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Job rotation is an approach of designing a job which widely used at hierarchical levels in many companies. It is determination and the consequence of effort. If employees can be prepared for management, productive job position can be defined and the level of knowledge and skills can be increased than it can be said that the effect of motivation will be achieved.
According to (Campion et al, 2005), human-centred problems might exceed technical problems and the personal cost of investment might gone beyond technical investment.
In human resource literature, job rotation is an effective method of skill development and motivation. Understanding new jobs, new environment with new staffs bring many problems where every new problem brings a latest solution which dealing with them to find out the sources of problems in the company. Effective results through Job rotation, enables flexible workforce to deal critical or unexpected situations (Allwood and Lee, 2004).
Human resource management has been characterized through three broad approaches.
Cross-cultural management, which emphasized human behaviour from international perspective.
Second approach, mainly describe and analyse HRM systems in different countries from comparative industrial relation and HRM literature, where as human resource management in multinational firms is focused as third aspect.
Actual behavioural manifestation captured through motivational process, which mapped onto goal generation and goal striving. Goal generation process evaluating the probable courses, where planning activities guiding goal accomplishment (Locke & Latham, 1990).
Around 30 years ago, public organization came under pressure to improve productivity (Wright, 2001). To meet corporate objectives and productivity through employee motivation, reward and satisfaction is now being a challenge of any types of organization over recent years.
According to (Board, Deci & Ryan, 2004, p-204), the term needs has often used to refer a person's conscious wants and desire on motivation. Industrial needs are often characterized as being intrinsic or extrinsic in nature (Sansone & Harackicwicz, 2000).
Employee Engagement (Through Motivation)
Employee's engagement in organization and their ability to give sustained facultative aspiration helps organization to succeed. It can be epitomized by how employee think & feel about the organization (Sarah Cook, 2008).
(Sarah Cook, 2008)
Figure 1.1: Three Aspects of Engagement
According to figure 1.1, employee engagement is about
What organization thinks about employee rationally?
What they feel about them and their emotional connection and
What they do and say about their co-employees and customers?
Desire from activity, ownership, power affiliation, competence, achievement, recognition, meaning, are eight fundamental needs that motivate employees (Spitzer, 1995). Best practices organization supports different accession to flexible working. These organizations also concentrate on developing new strategies for employee welfare.
There are many theories and insights that human motivation is a complex area in terms of human energy and behaviours. Recent thought, about long term, sustained motivation is that managers must inspire their employees from inside rather than rely on pay, such as external factor.
Introduction: Direct Quote from Author:
Napoleon Bonaparte famously said:" A soldier will fight long and hard for abide of coloured ribbon". It raises questions than answers about who drive people.
Motivation is epitomized as a distinct uniqueness where every human beings is alone all the theories of motivation allow to indicate one way to another. The manager's main job is to done his work through employees. Which proves that, managers should be able to motivate employees? However theories and practices of motivation are difficult on several disciplines.
Through three main models motivation can be categorized from their historical appearance. These are:
The Rational-Economic model- This model indicated that people are initially motivated by his/her own financial and material rewards.
The Social model- Here people were motivated by recognition, sense and interaction at workplace.
The Self-Actualising model- This model holds that human beings have a characteristic need to fulfil their dormant.
(Goleman, D, 1995)
During 1940s, Abram Maslow an American psychologist developed a concept of a hierarchy of human needs. Other behavioural scientist Fredrick Herzberg, Douglas Mcgregor and Rensis Likert was influenced his idea's. Maslow (1954) defined five level of factors which drive people to perform in workplace. According to his theories, when a human fulfil his lower level of needs, he or she then turned into next level. Over the years levels have been appended to the five levels of needs. They are in ascending orders:
Physiological, are the fundamentals of physical needs such as air, water, sleep, sex, excretion, physical activity and no extremes of temperature.
Safety, when physiological needs fulfilled then human seek security: survival, avoidance of pain and comfort.
Love, which also referred to as a social needs, a sense of belonging, friendship and social activities.
Esteem needs, includes the receiving of respect, strength, prestige status, and
Self Actualisation- which is top most level referred as a self fulfilment or self-realization needs.
Need year of theory
Herzberg's (1966) mainly focused in organization and working with many people in organization where he conducted two sets of motivation factors.
Company benefit culture, physical working condition, job security, interpersonal and team relationship turned to lower level of motivation.
Advancement, recognition, a sense of achievement, opportunities, responsibility, autonomy, the nature of work tasks was crucial in high-performance motivation.
Herzberg's most controversial conclusion was that the job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. That is, the opposite of dissatisfaction is not satisfaction but no dissatisfaction; similarly, the opposite of job satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but no job satisfaction.
Douglas McGregor theory need to apply
Physical Working Condition
Opportunities for growth
Figure: Relationship between motivation theories
Need to Change-----Thoroughly
The hygiene factors link closely to Maslow's lower order. Attention to hygiene will prevent dissatisfaction, but will not motivate, where as growth of the satisfiers will motivate employees. A criticism of Herzberg's work, is that employees are more likely to reflect the satisfying events at work, as what they have achieved, their own performance. With the hygiene factors attributed to outside influences, and the efforts of others around them, employees did not take responsibility for them (Mullins, L. 2005).
Need to Change-----on top
Team working has a definite vision and it is associated with higher job satisfaction according to job characteristic participative management theories: where a group working closely to achieve desire purpose (Bacon, N & Blyton, 2003).
Generally, teams setup for a specific job they are responsible for their achievements. Successful team building coordinate individuals efforts, involved everyone, raise and sustain motivation and confidence, encourage everyone to provoke ideas to solve problems and alternatives, raise empowerment, support TQM, Customer care programs etc (Adrian Mackey, 2007).
Cambridge psychologist Meredith Belbin identified, monitor evaluator, teamworker, implementer, completer, plant, resource investigator, coordinator, sharper are eight different roles that people play normally when working in a team.
According to Mackay (2007), team effectiveness determined by a number of factors, such as size of group, members skills and attributes, tasks, availability of resources, recognition, style of leadership, interaction pattern, motivation and reward scheme and group development.
Several authors noted that, it has become important for managers to improve organizational performance and customer satisfaction when introducing team working.
Recruitment & Selection
The most important area in organization, in motivating employees is recruiting the competent staffs, which can perform to a high standard of achieving competitive advantage.
Recruitment and selection defined more simply to attract applications from right candidates (Foot & Hook, 2007). The process of recruitment and selection is a mission concerned with analyzing, attracting and choosing suitable person to meet an organizations HR requirements (Beardwell & Claydon, 2007).