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This dissertation investigates human resource management practices in Nigeria, specifying the issues and challenges of recruitment and selection using Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas Ltd (NLNG) as a case study
Like other Nigeria firms, NLNG is faced with some of the challenges of recruitment and selection of the workforce. Some of these challenges stem from national employment policies, like the federal character and quota system, unstable government, bribery and corruption, godfatherism, incessant demands of the host communities.
NLNG is one of the largest and successful gas company
The effectiveness and efficiency of an organization, being it private or public sector basically depend on the quality of the workforce. One of the quotes that Lovelock and Wirtz (2007) had compiled in the latest edition of Services Marketing: People, Technology and Strategy are regarding people as assets by Jim Collins. He said: The old adage, "People are your most important asset," is wrong. Rather the right people are your most important asset. Although this quote is regarding people as those in front-line positions, it can also be meaningful to any individual in the organization. In other words, 'people' can also refer to employees of an organization, and based on the quote, having the right people is the most crucial. This involves a hiring process that is not only effective, but beneficial to the organization.
According to Budhwar and Debrah (2004), most firms in Nigeria still operate norms of a people. Nigeria, like every other country becomes increasingly open to foreign investments in period of economic globalization. There are areas where culture impinges on human resource management is in the area of recruitment and selection.
Power and authority at the organizational level in Nigeria, are significantly shaped by cultural value. This is seen in relation to cultural respect for elderly people and the role of women. Some of the ethnic groups in Nigeria, like the Yorubas often equate old age with wisdom and experience. The older person is perceived more experienced and hence wiser. When decisions are made the
Nigeria LNG Limited (NLNG) is a private joint venture company, registered in Nigeria and formed by its shareholders to be a world-class LNG company helping to build better Nigeria. Nigeria LNG Limited is jointly owned by Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (49%), Shell (25.6%), Total LNG Nigeria Ltd (15%) and Eni (10.4%). It was incorporated as a limited liability company on May 17, 1989, to harness Nigeria's vast natural gas resources and produce Liquefied. The company has a wholly-owned subsidiary, Bonny Gas Transport (BGT) Limited, which provides shipping services for NLNG. Its mission is to produce and deliver LNG and NGL's to customers safely, reliably and profitably, grow our Company and its people to their full potential and be a trusted partner with all our stakeholders in the sustainable development of Nigeria's gas industry and NLNG's host communities.
NLNG Ltd directly employs over 1,000 people and also provided thousands of others through various contracts and agreements. Most of the NLNG staff live on Bonny Island and work there, while some work at the head office located in Lagos or Port Harcourt. Those who work on the plant facilities live in the corporate residential area (RA).
Employees are compensated with competitive total package which includes salary, applicable allowances, health insurance cover etc, complimented by opportunities for training and development of the highest standard.
Work at Nigeria LNG Limited is extremely diverse. Some examples of positions normally recruited for include those of: Process, Instrument/Electrical and Mechanical engineers, Information Technology professionals, Mechanical and Instrument/Electrical technicians, H R Management Specialist, Accountants
Rationale for the Research
It is important for organizations and recruiters to be aware of the internal and external
Aims and objectives of the study
The main aim of this study is to assess the viability of Nigerianization as a policy.
To assess how the quota system is applied in practice
To investigate the theoretical framework and strategic policies that are existing.
Towards achieving this, the study has the following objectives.
To have an in dept understanding of the concept of human resource management practices.
To evaluate recruitment and selection best practices.
To identify the possible issues and challenges of recruitment and selection processes, and how it can impede the efficiency of the human resource management practices in organizations.
Scope of the Study
Definition of Terms
Human resource management: Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. In simple sense, HRM means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement (Armstrong, 2006)
Recruitment and Selection: The terms recruitment and selection are used interchangeably with one another. For this paper, the terms will mean the positive action taken to find the right quality and quantity of personnel into an organization.
Nigerianisation: the company workforce.
Quota System: This is a device used to check the over-flooding of a particular job or vacant job opportunities by people from a particular ethnic origin. If properly applied, it allows for even representation of people from different background and geographical zones of a country or state.
Federal Character: This means the promotion of National unity and loyalty whereby a single or few ethnic groups are Prevented from high jacking the instruments of government, spoils of office and government employment at the disfavour of other groups.
Chapter 1 highlights the views of different writers in the human resource management practices in Nigeria. It explains the level of practice of HRM in Nigeria forms and the impingement of culture on the recruitment and selection processes. An over view of NLNG was given. In addition, some terms used in the research is defined.
. Recruiting, selection and hiring of employees is the most important job of a Human Resource person. It cannot be blunder that the success of any firm depends on the quality of human resources and talents in the firm. If unsuitable people are employed, the quality of the organization's products and services will suffer (Cooper, et al, 2003). The personnel employed in any organization according to Vicerstaff (1979), servers as the hub around which other resources revolve. This allows the entire wheel of the organization to turn smoothly in order to perform more effectively, efficiently, and economically. It is therefore, very important for any human resource expert to be certain of hiring the right candidate without compromise. In the CIPD view point it believes that effective recruitment is central and crucial to the success of day -to-day functioning of any organization. The success of recruitment depends upon finding the people with the right skills, qualification and expertise to deliver organization objectives and the ability to make a positive contribution to the values and aims of the organization (CIPD, 2009).
Organization's major challenge in the rapidly changing work environment is designing and managing successful staffing processes (Heneman & Judge, 2006). Legge (1995) argues that the integration and internal consistency of human resource systems is very important for organizational success. Thus he says that the selection and recruitment processes are the foremost part of finding and identifying potential candidates. Success in securing appropriate and skilled employees sets upper limits on potential organizational performance, however good the management and development of that workforce is (Wolf & Jenkins, 2006). Heneman and Judge (2006), suggest that although costs need to be considered in evaluating assessment methods, more consideration should be given to the fact that valid selection measures pay off and will return many times their cost. Firms that are less selective or hire lower-skilled employees are likely to experience significant effects on productivity, while hiring a mismatched employee can result in poor performance and higher turnover rates (Batt, 2002).
The recruitment and selection experience can also impact on the likelihood that a candidate will accept a job offer and on their subsequent commitment to remaining in the organization. Appointment decisions are the most important ones a manager has to make; they affect the manager's ability to achieve targets, the quality of services or products delivered to the customer and the well-being of the whole team.
Armstrong, (2006), recruitment and selection process should be to obtain at the minimum cost the number and quality of employees required to satisfy the human resources needs of the organization. Thus he identified the stages that the exercise takes to achieve the aim. Defining requirement, preparing job descriptions and specifications; deciding terms and conditions of employment, attracting candidates, reviewing and evaluating alternative sources of applicants inside and outside the organization, advertising, using agencies and consultants, selecting candidates by sifting applications, interviewing, preparing contracts of employment, etc.
The first step of recruitment is to put forward a job analysis. Job analysis is conducted for the purpose of preparing job description and job specification which assists the organization to hire the right and quality workforce into the organization (CIPD,2009). Job analysis process generates information which is converted into tangible outputs of a job description and a person specification, i.e. what has to be done and who does it (Pilbeam and Corbridge,2006 and Clifford, 1994).
Before recruiting for a new or existing position, it is important to invest time in gathering information about the nature of the job. This means thinking not only about the content (such as the tasks) making up the job, but also the job's purpose, the outputs required by the job holder and how it fits into the organization's structure. It is also important to consider the skills and personal attributes needed to perform the role effectively. This analysis involves convincing detailed description of tasks, determining the relationship of the job and examining the knowledge, qualifications or employment standards and requirements (Jain and Saakshi, 2005). Job analysis is conducted in several ways by HR professionals, including; observation, interviews with incumbents and supervisors, critical incident investigations, questionnaires (structured, open ended, or both) and gathering background information such as duty statements or classifications (Cascio and Aguinis, 2005).
Job description is described as a concise deception of job's, duties and requirements (Mader-Clark, 2008), a written description of a job and the types of duties it includes (Bohlander and Snell, 2009). Cushway (200) a written statement of the content of any particular job and derived from the analysis of that job. It can take many forms, but they are typically in at least four parts;
A job summary: An overview of the position, with a brief description of the most important functions. Job summery is what the applicants will read first, it is great places to sell the job to the applicant you want to attract and possibly to weed out those that would not be able to meet up your expectations.
Job Specification is a portion of job description that gives the qualification needed to perform the job satisfactorily. It is typically stated as: knowledge, skills and ability; education and experience; physical requirements and/ or working conditions (Mathis and Jackson, 2007). Job description is beneficial to both the employee and the employer. For the employee, job description can be used to help them to learn their job and also serve as a reminder of the result they want to achieve. From the employer standpoint, it can serve as a basis for minimizing the understanding that occur between the managers and their subordinates concerning job requirements and also establish management's right to take corrective action when the duties covered by job description are not performed as required (Bohlander and Snell, 2009)
Person specification describes the requirements a job holder needs to be able to perform the job satisfactorily. These includes; education and qualification, training and experience and attributes and qualities. Person specification describes the person that needed to do the job and can therefore form the basis for the selection of the most suitable person to fill the job.
Sources of Recruitment
In every organization, there are basically two sources of recruitment where applicants can be drawn. The sources are classified as either internal or external. The use of these sources depends upon the specific environment of the organization as well as the philosophy of operations (Briggs, 2007). Organizations use external or internal recruitment methods to get the best possible candidate in order to achieve their goals and objectives. Legge (1995) argues that the integration and internal consistency of human resource systems is very important for organizational success. Thus he says that the selection and recruitment processes are the prime part of finding and identifying prospective candidates. Jones et al, (2000) when internal source of recruitment is in use, the organization turns to the existing employees to open positions. The employees recruited internally are either seeking lateral moves or promotions. It is used as part of job rotation program as result of job redundancies in other parts of the organization, or temporary acting position (Compton et al, 2009).
The internal recruitment approach is cost saving and less expensive as there will be no need involving a recruitment agency, rather a message is simply placed in a company news letter or on the staff notice board, also efficiency gain is made because internal recruit are typically able to take up new posts much more quickly than people being brought in from outside. Another advantage of internal recruitment is that the manager knows the real potential of the candidate and will not make the mistake of recruiting an external candidate who is not motivated to contribute to the success of the company. Internal recruitment can also be seen as a progression in one's career as the candidate who got promoted is progressing within the organization. Leopold (2002) internal recruiting serves as avenue for developing the employee in the organization as promoting them to a new area gives them a wide knowledge of various job or promotes them to a higher level in the same area. The approach is generally accepted to constitute good practice and is widely used in the UK's public services (Torrington et al,). Despite the internal sources of recruitment, many organizations still rely on external sources. Reasons may be that there is limited pool of candidate internally and the system may not have suitable internal candidates.
When recruitment is conducted externally, the organization looks outside for potential applicants. External recruitment consists of advertisements in newspapers, through recruitment agencies, job centers, referrals or candidates who might have applied before. When a candidate is recruited outside the organization it could be beneficial to the organization as the candidate may bring with him an important skill or even new, fresh ideas which the organization might need. External recruitment is likely to be used especially for lower entry jobs in periods of expansion, and for positions whose specific requirements cannot be met by present employees within the organization. There are multiple means through which an organization can recruit externally, such as advertisements in electronic (including internet) and print media, private and public employment agencies (Prasad, 1979), work-ins by job hunters (Jones et al., 2000), External recruitment can be very time-consuming and expensive. The success of organization in attracting appropriate potential employees depends partially on its selection and use of suitable advertising media and third party recruitment bodies.
Organizations take series of regular steps to process and select applicants for jobs. The size of the company, the job characteristics, the number of people needed, the use of electronic technology, and other factors cause variations on the basic process (Mathis and Jackson).
Leopold, (2002) selection is a process of choosing the appropriate candidates both capable and willing to fill the vacancy. Several methods of selection are used to identify then reduce the pool and to find the candidate most suited for that particular vacancy. Selecting candidates involves two main processes: short listing and assessing applicants to decide who should be offered the job (CIPD, 2009)
The various methods of selection are; 'interviews, tests, assessment centre, job stimulation, references and other methods' (Beardwell 2007). Organizations usually make use of one or several of these methods. Selection decision is discrimination decision in that the employer discriminates between applicants on the bases of suitability and ability, which should be based on the requirements of the job. A good selection requires a methodical approach to the problem of finding the suitable person for the job.
Before any selection method is applied, Pilbeam and Corbridge (2006) suggests that concept of validity, reliability and popularity should be introduced. The concept provide dimension for probing the potential and the limitations of different selection method. According to Heneman and Judge (2006), validity refers to the accuracy of measurement and accuracy of prediction, as reflected by the scores obtained from a measure. That is the strength of the relationship between a predictor and job performance; the degree to which we are measuring what we think we are measuring.
Predictive validity is the ability of a measure to predict future job performance (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). Schmidt and Hunter (1998) pointed out that the most important element of any personnel assessment method is predictive validity, which is the ability to predict future job performance, job-related learning and other criteria. Validation is in practice a complex process and would require studies involving a large number of candidates in order to allow a correlation coefficient to be calculated in testing. It is difficult as it usually takes long time to conduct validity studies and it is also relates to the particular environment in which performance is carried out and may have different values for different sexes and different ethnic groups (Bratton and Gold, 2007). Low validity refers to validity in the range of about 0.00 to 0.15. Moderate validity corresponds to validity in the range of about 0.16 to 0.30 and high validity is 0.31 and above (Heneman & Judge, 2006).
Schmidt & Hunter (1998) explains that the predictive validity coefficient is directly proportional to the practical economic value which is also called utility of the assessment method. The research on personnel psychology conducted within 85years revealed that the validity of measures of 19 different selection methods are used in decision making on hiring, training and development assignments. However, some of these procedures work well and some do not work well. It is important to use predictors that are an accurate representation of the knowledge, skills and other abilities (KSAOs) to be measured. In order to assess the various screening and selection methods we must first understand the key concepts of validity, reliability and utility Determinants of Practical Value (Utility) of Selection Methods. Validity of a hiring model and the variability of job performance are the determinants of its practical value which is the utility Schmidt and Hunter, (1998). Furthermore, it says that at one extreme, if the variability is zero, then all applicants would have the same level of job performance if hired, so in this case the practical value or the utility of all selection procedures would be zero. However, at another extreme, if the performance variability is very large then it is important to hire the best performing applicants.
In contrary Schmidt and Hunter, (1998) and Brown, (1981), argues that in utility analysis, even tests with low validity can have a major impact on productivity. The new development, Brown (1981), suggests that small differences in validity coefficients means major differences in productivity gains from the use of selection tools. Variations in recruitment and selection practice are bound by the law of the land. Assessments whether it is carried out with interviews, behavioural observations, physiological measures or tests had to be meaningful, reliable and valid. However, the fact that a test is intended to measure a particular attribute is in no way a guarantee that it does accomplish this goal.
Selection Method and Processes
Organization having established the criteria for recruiting the kind of person the organization is looking for; the first stage is to generate interests from people (CIPD, 2009), finding someone who meets these criteria. Obviously it must be made known to people that a vacancy exists. It can be done externally or internally. There are varieties of methods of publicizing. Cooper et al (2003) the most frequent used method of attracting candidates has been advertising. These include placing advertisements in trade press, news papers, commercial job board, and on the organization's websites. With the increase in the use of technology, organizations are looking at how they can build databases or pools of 'ready' candidates who they can draw on to slot into positions in the organization as they arise without re-advertising. Also some organizations have tapped into virtual world such as second life to engage candidates in a unique and powerful way, as found in the CIPD 2009 recruitment survey that 7% of respondents were using social networking sites as mechanism for targeting potential job seekers (CIPD, 2009).
Organizations usually use several different methods to assess job applicants. Applicants are usually asked to fill application form, send in copy of their resume and attend interview. One method that is becoming increasingly used is employee selection tests. These tests aim to provide a potential employer with an insight into whether you will be able to cope with the intellectual demands of the job and how well you work with other people. In this research work, selection interviews, test, assessment centers, reference and background analysis, job offer, physical examination, job offer and employment contracts, will be discussed.
The universally most common method of selection is interview which is described by Torrington (2002) as 'a controlled conversation with a purpose'. Robertson and Smith (2001), interviews are the oldest. They consist of conservation with a purpose. It enables several important assessments to be made and can present information-gathering opportunity for both organization and applicants. As a frequently used selection technique; it is very unusual for people to be hired without an interview. Interviews may be either structured or unstructured (Roberts, 1997). An interview is designed to allow an interviewer or interviewing panel to use their own judgment to decide which of the applicants best fit the role.
Searle, (2003) discussed the two central theoretical perspectives that are taken regarding an interview: the objectivist psychometric and the subjectivist social-interactionist perspective. Each reveals the important but diverse component concerning the role of different parties, and considers the expectations and processes that comprise the interview in distinct ways. The objective psychometric one focuses on issues such as structure, reliability and validity, asks what qualities an interview can assess and how should the content and format of the interview be structured. It also asks what role reliability, validity and decision-making play in the interview format. The social perspective highlights the uniqueness of the exchange: it accentuates he process of interview and the patterns of the exchange. Attention is placed on the on the issue of impression management and asks questions about the power dynamics that take place during an interview.
Structured and Unstructured interview
Unstructured interviews are the most commonly used. It generally takes the form of free-ranging discussion with the interviewer a set of favourite questions but providing the interviewee with a free rein to answer in general way (Roberts, 1997). The interview has no pre-set topics. As such the interview can quickly degenerate into an uncontrolled, non-directive, often disorder process. It provides surrogate measurement of the candidate's social skills at its best; more commonly it is a waste of time and effort by all the parties involved, and does not allow consistent means of comparing different candidates (Searle, 2003).
Barclay (1997) would argue that interviews which are unstructured are poor predictors of employee performance or fit, with this author citing problems including, stereotyping of candidates; primacy effects; similarity effects; and negative information weighting bias. Given that unstructured interviews are not only the most common, but also reported as being far less effective than structured interviews, Roberts (2002) Edwards (1997) poses the question of whether to use 'closed' or 'open' questions when interviewing candidates, as the former can have limitations in terms of eliciting information, while the latter can be used to explore an issue from all angles.
Structured interview can cover a wide range of processes, found in focused interviews where the topics for discussion and potential answers are pre-set (Searle, 2003). Structured interview allows the interviewer to prepare job-related questions in advance and the complete the standardized interviewee evaluation form that provides documentation indicating why one applicant was selected over another (Mathis and Jackson, 2007). Roberts (2002) Structured interviews can be either 'situational' or 'behavioral'. Situational interviews usually involve the candidate being asked to respond to hypothetical questioning involving work related issues. The response of the candidate is measured against the skills of the top performing employees in the organization, with skills such as communication skills, judgments, and emotional control being assessed. Huczynski and Buchanan (2007) in behavioral interviews, the interviewer uses the candidates past employment experiences as a guide to how they will perform in the future. The candidates are asked to describe a problem from work and how they overcame it, and assessed on their response.
Selection interviews for some reason are often viewed as a general measuring device. Gatewood, et al (2007) argue that some often- found deficiencies in the interview can be attributed to misconceptions about its use in selection, following their examination that indicates that it is not appropriate to use a significant portion of selection interview for attracting applicants providing detailed employment information and development the company image, this does not mean that the activities are not important, but saying that spending significant portion of time on the activities first and second round screening interview limits the effectiveness of the device in its primary purpose, evaluating the characteristics of applicants.
Psychometric Test Psychometrics is the systematic testing, measurement and assessment of intelligence, aptitudes and personality. Candidates can be tested on either ability or personality through a process of completing questionnaires, numerical tests or statements where the candidate agrees or disagrees. Roberts (2000) this method differs from the others in that it is a very formal way of building an employee profile with little or no and unlike the interview approach, it uses a measurement scale to calculate a personality type.
Assessment centers are another method of choosing employees. This method is used by HRM to evaluate and develop personnel in terms of attributes or abilities relevant to organizational effectiveness (Thornton & Rupp, 2005). These centers usually assess the applicants over one to three days. Assessment Centers use a variety of tailor made methods that fit with the employing organization, such as team building exercises, ability tests, interviews and exercises. Applicants for a post will undergo a variety of techniques. This method is used to generate information about the ability to work under stress, preferred work styles, ability to make quick and accurate numerical estimates, characteristic behaviour when working with others and experience and aptitude for a customer service role. The candidates are assessed by assessor who is trained to judge candidates' performance against criteria contained within the competency structure used (Bratton and Gold, 2007).
References and Background Check
References are used for the purpose of obtaining information about a candidate's employment history, qualifications, experience and/ or a candidate's suitability I for the post in question (CIPD, 2010). Armstrong (2003) the purpose of references is to obtain in confidence, factual information about a prospective employee and opinions about his or her character. It is necessary to confirm the nature of the previous job, period of time of employment and the reason for leaving, the salary rate of pay and, possibly, the attendance record. There are some variations in the timing of references, some employers chose to take up references for candidates at one of the stages in the selection process, some take up reference when they have decided to select a candidate, but before an offer is made and, some when they have already made the offer (Roberts, 1997). Background check is done when the interviewer is satisfied that the applicant is potentially qualified, the information about the previous employment as well as other information provided by the applicant is investigated (Bohlander and Snell, 2009).
When the steps in the selection process are completed, the available information provided by the applicant is reviewed before making decision. The job offer is to welcome an employee to the company, congratulate the individual and provide details about the work condition, the rate of pay, time and location, where they are expected to report to report to work and who contact with additional questions (Smith and Mazin, 2004).Job offer does not mean that the applicant has accepted the offer.
Challenges of Recruitment and selection
Scholarios and Lockyer (1996) identified two challenges to recruitment and selection. It is argued that a suitable alternative to the systems of model that has tendency towards fixed criteria is yet to be found. Secondly is the question over how far set or constant criteria associated with successful job performance can be identified. Set criteria will be based on firm perceptive of the contents of the job and the capability to predict the stable elements of the position. Mckenna and Beach, (2001) with the emphasis of HRM on the process, such as empowerment, de-layering and functional flexibility that may likely lead to change, some of it unpredictable, so there may be problem establishing such criteria. In the future job holders may be required to undertake activities that are not currently envisaged, and so which remain outside established criteria.
In Ireland, recruiters are faced with some challenges in recruiting immigrant workers. There are employment barriers on both the supply side and the demand side, like proficiency in the English language or a lacking of understanding amongst immigrants of the cultural norms applying in the host country. Policy constraints, like policy governing the right to work. Also there are issues of employer's negative mindset, especially with immigrants from Africa.
Budhwar and Debrah (2004) in discussing the recruitment and selection practices in Nigeria organizations identified some of the challenges face by multinational companies (MNCs) and the small firms. While the small firms resolve to fill their vacancies with friends and relatives, the larger firms like the MNCs spend time and money screening large number of application in response to an advertisement in the media. With the growing unemployment situation in Nigeria, unsolicited job application has increased. The use of consulting firms and media advertising is common among the large firms. Also the falling educational standard in Nigeria has caused companies to be fine-tuning, and some times over hauling their recruitment and selection procedures, conducting a variety of aptitude and psychometric tests during the selection process.
Palmer, (1997) in his article on quota System of Employment in Strategic Organizations in Nigeria, argues that the government after establishing the necessary frame work for the management of strategic organization violets the same rule it has made to regulate social relations at work sometimes through irregular employment, and also through political interference from political office holders. The quota system as instrument of employment is questionable as is sometimes serve as a cynosure for the recruitment of unqualified persons from certain parts of the country. The incompetence of these individuals, to a reasonable extent has led to the inability of Strategic Organizations to accomplish their mission. Johnnie (1997) argued that quota System of employment sometimes serves as center of attention for the recruitment of unqualified persons from certain parts of the country. The incompetence of these individuals, to a large extent has led to the inability of Strategic Organizations to accomplish their mission.
This chapter is the overview of this research literature. It explains the concept of recruitment and selection as perceived by various writers. The stages and steps of the recruitment and selection are identified. The people (employees) are the best asset of the organization and therefore determine the success of achieving the organization's goals and objectives. The chapter also identified the need for the recruiter, before any selection method is applied, to introduce the concept of validity, reliability and popularity as different job may require different selection methods. Job analysis, job specifications and person specification, are crucial to attracting the right applicants. In addition the chapter discussed the Challenges in recruitment and selection and its implications. The questions that should be in every recruiter's mind while sourcing for talents should be, can these candidates deliver? What are their strengths and competencies? Can they pursue the firm's vision? Can they be trained? What values are they bringing into the organization? What are their missions? Are they coming to use the firm as a learning ground and move on with their career somewhere else? Can they fit into the succession plan of the company? etc. Answers to these questions are the reason why recruitment and selection seem to be a laborious task.
This chapter explains the processes that would be taken to conduct this research and likewise illustrates the techniques that will be used in this research to examine the issues and challenges of recruitment and selection as highlighted in the when the primary search will be carried out.
Saunders et al, (2009) defined research as something that people undertake in order to find out things in a systematic way, thereby increasing their knowledge. Research is an organised systematic data-based, critical objective, scientific enquiry or investigation into a specific question, undertaken with purpose of finding answers or solution to it. It serves as a guide for managers and other business executives in making informed decisions with the information provided. According to Grove (2004) the meaning of the word research is "search again" or "examine carefully", research is diligent, systematic inquiry to validate or refine an existing knowledge and generate new knowledge. The concept of systematic and diligent are critical to the meaning of research, they imply planning, organization, and persistence. Research is not just a process of gathering information as suggested by some writers. It is about answering an answered question or creating that which does not currently exist. It can be seen as a process of expanding the boundaries of ignorance. It is also a never-ending process, it leads to new discoveries. Good research being systematic means it is planed and has a specific goal (Gooddard and Melville, 2001).
The research Philosophy and the research approach are the two importance areas that exist in research Saunders et al (2007), which form the basis and are the centre of every research; in order for any research to have direction, these core areas must be understood. The term research philosophy "relates to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge. The philosophy directs the questions that are asked, the observations that are made and how the data are interpreted (Munhall, 2001). The philosophy a researcher adopts contains important assumptions about the way the researcher view the world and the assumptions will underpin the research strategy. The philosophy adopted will be influenced by practical considerations (Saunders et al, 2009). Research approach refers to the approach or the methodology that has been adopted to carry out the research. It fundamentally involves the selection of research questions, the conceptual framework that has to be adopted, the selection of appropriate research method such as primary research, secondary research etc. There are a number of different approaches to research according to, Smith and Dainty, (1991) but there is a sharp contrast between those approaches aimed at purely academic or theoretical problems and, those concerned more with the day-to-day difficulties of management in practice.
Research method refers to the techniques and procedures used to obtain and analyse data. It therefore includes questionnaires, observation, interviews and both qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques (Saunders et al, 2009). Research methodology however, refers to the specific way of going about finding solution to your problem, and the necessary steps to do so (Gooddard and Melville, 2001). Saunders et al (2009) 'research methodology refers to the theory of how research should be undertaken; it is believed that a good choice of this would help inform the researcher on the right choice of methodology to adopt'. It is essential that a clear and suitable design and data collection method is in use in any research in order to guarantee that the findings of the research are valid and reliable. On the other hand, the research strategy and design that are selected and employed are dependent on the nature of the research that will be undertaken.
Quantitative Methods and Qualitative Methods
In this section the methods to be used in conducting the research will be stated and approach taken towards the collection and analysis of data. Qualitative and quantitative are the two major approaches for conducting research (Jankowicz, 2000). Qualitative and quantitative data are used widely in business and management research to differentiate both data collection techniques and data analysis procedures (Saunders et al, 2009). In a research, many factors are to be considered in choosing the proper research methodology together with the topic to be researched, with the research question being the drivers (Remenyi et al, 1998).
According to Denzin and Norman (2005) qualitative research aimed at gathering in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often needed, rather than large samples. Qualitative is predominantly a synonym for any data technique, such as an interview or data analysis procedure, such as categorizing data that generates or uses non-numerical data (Saunders et al, 2009). Qualitative research is often regarded as a precursor to quantitative research, in that it is often used to generate possible leads and ideas which can be used to formulate a realistic and testable hypothesis, this hypothesis can then be comprehensively tested and mathematically analyzed, with standard quantitative research methods (Shuttleworth, 2008). Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular case studies and any more general conclusions are only hypothesis. The qualitative method can be uses to verify, which of such hypotheses are true.
Quantitative on the contrary is predominantly used for collecting data such as questionnaires or data analysis procedure such as statistics that generates or uses numerical data. Also, quantitative research is an objective, result orientated, and logical and critical approach with emphasis on testing and verification of data (Ghauri and Gronhaug 2002). Measuring is key in quantitative research because it shows the relationship between data and observation Shuttleworth (2008) they are most frequently used by physical scientists, although social sciences, education and economics have been known to use this type of research. It is the opposite of qualitative research. The procedures uses to collect data in quantitative research, are clearly identified and described prior to actual data collection and researchers can change the procedures as they go for example if the questions they ask in an interview does not yield the expected answer, the question could be rephrased or completely eliminate it without a negative impact on their research (Cottrell and McKenzie, 2005). Quantitative research approach is used to answer questions about relationships among variables.
Research Methodology Selection
The methodology selections are precise methods of information and analyses research data. More than one methodology can be applied to most problems. Most effective research papers often use a mix of both primary and secondary sources. Primary and secondary researches are the two main source of information in research (Easterby-smith et al 2002)
Primary sources are those created by direct observation. The researchers were participants or observers in the events they describe. A primary source is an original object or document, the raw material or the first hand information. Primary sources include: interviews, historical records and documents, eyewitness account, autobiographies, journals, letters, diaries, and logs etc. (Rozakis, 2007)
Secondary sources were written by people with indirect knowledge. It was relied on primary sources. It is something written about a primary source. Saunders (2009) secondary data is reanalyzing data that have already been collected for some other purpose. It includes both raw data and published summaries. It paraphrases the work of researchers and theorists and it is mostly used when primary sources cannot be located or if a secondary source contains creative ideas or unique organization of information not found in a primary source (Grove, 2004).
Case Study methodology
Yin (2003) suggests that case study should be defined as a research strategy, an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. Case study research means single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Case studies are complex because they generally involve multiple sources of data, may include multiple cases within a study, and produce large amounts of data for analysis. It is a research methodology that is based on an in-depth investigations of a single individual, group or event to explore causation in order to find underlying principles (Jon & Greene, 2003). Yin, (2009) They provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, , analyzing information, and reporting the results Researchers from many disciplines use the case study method to build upon theory, to produce new theory, to dispute or challenge theory, to explain a situation, to provide a basis to apply solutions to situations, to explore, or to describe an object or phenomenon. The advantages of the case study method are its applicability to real-life, contemporary, human situations and its public accessibility through written reports. Case study results relate directly to the common readers everyday experience and facilitate an understanding of complex real-life situations. Case studies lend themselves to both generating and testing hypothesis (3)
Chapter 3 shows the research methodology that would be adopted if primary research is to be conducted, and the perception of various authors on what research is all about, adopting qualitative and quantitative approaches. The chapter also explains primary and secondary research and the various ways it could be carried out, their characteristics, benefits and hindrances that could be experienced, and the research constraints.