Job motivation is psychological process in management process. The motivation in the work can control the worker's behavior which its application leads to job satisfaction then both will satisfy the effective work performance. Motivation stimulates the worker to achieve the desired goals. The money is not the only motivator; it is found many incentives have an effect on the behavior. The relationship between motivation and satisfaction is strong so it cannot reach to job satisfaction without motivation.
Every worker has some needs that he wants to get them, so if the organization meets these needs, the organization will create the job motivation. There are some factors that will make motivation; these factors in nature meet the employee's needs which arranged in Maslow's hierarchy of needs in fig.1.
Fig1: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
We can achieve these needs by a set of steps, whereas if we use the wage, salary, and service as a motivator,
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Also it can be used the staff training as motivator which gives the employee and workers professional opportunities for self-improvement to overtake the challenges and requirements.
Job satisfaction is an emotional state resulting from appraisal of one's job, the attitudes about the job form by taking onto consideration our senses, our beliefs, and our behavior. It is measured by the outcomes or expectations for the organization which creates the negative or positive attitudes towards the work, the manager and the coworkers. There are many factors to achieve job satisfaction like: pay that should be adequate to worker's performance and position, no less but may be more, also the promotion in the job makes the worker to be satisfied, good treatment in the job builds a happy feelings to do work, so all of these factors lead to Achievement, Recognition, Work itself, Responsibility and Advancement.
As a case study, we take how motivation and satisfaction will affect on the performance of the students in university. Usually the students that enter bachelor program are motivated and hopeful. This initial motivation is called enthusiasm, then the role of teachers comes to increase or decrease this impulsiveness to become a realistic motivation for students in order to get high grades and enhance the university's performance or decreasing it that will cause a failure for the organization (university).
The question that appears is how educators can increase or decrease the motivation. There are many methods for that through the marks, praise, the teacher's style to present the subject and showing the importance of stuff that teach it. Also there are many dissatisfies to kill the motivation at students like blame, bad treatment, worse style to present the stuff and providing a hard exams as a challenge between teacher and students, this will show us that teacher is destroying completely the motivation of students through their policies and practices.
If you take a look in case of motivation achievement through previous recalled ways, this will lead to get a respect and excellent understanding. This result makes the satisfaction at students, then they will get high grades in university, so the effective work performance is achieved, now imagine what will happen in the work performance in the university without motivation?
The leadership is defined as "it is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to make something extraordinary happen" [Alan Keith of Genentech]. So it is clear that the leadership is social relationship between leader and follower in order to accomplish a desired goal of organization. Mainly the leadership is classified to two types that derived from bass's theory:
This kind occurs when a leader takes the initiative in making contacts with others to exchange information between them which this leader and his follower influence one another reciprocally so that each drives something value. It can be described as mutual dependence through the contributions of both sides to achieve the goals.
Figure 2: schematic description of transactional leadership
Here the leader provides resources and rewards to perform the tasks. He has a power to evaluate, correct the mistakes, punish and train the team in order to meet the pre-determined standards.
3.2 Transformational leadership:
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
The leader in this kind of leadership motivates or inspires his team or followers to be effective by sharing the vision of the future, so the communication in this leadership is so important. Leader uses a chain of commands to reach to the desired tasks. The team in this state needs to be around by detail people. Leaders operate out of held personal value systems as justice and integrity.
It is concluded from the previous description that the transactional leadership concerns always that the routine work is done, but the transformational leadership concerns about how the leader can develops the organization according to his future vision.
The most perfect one is the transformational leadership which concerns about innovation by creating novel ideas to develop the work performance of the organization.
The personal qualities of the leader have the big effect on the work performance. The trait theory describes the personal characteristic that ideal leaders should commit them to achieve more productivity in the organization. The implicit idea of this subject is the leaders are born rather than made. Self-confidence is an important characteristic that should be found in the personality of leader which generates inner strength to decide; also the leader should be intelligent and has strong conviction. He should enjoy leader's traits like also: dominance, emotional behavior.
The charisma of the leader is hard to define it, but it should have a special place in him which tends to make the leaders believe more in themselves than in their teams. This builds the strong responsibilities on the leader, then he can make a future vision, also it creates strong ethical beliefs, then he has a dominant body language. The charismatic leader is a good listener which this property makes him ready to provide a support.
The organization structure is a system that organizes and coordinates the tasks and functions that are performed by employees in order to achieve organization's goals. This system encourages the employees to work hard and it makes them impulsive to accomplish the tasks, whereas the challenges are created in the organization and this system also permits the employees to share the information and contribute in order to reach the desired goals. The structure shows the tasks and activities in the organization, whereas the coordination between them is achieved and all of that lead to satisfaction of the members in the organization. The organization structure has an effect on the job performance clearly, motivation, behavior, achievement. For example, drugs firm is an organization which consists of a group of employees. The departments and job positions in this organization are illustrated in the shown chart in the figure 1.
Fig.3: organization chart (drugs firm)
In the previous chart, the functional structure is used to organize the work inside the organization which gathers the workers that have the same skills and tasks together. This kind of structure facilitates the communication and transferring the information between specialists, whereas it hurries the decision-making and it makes the learning inside the organization easy. But it also has some disadvantages that must be taken into consideration. It is not sufficient when the production increases and the organization become larger. It is hard to coordinate between departments to meet the needs of the customer. As shown in the chart, the span of control is 4, the number of levels is 3 and the organization positions are 21 positions. The functional structure model is effective because it reduces the cost, prevents duplication activities and pushes the employees to be brilliant.
Organizational culture is the aspect that identifies the personality of the organization which consists of values, norms, assumptions, rituals, stories and myths. These elements affect on the member behavior in the organization to solve the problems that are met in the work. Organization culture has many outcomes that improve the job performance in the organization like:
Refining the individual personal of the employees.
Creating shared beliefs between members.
Speed in production line.
As clear, the organization culture concerns about anthropology which explains the nature of human behavior. The culture is important to regulate the new members in order to follow the methodology of the organization, and then the goals will be reached easily without any constrains. The organization culture should be matched to people's culture, whereas this matching achieves the desired success organization culture. The culture is also recognized by detecting the signs and metaphors in the organization, thereby each organization distinguishes by its culture; the thoughts and members that it has forms its personality.
5.1 Types of Organizational Culture
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As known the organization culture is classified into four main types:
The drugs firm in previous section that is designed in a chart has a role culture which contains of a president who owns this organization and some small managers to organize the work in the departments of organization.
5.2 The Factors that affect On Organizational Culture
There are many factors that have a vital influence on the organization culture such as: the history of organization which makes the employees to be proud of the achievements that are accomplished within the life time of it, owner and its habits have an enormous role in the construction of the organization culture, size which is determined by the number of staff and functions of the organization culture, organization environment, national culture in multi-nationalities organization, the aim and purpose, the objectives and future visions, the employees and the technologies that are used in organization.
6.1 Change Definition
Sometimes an organization meets some troubles and problems in the work, needs to achieve the desired competition level in the market, fosters its acceptance and enthusiasm and enhances the production. In this case, this organization requires the change which is defined as a process that is used to improve the organization in its fashion. The main sectors that are needed to the change are four namely:
Processes and operations.
The change happens in processes through modification the production line, using automation procedures and increasing the efficiency of these processes, on the other hand the change in the systems is performed by developing the leaders and their staff, training the leaders how they can deal with staff and solving the problems that are met. The change occurs also in work roles through aligning work and strategy and streamlining the data flow in the organization. The last type o change is organization structure which changes the positions and administrative division.
6.2 Some Changes are applied to an Organization in The last years of life cycle
Drugs firm that is illustrated in organization structure and culture sections is taken as an example on an organization that changes are applied on it. These changes are listed below:
Addition more than four departments as an expansion plan in the organization.
Improving the techniques that are used in Engineering department by providing Dr.Ahmed Kmal all new devices and machines with training his subordinates on them.
Developing the production departments in order to consistent with the market demands.
6.3 Change Management Definition
These changes have a technical side and people side; the technical side is mentioned in the previous steps of change in drugs organization, but people side has to be taken in consideration during the change, whereas the people will struggle the change, although it may be useful for the organization, and this will cause problems with employees during the change, so it must be found a structured approach, tools and methods to manage the people side of change in order to prepare stakeholders for this transformation, this is called change management.
6.4 Positive and Negative impacts of the changes
Some of these changes will be success and accepted and others will be rejected and struggled which have negative impacts on the organization. These negative impacts are found by many styles like:
Failure to mention why change is important.
Failure to create excessive work during change whereas it leads to the pressure.
Failure to make subordinates informed about change.
The change also has a positive side namely:
Enhancing revenue and reducing cost.
Providing the markets with what they want.
Consistent the development in the life.
Solving the problems and obstacles.
The manager can apply these changes with an action plan like that is shown in Fig.1
Fig.4: The plan to make the change
The steps in this figure are summarized as:
Creating credible managing support:
Handling the resistance:
Making change last:
Anchoring the change in culture:
If the previous steps are followed carefully, the change will be positive and direct the organization to the crest.
It is gotten out some important outcomes in this assignment that represent important roles in any organization. The researches proved that any organization should apply the motivation inside it by meeting the needs of employees which leads to perfect job performance and increasing in production. It is found that most of organizations follow transactional leadership which has few disadvantages, whereas the motivation and satisfaction are low, so it is advised to follow transformational leadership to achieve the progress. Then it is discussed the methods that build an organization structure that organizes the employees to accomplish the desired goals, but it is found out that this structure depends on factors which play an important role in its form. After that the organizational culture is a special language and characteristics of the organization, whereas the role culture describes the example of drugs firm in this assignment. This culture can give the organization special aspects that distinguish it from the others. In the last words, it has been studied the effects of changes in the organizations and how the manager can manage this change to direct it into the positive way. The change management is a basic of the development in any organization, so it should be taken into consideration, although many organizations neglect it.