Introduction and background of leadership factors

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Leadership is actually the influencing others to take work and in such a way that I have a good standard and quality in it. If the leader is performing extraordinary then we say that he is the true leader and achieving goals should be the top priority of him. A good leader believes in extraordinary results and these results serve as an inspiration for others to perform equally well. People believe in the theory that the leader is the one who can achieve goals in a way that they can not do. Hence the leadership effectiveness plays the key role in getting goals of highest priority for the organization. The effectiveness of the leader is directly related to the growth of the organization and more the organization will grow due to his skills and hard work. But still there is a problem to judge the effectiveness of the leader. That question has been answered by many authors along with their theories. Peter F. Drucker says that 'Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things'

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This paper is written with the purpose of making a study of some leader with the purpose to evaluate the strong characteristics to become the leader then the observation and interview data is collected which then analyzed to make a final statement about the traits of a good leader. After the analysis and discussion I have tried to develop a leadership development plan which was based on the characteristics of my leader and feedback.

Background of leader

My chosen leader in this paper is Pakistani Dr S. M. Junaid Zaidi. Dr S. M. Junaid Zaidi (S.I.) is the Founder Rector of the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Pakistan's first exclusive institute of information technology. Dr Zaidi is an experienced educationist. In the early 1970s, he earned two master degrees in Physics and Mathematics from the University of Punjab. In the early 1980s he successfully completed another master degree in Operations Research from University of Birmingham, England (UK) and subsequently earned a doctorate from there, specializing in Optimization of Algorithms on Networking. Before assuming the leadership of CIIT, Dr Zaidi served in many distinguished high profile positions at the United Nations (UN) and in the Government of Pakistan. During his association with the UN, Dr Zaidi served as Advisor to the Malaysian Government and developed the country's Information Technology Policy. 

Under his leadership COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. CIIT was awarded Charter by the Government of Pakistan in 2000 and in less than a decade, it has grown into a quality institution of higher learning under his able leadership. CIIT now has campuses in seven cities, a student population exceeding 16,000 and faculty base of 1,500. In addition to Information Technology, the Institute offers several bachelor, master and doctoral programs in engineering, basic sciences, management sciences and architecture.

In recognition of his commendable continued service to society, the Government of Pakistan conferred upon Dr Zaidi the prestigious national award, "Sitara-i-Imtiaz" (Star of Distinction) in 2007. Earlier, in 2001, he was awarded one of the highest IT awards, "IT Pioneer 1987-1995," by NCR Corporation for his contribution to the promotion and development of IT.

Leadership model

I have used path goal model for the effectiveness of Dr. S.M Junaid Zaidi in this paper (see appendix D). In this model we analyze the influence of the leader over its subordinates and the path towards the goal and the ability of the leader to achieve those goals. This model is actually the qualities of leader to remove hurdles and make moves towards goals. This model is actually the expectancy theory of motivation and the style of leadership that the leader adopts to achieve the goals and yield best possible results. Variation in approach will depend on the situation, including the follower's capability and motivation, as well as the difficulty of the job and other contextual factors. Evans, M.G. (1970)

Methodology

The two means of making notes on the leadership of our proposed leader are taken as observation and the interview as the other one. Both of these methods helps me to evaluate the personality of my leader in the best way and helps me to develop a leadership plan.

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Interview is conducted to observe the inner self of a person and sort out the characteristics of him which can not be observed in daily life. I have used an interview which is structured and have tried to properly cover all the information to be asked. The interview will help me easily find out the traits of Dr. S M Junaid Zaidi which in general are very difficult to find out. It has made my work more detailed and easy to analyze.

Observation method of research is developed in observing people in natural setting. This method focuses more on people's natural behaviour in daily life (May, 2001). As an observer judges the situation he set up some idea about the personality of the leader. Then with the help of the interview question the observer can relate the two settings and can create some good arguments about the personality. Secondly the observer can watch and collect information directly with the help of observation directly. I choose directly observation method by taking note what he is doing during observation time (see appendix A).

Interview

The interview is conducted with the purpose of acknowledging the trait, behavior, style, ethic, power and influence of the leader.(seen in Appendix B). These questions are designed in a way that I have got the idea of the leader with respect to the path goal leadership model. I used the email method to interview him as this was the most feasible and easy way for me.

2.2. Observation

I visited the organization a few weeks ago to have an observation of his activities and I also had some time to chat with him over a cup of tea that's all made possible due to a workshop conducted on the personality traits by CIIT and he was the speaker in that workshop. After the workshop on refreshment I asked him few questions and tried to judge his personality and meanwhile he also told me some useful tips that he use to manage his subordinates. He has a unique personality and I thoroughly observed his way of meeting people and the style he uses to impress people with his personality.

Data

Data is representation of information, number and etc., collecting through some methodologies such as interview, observation. It helps us a lot in decision making. Data can be defined as 'factual information that forms the basis for our reasoning, discussions, and discussions' (Rohde, 2008, p. 1).

Presentation of data

The bellowing table summarise the data which I have collected through interview and observation about my leader, Dr. SM Junaid Zaidi.

Data

Observation

Interview

Question

Traits

(1-5)

Future Oriented

Self Confidence

Decision maker

Positive attitude

Sense of humour

Ability to listen criticism

Courage

Mental Stability

Extroversion

Intelligence

Goal Oriented

Confident

Positive approach

Warmth

Courageous

External Locus for Control

Sense of Humour

Intelligence

Behaviour

Ability to Communicate

Situation Analyst

Moderate Risk Taker

Smiling personality

Friendly

Motivator

Directing setting

Ability to Communicate

Give emotional support

Moderate Risk Taker

Motivator

Situation Analyzer

Power

Speaking power

Convincing power

Persuasive power

Empowerment

Speaking power

Persuasive power

Empowerment

Convincing power

Influence

Considerate

Persuasive

Ability to convince

Leading by example

Persuasion

Considerate

Ethic

Honesty

Humbleness

Helpful

Motivational responsibility

Respectful

Humbleness

Motivational

Truthful

Respectful

Question

Path-goal model

(15-20)

Achievement oriented leadership

Participative leadership

Supportive leadership

Participative leadership

4. Discussion

Traits

As from the Table in Row one the traits are shown. From the collected data we can say that both the interview data and the observation data are quite similar to each other. Both methodologies show the same traits. The interview data shows that he is goal oriented which was not shown in the observation data. He is humorous which was obvious from his speech and he was also very intelligent as shown by the table.

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My observation shows that Dr. Junaid Zaidi is one of the effective leader as all the characteristics of the effective leader that are described in the trait theory are found in him i.e Sense of Humor, Warmth, Tolerance for Frustration, Internal Locus for Control and extroversion, Emotional Intelligence, trustworthiness, adaptability and flexibility. Most of these characteristics were observed In Dr. SM Junaid Zaidi both in observation and in Interview.

However, "Leading is stimulating people to be high performers. It is directing, motivating, and communicating with people, helping guide and inspire them toward achieving team and organizational goals. Leading takes place in teams, departments, and at the top of organizations" (Bateman and Snell, 1999: 7) Moreover, Fiedler (1967) argues that the effectiveness of the leader is contingent on the demands of the situation. The tasked oriented leaders seem to be more effective in the situations high or low control and predictability, and oriented leaders seem to be more effective in the extreme situations. Furthermore, Intagliata et al. (2000) contend that leadership competencies are considered to be important in the achievement of organizational goals, particularly when the competencies are organization specific, for a number of reasons, including: (1) they guide direction, (2) they are measurable, (3) competencies can be learned, (4) they can distinguish and differentiate the organization, and (5) they can help integrate management practices. Metz (2001) notes, today, effective library leadership requires an extraordinary ability to maintain a delicate and continually shifting balance in the management of technical, financial, and human resources to serve the academic mission of our colleges and universities.

All the arguments have proved that the leaders are born and the have characteristics of leader in them. These traits help us in sorting of the qualities that who is leader and who is non leader and also the effectiveness of a leader. Hence after observing the traits of a good leader we have come to know that Dr. SM Junaid Zaidi is an effective leader.

Behaviour

Acording to the observation and interview the behavior of Dr. SM Junaid Zaidi is that of a leader because he has some very good qualities of Situation Analyst and moderate Risk Taker along with motivational. He is a born leader and according to behavior theory, he is goal oriented. It means he believes in achieving goals through relationship between people and production to gain the optimum results through participation, involvement and commitment (Dubrin, et all, 2006). Moreover, this style gets the followers involving in organizational goal and determined production need as part of organization. That will result in teamwork commitment based on trust and respect, which lead high to motivation and satisfaction as result as high production (Zeidan, LACPA, 2009)

However, my personal observation shows that Dr. Zaidi is a goal oriented personality and he wants his team to achieve as much as possible. Like Riggs (1982) argues that management and leadership are two separate hemispheres. Managers tend to work within defined bounds of known quantities, using well-established techniques to accomplish predetermined ends; the manager tends to stress means and neglect ends. The leader's task is to hold, before all persons connected with an institution or organization, some vision of what its mission is and how it can be reached more effectively. Managers may be described as being too busy doing the possible to find time to reach for the difficult or impossible. Leadership involves looking forward, as well as inward (p. viii). Hence Dr. Zaidi fulfils this dimension of looking forward and inward at the same time. This style focuses on the task achievement. Task oriented leadership create energy by accomplishment of task efficient and timely. Task-oriented leadership also keep people focus on the task and understand conflict in group (Gray, 2009). "They...will need keen analytical powers,abundant common sense, vibrant creativity, reasoned judgment, and a passionate commitment to the mission and goals of higher education."Metz concluded: "to develop this new leader is an enormous challenge" (p. 2-3) .Therefore, Hence Dr. SM Junaid Zaidi is an effective leader based on his leadership behaviour.

Power

Based on interview data, Dr. Zaidi has an effective personality and the power to impress people with his way to communication. Patterson (2009) suggests that leaders who use their own personal power to influence employees tend to view the organization as a living organism, open and flexible system. Such a leadership style results in increased employee motivation, productivity, and job satisfaction. Moreover, Felix E. Unaeze (1990) says Aligning People-communicating the direction by words and deeds to all those whose cooperation may be needed so as to influence the creation of teams and coalitions that understand the vision and strategies, and accept their validity. From above mentioned strong supportive material it is obvious that Dr. S M Junaid Zaidi is making his powerful personality working for his organization. He utilizes his own powerful attitude to do work and create awareness that our organization is more result oriented rather then task oriented.

According to Purkey and Siegel (2003), "Invitational Leadership is a theory of practice that addresses the total environment in which leaders function. As a theory put into practice, it is a powerful process of communicating caring and appropriate messages intended to summon forth the greatest human potential as well as for identifying and changing those forces that defeat and destroy potential" (p. 1) Hence Dr. Zaidi is someone who has created a chrisma of powerful leadership and is a role model in the eyes of the employees of the organization. So his power is making him an effective leader.

Influence

Interview and observation data shows that Dr. Zaidi has a strong influence over his staff by consultation and strong decision making skill. He has ability to use his skills and abilities to make others work like he does thus he influences the staff. Moreover according to the study also the leader is one who has ability to influence in a positive way like Gardener (1993) defines the creative individual as "a person who regularly solves problems, fashions products, or definesnew questions in a domain in a way that is initially considered novel but that ultimately becomes accepted in a particular culture (p. 35)

The other tactic that he uses to impress his staff is his considerate nature he assumes that the others are a good help to him in being giving suggestions as he is from education industry like he findings from effective schools research (Brookover & Lezotte, 1977; Edmonds, 1979; Sergiovanni, 2001) indicated that the educational leader possesses a greater influence on education than any other factor'.

He tries to maintain a n effective leadership through making sure that the others are satisfied with what steps he takes and also that the major changes needed in his personality. Like the following evidence Gresso (1993), new models of leadership can be developed from the understanding, trust, and expectations that are created and shared by all that work within the organization. In addition, Schein (1992) describes a new way of leadership in which the leader identifies and evaluates the assumptions about "who we are" and "what is important."

Ethic

Dr. Junaid Zaidi is a very noble person. He has a very humble personality and is keen to offer what he has to others. Lie he has introduced the most effective scholarship schemes for his students and he has prticipted in number of charity programmes forthwith. According to consequentialist theory, his actions are ethical. The data also shows that he is integrity and fairness. In evaluating the ethical leadership, we should look at both individual leader and context within leader's decision or action. A leadership with integrity and fairness would be judged different from one with characteristic in question ( Brophy, 2010).

Meanwhile the leadership traits of Dr. S M Junaid Zaidi also have a lot of relevance with the literature like 'Good leadership is inseparable from irreproachable ethics, role modelling the value of doing the right thing, and being guided by a sound moral compass' (Carter, p. 37). Hence, Dr. Zaidi is effective leader.

Leadership model

Observation and Interview with Dr. SM Junaid Zaidi shows that he is a self motivator, ambitious and goal oriented leader ho wants to make some progress in life on every step. He set example and make his employees follow his foot steps and thus create a path goal model. He has set the objectives and purpose of the employees to achieve goals. He involves in every activities of company to make sure all activities are done well by directly telling the subordinates what they are supported to perform. According to research Directive leadership help employees feel comfortable about themselves, their co-worker and situation (Northouse, 2010).

Moreover, Dr. Zaidi builds hold a high prestige in the eyes of the employees he makes some aggressive moves when needed but still create so much enthusiasm among his employees that hey feel a good relationship with each other. His inspirational speeches to his employees make his leadership more effective. Stephen J. Zaccaro" ombinations of traits and attributes, integrated in conceptually meaningful ways, are more likely to predict leadership than additive or independent contributions of several single traits. Furthermore, a defining core of these dominant leader trait patterns reflects a stable tendency to lead in different ways across disparate organizational domains"

In addition, interview data shows that Mr. Tony behaves as participative leadership style as well according to House (1996). He often consults with his employees to get their ideas and suggestions then seriously take it into account when making decision. He also enforces two way communications in company to seek staffs' feedback about working environment. Ken (1991) views that this style best suite when subordinates need to be listened and encouraged, but do not need much direction for their task. Dubrin (2010) also agrees that participative style is best suit to improve the moral of well-motivation of employees who is performing the task.

Dr. S M junaid Zaidi has different approaches on different occasions and some times he is supportive some time directive and mostly participative. He is a kind of leader who takes responsibility and makes decisions as a core value in order to enhance the performance of organization. He tries to remove obstacles from the path of organization. He is particiapative in every branch of organization and most of his friends says that he is an all rounder in the field of management. He is supportive to his colleagues and helps them in any way they want. Hence Dr. S M Junaid Zaidi Approves all the quality and approaches towards the leadership.

5. Conclusion

From all the discussion we have deduced that the traits and behavior we observed in Dr. Zaidi are according to the theory and research and the Dr. Zaidi is one who makes the powerful decision in the organization. He is humble and noble man who have feelings for others and can influence others with his personality. Now we I have concluded the data in a table form.

Name: Dr. S M Junaid Zaidi Ratings: (10 is highest)

Behaviour or attitude

Self Rating

Dr. Zaidi

Gap

Communication skills

7

8

1

Persuasions skills

4

7

3

Management skills

8

9

1

Self-confidence

6

8

2

Risk-taker

3

7

4

Warmth

7

8

1

Emotional- intelligence

3

6

3

Flexibility and adaptability of situation

3

4

1

Intelligence

8

10

2

Friendly and polite

9

9

0

Give emotional support

6

8

2

Hold high performance standard

3

8

5

Based on what I have observed and interviewed my leader Dr. Zaidi and data of 360 degree feedback, I found a considerable gap between him and me, especially in areas such as self-confidence, persuasion skills, communication skills and management skills . In order to be effective leader like DR. Zaidi in the future, I must handle and overcome all my weaknesses by upgrading my knowledge and improve my leadership skill. I have made leadership self- development plan for two years (see appendix C).