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The documentation consist of four sections which elaborates information on recruitment function, selection function, leadership, management, team work, conflict management and performance evaluation of an organization.
At certain levels, each of these aspects is being applied to the context of a social enterprise organization where I was considered as the Managing director. Proper conclusions as justifications are drawn in further explaining the impact of such aspects on the business itself.
Further justifying, recruitment and selection processes will be explained with supporting documentations processed by the human resource department at the point of recruitment and identify the role of managing director in the process of selection and considerations to the selection process and their implications.
Also, it differentiates between leadership and management where different leadership styles are being further explained with examples and explains ways in which the social enterprise organization motivates its employees.
Furthermore, it will assess team work and conflict management deployed in the social enterprise organization.
Finally, a study of performance management will be presented which explain importance and different approaches of performance management and planning & conducting process on a performance evaluation in an organization. Also, it further explains ways in which the effectiveness of process of performance evaluation can be done.
02. Task One: Recruitment & Selection
2.1 Requirement for Recruitment
As the activity involves in fund raising to support the project 'Enlightening the Young Minds ' it is required to recruit a team of members who have the passion of working for the well being of both people and the environment. In organizing fundraising activities, the organization first needs a committee which must consist of;
Project Manager: Is the person who takes control of overall responsibilities of the project planning, execution and progress.
Marketing Executive : Is the body that is responsible in bringing the fundraising activities to the concern of the general public through promotions, advertising and other innovative campaigns.
Treasurer: Is qualified person who is in charge of handling in flow and out flow of finance of the fundraising project.
Team Members: Are those active players of the project who execute instructions of the project manager. They involve in real time activities of the project by performing instructions.
2.2 Job Specification- Project Manager
A job specification consists of all those requirements such as education qualifications, training experience, personal attributes & etc that a person must meet in performing a job in meeting its responsibilities and requirements. The following shows a job specification of a project manager.
(Refer Appendix 1 for the Job Specification)
2.3 Job Description- Project Manager
(Refer Appendix 2 for the Job Description)
2.4 Recruitment Approach
Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. The basic purpose of recruitment is to create a talent pool of candidates by bringing the vacancy to the concern of the public through a certain media.
2.4.1 Attracting Applicants
Sourcing employees can take place both internally and externally to the organization.
Vacancies advertised internally only ensure that staff within the company is provided with the opportunity to move into different areas or provide opportunities for promotion.
The internal sourcing could be done with use of placement tests & task assignments where it will be made easy to choose the best suited person out of the rest. The vacancy could be brought up to everyone's' concern through e- mail notifications as a cost effective mode of communication.
Internal sourcing is more preferred to a social enterprise organization as this because the existing employees have a complete knowledge of current business operations which will make the change easy to adapt.
Newspaper advertising is the first preference for advertising externally. This is due the mass consumption of news papers on daily basis island wide. Newspapers have the capability of delivering information in detail to people of any status in any location. Though newspaper advertising is expensive due to demanding nature, its capabilities in reaching the public effectively and efficiently is more valued.
Recruitment agencies can be considered as the second recruitment medium because such agencies maintain databases of available entrepreneurs who could satisfy the organization recruitment needs. This is a more reliable medium due to its mass availability of pre- identified persons.
Employee Reference is the third recruitment medium preferred. It can be done in both Narrow scale and wide scale. Narrow scale is where the employees within the organization could suggest people from their friends and family who are assumed to be fitting in to the vacancy. Wide scale is where people who are well experienced & maintaining a better reputation in the industry could be employed.
In terms of fund raising projects, it is wise for the organization to follow the wide scale for better reliability.
2.5 Selection Approach
Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify those with higher likelihood of success in a job. Following shows the selection process that can be followed in recruiting.
Steps in selection process
(Step 01) Short Listing: The process of sorting applications received is by eliminating unsuitable applications (insufficient qualifications & etc). Only screened applicants will be considered further.
(Step 02) Selection Test: This method is used as the organization can't call all applicants for an interview and need to give equal opportunity to applicants to be considered. Selection test gives information about a candidate's aptitude, interest, personality & etc.
(Step 03) Interview: Interview is the final stage of the selection process. Interview is a formal face to face communication where the board of directors and the management can further analyze and asses the chose applicants before recruitment. This is crucial as the organization gets the chance to question the applicant based on mass aspects.
2.6 Contribution to the Selection Process
As the managing director (leader) of the organization, I have control over different aspects of the selection process as follows;
2.6.1 Selecting the interviewing panel
As every managerial employee reports to its leader, I have a better understanding about their values and job roles. Therefore, in selecting the interview panel, I have my authority to appoint those individuals who has the best knowledge & relevance to the subject on which applicants are being screened. Better the interview panel, better the final selection.
2.6.2 As a Selector
As the leader, I inherit a better understanding about what is expected out of employees. Therefore, I can also perform duties as a selector where I will select applicants personally upon my knowledge and experience.
2.6.3 Estimating Requirement Criteria
As I have a better and thorough understanding about organization objectives and goals, I can contribute to the selection process by estimating the criteria which the applicants must meet in satisfying the job vacancy requirements as it has a direct impact of achieving organizational objectives.
2.6.4 Internal Recruitment
As all department heads report to their leader, I have a better knowledge about people who are working in my organization. Therefore, in terms of internal recruitment, I can corporate to the HR decisions by suggesting a number of internal candidates who have complete capabilities in meeting the vacant job tasks.
2.7 Legal, Regulatory & Ethical Consideration
In term of creating and HR policy for recruiting new staff and filling out vacancy there areÂ legal, regulatory and ethical considerations that need to take account.
The disability Discrimination law
Organization is not allowed to discriminate applicants against their disability. If that person is capable of doing the job regardless they are disable the organization are not allowed to disqualify them as long as it will not disturbing the company operation. For example people that are blind are capable to answering and taking order through phone but they are not inconvenience to deliver the orders as it will slow the business down.
Diversity and Employment
Organizations are not allowed to eliminate applicants for their gender or race and must able to prevent discrimination and support diversity. Race and gender should not be use to dismiss someone as long as they capable to perform the job tasks successfully.
03. Task Two: Leadership & Management
3.1 What is Leadership?
Leadership is an intangible quality which is difficult to just explain. Not every human is born to excel at leadership. One must study and practice leadership in its state of art in becoming successful at it. And the leader is a person who executes leadership. Simply explaining leadership, it is the action/ process of guiding people towards achieving a common set of goals. In becoming successful at leadership, there are different skills and attributed that one must meet.
3.2 Skills & Attributes of a Leader
In becoming an effective leader, there are certain skills and attributes that one must excel. Skills are those competencies that are used in achieving effective performance. And Attributes are those qualities which brings a person to become a leader. Following explains few skills and attributes as such in detail.
It is said that the greatest human need is the sense of appreciation. As a leader, it is most essential to know the knowhow of complimenting team members. If the team is never complemented on their actions, team members will lose their interest in work as they do not feel valued. By the little compliment and praise, it will encourage their motivation to work as they feel noticed and valued. Therefore, a leader must be keen on skillfully motivating people.
In my scenario, motivation is a critical skill as the organization is a social enterprise where it requires its employees to be motivated to adapt and maintain its passion to work for people as it is not born with much people. Also, by being a skillful motivator, I will be able to achieve my organization goals effectively and efficiently by encouraging productivity.
A leader is always a coach. A coach is that who brings expectations to the concern of its fellow members. By coaching, it helps to make team members understand what work they do, how to do and why they do it. It is a quality that a leader must meet in leadership because a leader plays a key role in setting direction to achieve organization mission and vision. As a leader, it is highly useful for me to coach organization expectations to my team players as it will give a clear idea about what they are working for. Also, by knowing the scope of the business, I will be able to use critical thinking of my employees in generating innovative strategies in achieving them which will save time and efforts.
Recruit the best
Hiring suitable people for suitable positions is important as it assure accurate performance, reduce errors and minimize risks. Since the organization is differed from a usual manufacturing organization, hiring people for a social enterprise organization needs to be done carefully as the availability of suitable people are in short. Also, as the business is yet at its early development, I will not be able to recruit people in large scale due to financial difficulties. Therefore, as a leader, recruitment needs to be done precisely where the right selection will help to improve organization performance despite of the number of employees for contribution.
Become a great example
As children look up to their parents as examples, team members look up to their leader as an example. It is most needed for a leader to be fair and not favor any member in special on any circumstance. Also, in becoming an example, a leader must know every knowhow of the work performed as at any issue. As a leader, it is most important for me to be an example to my team mates as they must have a practical model to study and follow rather than going by the book. In that way, it helps to improve my employee analytical skills and critical thinking which can be used positively for business performance.
Practice good communication skills
Communication skills are very important at any working environment as people need to properly understand what is being communicated. It is a skill that a leader must develop in maintaining a smooth business flow. As a leader of a social enterprise organization, communication skills help me to deliver information & instructions to my team mates in getting things done.
As a leader, developing the right attitude is very important as the leader's attitude represents the organization and sets attitude on its employees. Therefore, a leader must always develop the right attitude to suit the business. As a social enterprise organization, my attitude must represent empathy, care, attention, concern and wellbeing by which the business will be able to attract more investors in to the business in aiding our future projects as we deliver the right attitude.
3.3 Leadership & Management
It is most common to confuse management over leadership. Leadership is leading people towards achieving goals and management means obeying standard processes in achieving goals. But it is the best to always merge leadership with management at organizations.
Following explains the differences between how leadership and management as two entities operates.
Management administrate, Leadership innovate: management is more strategic which governs the execution on certain standards where leadership finds new ways in achieving its goals.
Management is a copy, Leadership is original: It can also be said as that management is a result of leadership. As said before, leadership innovate strategies where lately, those innovations are set to be standards and followed by management.
Management maintains, Leadership develops: management involves in maintaining the balance of standardized processes where leadership gather ideas and develop strategies in creating balance.
Management relies on control, Leadership inspires trust: As it is said that management is strategic, it always control the situation in order to maintain the standards where leadership inspires trust and make things work by learning from mistakes.
Management does things right, Leadership does the right thing: Management makes sure that it executes the correct pre set strategy in achieving goals where as leadership concern doing whatever the right measure it takes to achieve the goal by thinking out of the box.
As it is said above, management and leadership must always go in line with each other which is why I have decided to adapt both management and leadership roles in the organization. With leadership, I always generate new, innovative more effective solutions by motivating and inspiring talents that are hidden within my employees. Since these new innovations takes time to produce results and estimations, management roles are being executed in carrying on day-to-day business processes. Once new strategies are estimated, old management techniques will be replaced by new leadership findings where then onwards, management becomes a result of leadership. Therefore, without the integration of both leadership and management roles, it is merely impossible to attain success in business.
3.4 Leadership Styles
WHAT IS ADAPTED WITH IN YOU!!!
3.5 Motivational Measures
Motivation is a critical factor to be treated in any working environment. With motivation, it can always drive an organization towards its supreme success or pull it down to a miserable failure. There are many factors influencing motivation of employees in an organization. Basically, employee motivation factors can be clustered into two forms such as financial motivation and non- financial motivation. Following further explains financial and non- financial motivation factors.
3.5.1 Financial Factors
Bonuses: Bonuses are given on set frequencies where the management decides on paying its employees an extra amount of money beside the usual salary as a compliment for their efforts contributed. Taking bonuses in to consideration, on Sinhala New Year and Christmas seasons, every employee is given with a bonus of 3 months' salary along with the usual monthly pay in my organization.
Annual Increments: Annual increments are those monetary increments of the basic salary done at the end of annual performance evaluation. At my organization, a 12% salary is increased at the point where an employee reflects satisfactory performance evaluation results annually.
Allowances: Incentives is the money paid by an organization in helping its employees with their expenses. It can also be called as an allowance which is commonly allowed for traveling & food expenses. Employees at my organization are provided with allowance of 3500 Rs. per month for travelling.
Overtime: Overtime payments are paid as a measure of motivating employees to work more on overtime basis in improving productivity. It is the payment made of every hour that an employee works beside the estimated working hours in the employment contract. In case of the organization, every employee who works of OT basis is paid 100 rs. Per hour rate for every extra hour worked.
3.5.2 Non- Financial Factors
Working environment: When the workplace environment is healthy, secure and conflict free, employees find it is interesting to work where it enhances the employee motivation towards work due to risk and stress free environment. Taking this in to consideration, my organization is equipped with state of are furnishing with 100% hygienic atmosphere where it has influenced employees to be interested in attending work every day. And due to proper conflict management system, there less conflicts occurred and maintains a smooth business life.
Welfare Services: As organization, it is common to see employee welfare services provided in enriching their lives such as free medical campaigns, annual trips & etc. These welfare services have been effective compliment services where employees feel that they are being taken care of by the organization. This sense of valuation increases employee motivation towards work they perform. In my organization, the management organizes a health clinic for its entire working staff and their family members once in every 3 months and an annual trip sponsored by the company annually. This has helped to retain the employees satisfied and motivated.
Promotions: In all of non- financial motivation factors, job promotions play a leading role where most employees are motivated to work when they are promoted to a better position with added benefits.
In the organization, promotions are made use of in projects work where it has immensely motivated the individual to perform better. Also, the fellow members are equally motivated to work to get promoted the next.
Empowerment: By giving authority of making decisions to employees, they feel that they are an essential entity to the organization. This has work wonders in building employee motivation. At my organization, it has a more de- centralized decision making procedure where employees are given a fair authority over decision making where it has clearly created motivation among employees because it has made them feel essential to the organization.
04. Task 03: Tam Work & Conflict Management
4.1 Team Work
In any organization, it is common to encounter a collection of people working together on mutual tasks. This is known as team work. Team is a collection of people who has mutually agreed to work with each other in achieving a set of mutually set goals. Team work is more encouraged at work due to its various benefits over individual working. As it always says, two hands are always better than one.
4.2 Team Work Benefits
In considering team work, there are many highly beneficial facts enjoyed by organizations. Following explains a few of those benefit enjoyed by our organization.
Better decision making
With many people involved in the decision making process of teams, different and innovative decision ideas will be suggested by different members where the best suited decision for the situation can be selected. This way it reduces the risk of error occurrence when compared to individual decision making. Considering team working and decision making within our organization, it has been highly effective where with use of decision pooling, it has been able to generate new and more innovative decision ideas in cases such as establishing new and effective fund raising campaigns in aid of projects & etc.
When many hands are involved in a particular task, the task can be performed faster which increases both employee and organization productivity. In case of our organization, team work has helped in increasing productivity in situations such as human welfare projects where organizing responsibilities of such projects are being clustered among team members and performed which helps the organization to conclude the project on time while meeting all necessary criteria as planned.
When people are cross contributing at work, it is more interesting and motivating to work rather than working by self. Individual working carries the fear of boredom where team work completely revokes it by making multiple people pool in to a single task. Even in case of doubts and issue, the group as a team can collaborate and come up with solutions which make work more interesting. In case of our organization, it requires employees to be motivated to work for people where by team work; it helps to build integrity and motivation to work.
When many people are collaborating to perform a single task, the accuracy of work performed is high and guaranteed because the work gets over looked by many eyes and the slightest mistake can be spotted at any instance. This is a great benefit to our organization in terms of tasks performed with numbers; finance & accounting. When multiple members are working as a team on preparing accounts and budgets, it is easier to spot any mistake made and corrected which will help the organization to maintain accurate account entries in estimating organization accountability.
4.3 Conflicts at Work
Conflicts can be defined as behavior intended to obstruct the achievement of some other persons' goals. The existence of conflict in organizations might be considered inevitable or unnatural depending on each other's viewpoints. There are many different forms of conflicts occurred at work due to by many different causes. Following are a few causes which has the highest tendency to create conflicts at work.
Differences in the objectives of different individuals: people are different from one to another. So as their thoughts, goals, attitudes & etc. Therefore, it is more common for conflicts to arise when one deny agreeing with another's opinion/ suggestions & etc at work.
Scarcity of resources: Conflicts due to lack or sharing resources is common in any developing stage organization where the organization can not invest more money on fulfilling 100% of resource requirements. In such cases, conflicts tend to arise among employees in sharing resources.
Interdependence of two departments on a task: In team work, different departments happen to collaborate on an individual task where each department depends on the other. Therefore, in the instance of one party commit a defaulting, it will cause conflicts in between as the work is disturbed.
Disputed about boundaries: In cross contributing among employees, certain boundaries and deadlines need to be met. At the point of one being unable to meet those deadlines or go over the boundaries/ expectations, conflicts are prone to arise.
4.4 Managing Conflicts
It is very essential to manage and settle conflicts at work as it would adversely effects on organization performance if else. In managing conflicts, the management has to think critically and act smart. There are many conflict resolution management responses. Following are the most effective conflict resolution techniques practice in our organization.
4.4.1 Collaborative resolution
In cases of conflicts, parties involved in the conflict are called upon a meeting and cause of conflict will be discussed. This is most used in situations where conflicts occur due to disagreements of ideas. In such case, ideas of both parties are pooled in together where a new set of goals, strategies and views are generated with use of ideas from both parties. This way, it satisfies demanding of each party while making all parties collaborates as a team in achieving the mutual goal(s).
4.4.2 Collective bargaining
Collective bargaining is also practiced in the organization in settling conflicts which has caused due to disputes with relevant to boundaries. In such cases of conflicts, parties involved can be asked to reach a mutual agreement over negotiation of terms by discussion where one party agrees to perform their duties up to an agreed standard where the other party(s) must perform their part of the deal as agreed. This is a negotiation more than a settlement.
4.5 Team Evaluation
As much as it is important delegate team work, it is equally important to evaluate effectiveness of those teams if else, teams will commit mistakes and adapt irrelevant strategies blindly. This will have a great adverse impact on the organization performance. In evaluating team effectiveness, there are four main measures followed in our organization as furthere explained below.
4.5.1 Task performance evaluation
One of the most common and effective method of evaluating team effectiveness within the organization is by task performance evaluation. It is where the management tests for the effectiveness and efficiency goal achievement. As further explained, it evaluates if the team has achieved the final expectations and has they used corrective and valid strategies in achieving them.
4.5.2 Team functioning evaluation
Team functioning evaluation is done by assigning the particular team with a test task where the ways in which the team function with respect to task expectations are then observed and evaluated upon criteria such as individual collaboration, work delegation, decision making & many more important terms. The most common task assigned in evaluation is a fundraiser as it is easy to perform and evaluate.
4.5.3 Team member satisfaction
In rating the effectiveness of a team, team member satisfaction is a major concentration. With an unsatisfied team member, a team can never be effective because it shows that there are certain concerns untreated which have led a team member be unsatisfied and de- motivated. Therefore, in evaluating individual member satisfaction in our organization, the management has an appointed panel of authorities who distribute questionnaires among team members in retrieving feedbacks on their satisfaction. By evaluating feedbacks, drawbacks are spotted where they are brought to the concern of team leaders in suggesting improvements.
4.5.4 Quality, quantity and time
Another main measure in evaluating team effectiveness is by evaluating quality and quantity of a task performed and its time consumed. If the evaluation estimates that the team has met estimated quality and quantity of work assigned in the task on or before the deadline, it proves that the team adapts effective team operations.
05. Task 04: Performance Evaluation
5.1 What is Performance Evaluation?
'Performance evaluationÂ is a systematic and periodic process that assesses an individual employee's job performance and productivity in relation to certain pre-established criteria and organizational objectives.Â Other aspects of individual employees are considered as well, such asÂ organizational behavior,Â accomplishments, potential for future improvement, strengths and weaknesses, etc.' (Wikipedia, 2012).
5.2 Importance of Performance Evaluation
With use of performance evaluation system, it helps the management to understand current performance status of our employees and evaluate its impact on the organization. If any employee seems to adapt negative performance, the management can then suggest the employee certain improvement plans in enhancing performance.
At certain situations of organization performance defects, performance management is made use of in identifying those employees who do not have the potential in improving performance in aid of the organization. In such situations, the management can make decision on layoff so it can recruit and select a better match to the organization. This way, it reduces the risk of poor employee performance within the organization.
Training & development decisions
Performance evaluation is a very important in estimating training and development strategies in organizations. With use of performance evaluation, it helps the management to identify what sort of training and development needs its employees have. Therefore, proper training and development measurements can be provided in enhancing employee performance in favor of the business.
Reward management & motivation
Performance evaluation is an important primary function in reward management of an organization. One an employee's performance is being evaluated based upon performance improvements, the management can set different rewards, financial benefits and merit pay on the particular employee in appreciation and further motivation of work performed.
5.3 Performance Evaluation Techniques
In performance evaluation, there are many techniques available for organizations in which they can select the most convenient technique to adapt.
360 Degree Feedback
It is an approach which collects comments and feedback on an individual's performance from various sources and adds the individual's own self- assessments. It highlights every aspect of individual's performance and allows comparison of individual's self assessment with the view of others.
In upward appraisal, employees are rated not by their superior, but by their subordinates. For example: the followers appraise the leader. Subordinates tend to know their superior better than superior knows their subordinates. It gives opportunity to employees to give feedback and raise problems they may have with their bosses.
Critical incident method
This is the vice versa of upward appraisal where the manager identifies all pros and cons about its individual employees. In identifying pros and cons, the manager maintains a log of incidents caused by the behavior of its employees over a time where at the point of performance evaluation, all noted points are considered and draw conclusion of positive or negative behavior of the employee.
Management by objectives method
'MBO is a system that seeks to align employees' goals with the goals of the organization. This ensures that everyone is clear about what they should be doing, and how that is beneficial to the whole organization. It's quite easy to see why this type of managing makes sense - when the parts work in unison the whole works smoothly too. And by focusing on what you're trying to achieve, you can quickly discriminate between tasks that must be completed, and those that are just a waste of valuable time.' (MindTools, ND)
5.4 Planning & Conducting Performance Evaluation
In planning and conducting performance evaluation there are certain steps to be observed in making the evaluation effective and efficient:
Step 01: Purpose of performance evaluation
In performance evaluation, the primary step is to define the scope of the performance evaluation. As mentioned above, performance evaluations can be used to serve different and various organization needs. Therefore, the management needs to estimate purpose of performance evaluation.
Step 02: Frequency of evaluation
Once the purpose is defines, management should next set the frequency of evaluation which defines the number of evaluations needed annually in order to identify employee performance needs and assist in supporting organization productivity.
Step 03: Techniques to be used
Once evaluation frequency is defines, a technique of evaluation must be identified. Not that every evaluation technique serves all purposes of the organization. As an example: if the organization needs to evaluate management level employees by 360 degree or upward evaluation technique but not critical incident method.
Step 04: Who are the evaluators
Once techniques are set, next important task is to set the panel of bodies who will be involved in the process of evaluation. In terms of upward evaluation, it will be those employees who evaluate the manager.
Step 05: Criteria of evaluation
Another main aspect in which the performance evaluation board must consider is the criteria of evaluation. If poor criteria for evaluation are set, it will do not serve the purpose of evaluation and mislead the organization with invalid conclusions. Therefore, criteria in which to be evaluated must be carefully selected.
5.5 Effectiveness of Performance Evaluation
Besides evaluating the effectiveness of employee performance, it is equally important to know the effectiveness of the evaluation process in knowing if the organization is maintaining a worthy process in return to money, resources, efforts and time invested. Following shows the ways in which an organization evaluates the effectiveness of its evaluation process.
Performance Improvements: Once employees training and development needs identified through performance evaluation are treated, improvements noticed in performance of employees will be the guarantee for effectiveness of the evaluation process. Because, if an employee happens to improve its performance with solutions suggested, it means that the evaluation process has identified the correct performance defects of the employee.
Employee Feedback: Secondly, the organization can question its employees upon the effectiveness of the evaluation process executed as the employee itself has a better understanding on changes adapted in them after the evaluation.
Business Statistics: By comparing business performance statistics before and after performance evaluation, it will help to identify if the performance evaluation process has been effective after treating those changes suggested by the evaluation process.
In conclusion, this documentation has addressed various subject matters of working with and leading people in a working environment. The documentation consist of four section which talks on recruitment & selection, leadership & management, team work & conflict management and performance evaluation respectively.
Under task one, it prepares documentations supporting the recruitment and selection process of a social enterprise organization (SEO) where considering myself as the managing director, it has explained my contribution to the selection process and has identified ethical, legal & regulatory considerations to the selection process.
Under task two, it speaks upon leadership and management in an organization which further explains different leadership styles with examples. It also explains ways in which the SEO motivates its employees.
Under task three, it assesses team work and its benefits of the SEO and identified how conflict management is being deployed in the organization. Also, it explains the approaches in measuring the effectiveness of team work in the organization.
Finally, an empirical study on performance evaluation is done by describing different evaluation approaches, its importance and factors considered in planning & conducting the evaluation. Also, it explains how to evaluate the effectiveness of performance evaluation process of an organization.