resource Planning
Human Resource planning deals the required kind and number of employee, personnel management deal the functions for all determines and action plans.
It checks the corporate plan of the management
Resource planning develops the employee through training and It helps to increase the cost of salary enhancement,
It affects uncertainty and change. But the human resource development affects uncertainties and changes to the maximum extent possible and enables the organization to have right people at right time and in right place.
Human Resource planning proses
The process of Human Resource Planning is one of the most crucial, complex and continuing managerial function
Human Resource planning objectives:
Human Resource planning fulfils organizational and national goals; the mission tells the future enterprise need to increase the future return on investment in human resources. The main purpose is one of matching employee abilities to organization requirements.
A. Estimating the Future Organizational Structure of Forecasting the Man power Requirements:
Estimates the number and type of employees needed have to be determined. Huge environmental factors affect this affecting. Managers include business forecasts, expansion, design growth, structural changes, management philosophy, government policies, product and human stalls mix, and competition.
Human Resources auditing:
This is done through what is called "Stable inventory". A skills inventory contains data about each individual's skills, capability, performance appraisals and other item of information's which indicate his total value to the organization.
After recruiting how many people would be needed, it is necessary to orange a job analysis, which records details of training, skills, qualifications, strengths, experience and responsibilities they are needed for a job.
Developing a Human Resource Plans:
The developing the human resource plans, they consists in finding out the sources of labor supply, with a view to making an effective use of these sources
Objectives of the Recruitment:
The objectives of the recruitment are
1. To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suit
The present and future organizational strategies.
2. To select outsiders with a new perspective to develop the company
3. To infuse new thoughts at all levels of the company
4. To increase an organizational culture that attracts competent leaders to The Company
5. To search people who's talented fit the Company's values
6. To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits.
7. To seek out non-conventional development grounds of talent.
8. To search for talent people globally and not in the company
Sources of Recruitment
Sources are those who prospective employees are available like employment exchanges while techniques are those which stimulate the prospective employees to apply for jobs like nomination by employees, advertising promotion etc.
The sources of recruitment are broadly divided into internal sources and external sources. Internal sources are the sources within an organizational pursuit. External sources are sources outside organizational pursuits.
Many large organizations will attempt to develop their own employees for positions beyond the lower level. These can occur through an internal search of current employees, resources management system. The advantages of such sources - "a promote form within wherever possible". Policy is:-
It is good public relations
It builds morale
It encourages good individuals who are ambitious
It is less costly than going outside to recruit
Those chosen internally already know the organization
When carefully planned, promoting from within can also act as a training device for developing middle and top level managers.
It can be dysfunctional to the organization, to utilize inferior internal sources only because they are there when excellent candidates are available on the outside. Internal searches may also generate infighting among the rival candidates for promotion, as well as decreasing morale levels of those not selected. The organization should also avoid excessive in breeding. Occasionally it may be necessary to bring in some new blood to broaden the current ideas, knowledge, and enthusiasm,
It is customary for organizations to open up recruiting efforts to the external community. These efforts include advertisements, employment agencies, schools, colleges and universities, professional organizations, and unsolicited applicants.
There is a trend toward more selective recruitment in advertising. This can be affected in at least two ways when an organization wishes to communicate to the public that it has a vacancy advertisement is one of the most popular methods used. However, where the advertisement is placed is often determined by the type of job.
A number of factors influence the response rate to advertisements. There are three important variables. 1) Identification of the organization, 2) Labor market conditions, 3) The degree to which specific requirements are included in the advertisement one in which there is no specific identification of the organization
Additional screening can be affected through the utilization of employment agencies, both public and private. Today, in contract to their former unsavory reputation, the public employment agencies in the several states are well regarded, particularly in the fields of unskilled, semi-skilled, and skilled operative jobs. In the technical and professional areas, however, the private agencies appear to be doing most of the work. Many private agencies tend to specialize in a particular type of worker and job, such at sales, office, executive or engineer. A recent innovation, the videotaped interviews promotes more effective decision making with easier scheduling and more time saving for the hiring organization
Schools, Colleges and Universities
Educational institutions at all levels offer opportunities for recruiting recent graduates. Most educational institutions operate placement services where prospective employees can review credentials and interview graduates
Many professional organizations, including labor unions, operate placement service for the benefit of their members. The professional organizations include such varied occupations as industrial engineering, psychology, accounting, legal and academics. These organizations publish rosters of job vacancies and distribute these lists to members
Unsolicited (casual) applications, whether they reach the employer by better, telephone, or in person, constitute a source of prospective applicants. This source does provide an excellent supply of stock piled applicants. Unsolicited applications made by unemployed individuals, however, generally have a short life. The last constraint, but certainly not lowest in priority, is one that centers on recruiting costs. Recruiting efforts by an organization are expensive
Recruitment Methods and Techniques
Recruitment sources indicate where human resources may be procured, the recruitment methods and techniques deal with how these resources should be tapped. As soon as manpower Manager has determined the personal qualities required on the part of an individual to fill a vacant position and visualized the possible sources of candidates with these qualities.
Direct method is the traveling recruiting all schools, colleges, and management institute and university departments. Traveling recruiters are designated as "personnel scouts" looking for engineers, technicians, specialists and rare skills. This type of recruiting is performed in co-operation with the placement bureau of the educational institutions providing assistance in attracting, arranging interviews and making available space and student resumes.
Other direct methods include sending recruiters to establish exhibits at job fairs, using mobile camps to visit shopping centers in rural areas and places where the unemployed might be contracted. Indeed, trade shows, country fairs and allied business shows provide opportunities for advertising the company as a good place to work as well as displaying products of the company.
The most frequently used method of technique of recruitment is advertisement in publications such as newspapers, magazines and trade journals as well as technical and professional journals. The advertisement should indicate information about the organization and the job providing an opportunity to a potential candidate to contact the recruitment office in confidence.
Indirect methods include ratio advertising and television announcements. These methods are usually used in shortage areas. Sometimes, the use of radio and television advertisement is coupled with newspaper advertising and home visits. Another indirect method of advertising frequently used is a notice board placed at the gate of the company.
Third Party Methods
The most frequently used third party methods are public and private employment agencies. Public employment exchanges have been largely concerned with factory workers and clerical jobs. They also provide help in recruiting professional employees. Private agencies provide consultancy service and charge a fee. They are usually specialized for different categories of operations, Office workers, salesman, supervisory and management personnel.
Other third-party methods include the use of trade unions. Labor management committees have usually demonstrated the effectiveness of trade unions as methods of recruitment
After identifying the sources searching for employees and encouraging employees to apply for jobs in an organization sector. The selection procedure items and the managers analysis the candidates eligible the job criteria or not.
1. Requirements of the job to be filled, have been clearly specified
(Job analysis etc)
2. Employee specifications (Physical, mental social, behavioral, etc)
Have been clearly specified.
3. Candidates for screening have been attracted.
Selection of personnel in an organization is a crucial complex and continuing function. An organization to attain its goals and to develop in a dynamic environment largely depends upon the effectiveness of its selection programmed. If right personnel are selected, the remaining functions of personnel management became easier, the employees' contribution and commitment will be at optimum level and employee-employer relations will be congenial. In an opposite situation where the right person is not selected, the remaining functions of personnel management, employee-employer relations will not be effective. If the right person is selected, he is a valuable asset to the organization and if faulty selection is made, the employee will became a liability to the organization.
Steps in Selection Process
The following are involved in the process of selection:
Line Manager's Decision
1. Application Form
Application form is and application blank similar. The technique of application blank is traditional accepted for securing information from the right candidates. It can be used as a tool to screen the candidate at the first levels
2. Written Examination
The organizations have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the candidate's ability in arithmetical calculations, to know the candidates attitude towards the job to measure the candidates aptitude, reasoning, knowledge in various disciplines, general knowledge and English language.
3. Preliminary Interview
The preliminary interview is to solicit necessary information from the prospective applicants and to assess the applicant's suitability to the job. This may be conducted by an assistant in the personnel department.
4. Group Discussion
The technique of group discussion is used in order to secure further information regarding the suitability of the candidate for the job. Group discussion is a method where groups of the successful applicants are brought around a conference table and are asked to discussion either a case study or a subject matter.
The next stage in the selection process is conducting different tests as given below. The objective of tests is to solicit further information to assess the employee suitability to the jobs.
6. Final Interview
This is crucial step in the process of selection of employees. In this step the final selection gives a correct person to the organization.
7. Medical Fitness
Some jobs requires certain physical qualities like stable vital data(blood pressure etc.),clear vision and audibility, unusual stamina, tolerance of hard working conditions, clear tone etc, Medical examination reveals whether the candidate is medically fit for the job or not.
8. Reference Checks
After completion of the final interview and medical examination, the personnel department will check the reference candidates. This reference gives the candidates personal and educational achievements, and it also gives the candidates previous employment achievements.
9. Final Decision by the Line Manager Concerned
The Line Manager concerned has to make the final decision to select or reject a candidate after verifying the required information through different interview techniques discussed as earlier. The concerned Manager has to take much care in taking the final decision not only because of economic implication and of the decisions but also because of behavioral and social implications
Thus after taking the final decision the organization has to send their final decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates. The organization will send the appointment orders to the successful candidates depending upon the time schedule,+ either immediately or after sometime.
organizational culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems that has worked well enough to be considered valid and is passed on to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. Although the words are different, the two definitions are nearly the same in terms of content.
The organization culture effects on organization staff, recruiting and retention process. Every organization has its own culture and it tells us how it affects employees. Manager's main key factors are attracting talent employees, culture analysis. Behavioral regularities of employees observed by the company managers.
Organizational culture deals with values, believes, behaviors and paradigm. Managers identify the employee's values, beliefs and behaviors' aspects of organization culture. Culture provides relatively fixed patterns for handling and solving problems, reduces uncertainty for members of the organization in the new situations. Culture influences the employee and managers decision making style.
Appropriate structure based on socio-technical systems
Democratic functioning with participation
Justice and equality in treatment
Open discussion with an avoidance of conflict
Appropriate managerial styles
Acceptance of psychological contract
Recognition of needs and expectations at work and individual differences
Equitable rewards and positive recognition
Concern for working life and job design
Personal development and career progression
Analysis and changing culture:
Analysis is necessary to understand how culture impacts on people. Some ways of analysis:-
The culture web Johnson and Scholes discussed the cutler web about six inter related elements helps the cutler call the "paradigm". E.g. Control Systems, Power
Showing: behavioral, physical, and symbolic manifestations Organizations deals web cutler , corporate cutlers
How do we change culture?
Change recruitment, selection and redundancy policies so that promotion and employment is dependent on showing the beliefs and values required;
Reorganize so that those with the right attitudes are in positions of power;
Communicate the new values. Use senior managers as exemplars.
Change systems, procedures, and personnel policies concerned with rewards and appraisal.
Grievance Management in Industry
At present, there are three legislations dealing with grievances of employees working in industries. The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946, requires that every establishment employing 100 or more workers should frame standing orders. These should contain, among other things, a provision for redresses of grievances of workers against unfair treatment and wrongful actions by the employer. The company Act, 1948, tells about the appointment of a Welfare officer in every factory or industry commonly employing 500 or more workers. These Welfare officers also look after complaints and grievances of workers. They will look after proper implementation of the existing labor legislation. Besides, individual disputes relating to discharge, dismissal or retrenchment can be taken up for relief under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, amended in 1965. Managers dealing with grievances. We need follow all steps in every time. Directly we talk to the employee and forced him to speak the truth. Give him a patient hearing.
In generally every organization have own Discipline the organization and individuals. In the organization it is essential to regulate the behavior of employees, maintain channel efforts towards organizational goals. It is viewed with fear and suspicion in organizations. Negative discipline, positive discipline
punishment actions against the employee who is founding
1 dismissal; 2 discharge; 3 discharge simpliciter; (iv) suspension; (v) demotion to a lower grade; (vi) with-holding of increments; (vii) fine; and (viii) warning censure. Of these, suspension, discharge or dismissal may be classified as major punishments, while awarding a fine, warning or censure are regarded as minor punishments. In establishments where the Industrial Employment. written censure, fines, Oral warnings, etc The fine may hit the take-home-pay of the employee, warnings may be entered in his personal record, loss of increment has an element of shame attached to it. Major punishment such as suspension, discharge and dismissal
Suspension means prohibiting an employee from attending work, preventing him from discharging the duties assigned to him and withholding the wages payable to him: it only means denial of work to him. Sometimes the employee may be suspended, even before issuing a charge-sheet so as to prevent him from tampering with the records of the organization. The employer is obliged to pay a subsistence allowance (one half of basic wage + dearness and compensatory allowances) to the delinquent employee for a period of 90 days. If the enquiry goes beyond 90 days, the allowance is increased to three fourths of the employees' normal emoluments. Minor offences like late coming, sleeping while at work, smoking in prohibited places, etc., do not invite serious punishments like suspension unless the employee repeats the offences habitually. Where standing orders are in force the rules for suspending an employee are mentioned therein and are expected to be followed scrupulously.
Dismissal and Discharge
Dismissal and discharge are used interchangeably. Some little differences Dismissal is a sort of punishment against alleged misconduct where discharge is not always a punishment. When the employer examines all background factors which are leading to the termination of services of an employee, he may simply discharge the employee instead of dismissing him. It is difficult to find an employment to the person who is dismissed from the service, when compared to a person who is discharged from service. In the case of discharge, the discharge employee may be served a reasonable advance notice.
Management shall plan according to job requirements
Selection procedure shall be based on merit, experience related to job requirements. Selection shall be based not only on marks obtained, they should also consider candidates communication skills, behavior, Recruitment shall be based on job responsibilities are experience. Selection policy shall be within the framework of organizational policy.
Departmental head should always be in touch with employees to know the job requirements.