Globalization presents a new era of capitalism characterized by the liberalization of economic policies, the deregulation of trade, development of multinational companies as well as the acceleration of progress. Technologically, this imposes on economies in the world tremendous flexibility to adapt to this situation. The ongoing development of Multinationals in Morocco reflects the flexibility offered by job market opportunities in Morocco.
The Labor Code has nothing to do with regard to the difficulties of its application, but rather it is the economic reality that requires the companies a higher flexibility to deal with different economic fluctuations.
The Labour Code embodies the concept of flexibility to the detriment of law in work covers the right to have a work and the right to keep it. This concept is reflected in the following stipulations:
The removal of the worker's right to titularization after 12 months of continuous employment in the sectors of industry, commerce and services after 6 months in agriculture.
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Expanding the scope of Service of labor based on fixed-term contracts.
Extension of the trial period in which the employer can fire the employee without notice and without compensation.
Legalization of the new labor code employment agencies that can commercialize the temporary workforce.
As for wages, labor law repeals the Act of October 1959 on the sliding scale of prices wages without replacing it with arrangements obligatorily for indexing the wage to increases in the cost of living.
Instead of providing the unity of the minimum wage ensuring a minimum of life in dignity, the code provides for the possibility to set multiple levels of wages Minimals for industry, agriculture, administration, etc..
Also, the Labour Code allows employers to reduce wages proportionally to the decrease in the working hours which constitutes a regression in relation to the law of 1936 relating to the fixing of working hours and which prohibits lower wages due to a reduction in working hours.
On the other hand, The French labor law applies only to private sector employees. They are those who receive a salary through the execution of a contract. They placed themselves under the subordination of the entrepreneur who acquires the right to give orders, to control the execution and punish disciplinary breaches.
Are therefore excluded from labor law subject to:
Artisans, merchants, professionals and other self-employed."labor law in France."Â Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Jan. 2013. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
2. We used the example of VEOLIA Environnement, a multinational company, implemented in Morocco and AKSAL group which is one of the most important companies in Morocco. The comparison was made using some specific information about the two companies and some interviews that were made with the HR Managers of each company.
With nearly 10,000 employees in Morocco, Veolia Environnement is a French company present in Morocco since 2002, through management contracts in the fields of water supply, electricity, sanitation management (Amendis Tanger - Tetouan,Redal at Rabat-Salé) and contracts for garbage collection and cleaning (Veolia Rabat, Salé, Temara, Safi, Nador and Berkane). In February 2009, the subsidiary Veolia Transport won the tender for the delegated management of urban public transport by bus Wilaya Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaers in partnership with local operators.
That was a brief presentation about the company taken from "Our story."Â Veolia Environnement.
Nowadays, after more than eight years of presence in Morocco, one of the first strategic HR policy concerns the next generation of employees. With an average age of twenty years, the company is preparing the next generation.
The second strategic axis is increasing the expertise of employees across the training campus of the company. Finally, in the development of human resources, they want to promote the participative management' principals, so setting goals is clear to all and a real meritocratic is developed.
World leader in the environmental sector, with nearly 300,000 employees, Veolia Environnement Group is highly valued by young graduates. It is an organization where career development is considerable.
More than 95% of position's coverage takes place through internal promotion. The company offers numerous opportunities for mobility abroad. The company has achieved about a dozen expatriate Moroccans managers abroad and this, on the basis of skill and meritocracy.
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The company has faced a lack of specialized resources on the labor market.
In fact in the sectors of sanitation, water and electricity, good profiles are rare. The HR department research mainly young graduated and specialized in these areas. They initiated a recruitment campaign to target specific institutions target advanced technicians, or by using Anapec' databases. Open applications are also welcome.
The other main needs are expressed on human resources positions with very high technical and technological expertise, specific jobs relative in particular to sewage treatment plants and wastewater treatment. We can say that the turnover of the company is around 0%. They provide opportunities for promotion, which provide confidence and motivate employees, knowing they can move very quickly within the company and develop their skills.
Veolia Environment has developed the policy for the promotion as follows: "So many changes of positions of remuneration." They also wove a relationship with employees based on dialogue and exchange. Veolia Environnement Maroc. Web. 27 Jan. 2013
The group dedicates a budget varying between 13 and 16 million dirhams a year for training.
60 to 70% of this amount is for the body business. The 30% left is spent on cross-training that also include Veolia Academy. An ongoing training program developed within the company's campus and based on specific courses, but also trainings either in Morocco or abroad.
The Veolia Academy offers three courses: "Veolia excellence" for managers and leaders, "Veolia talent", which aims senior and "Veolia potential" dedicated to close supervision.
A training plan was initiated called Â«Veolia Learning" in 2010 and spread out 4-5 years, which involves forming between 40 AND 60 young advanced technicians during a period of one year.
The HR manager confirmed by the interview that he had with the newspaper "l'Economiste" that this problem never arises in Veolia Environment.
The number of expatriates is not even 1% of the overall group. In case of specific need some sophisticated profiles or target does not exist in Morocco, they call for a foreign specialist. he arrives with a particular skill in a given area where the need is clearly expressed for a limited time and skills transfer. The common denominator for all employees is that the company could move forward and achieve its objectives.L'ÃÂ©conomiste, Salim Ennaji from Veolia Environnement. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2013.
The positions are published and known by all employees through internal communication. Two cases may arise: either an internal candidate concerned will submit his application, or the HR department itself seeks for internal application. They take consideration of the family responsibilities in terms of mobility.
The Company has always ensured a good social dialogue with its employees. It takes the form of a good social harmony. The recent conflict in the company goes back to 2004. That is what made the company to take good decisions and made the employees to sign several agreement protocols in favor of employees and review the general work conditions, health, safety and also compensation. The company is highly engaged in health and safety. 10% (taken from the training budget) is spent on education and training of employees in terms of safety. And the group is highly vigilant against discrimination acts and avoids it. Â Campus Veolia Maroc. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Jan.Â
Leader in its sector, the group Aksal stands out in the sectors of retail, commercial property and malls. It has opened the way for the establishment in Morocco of major international brands (Senza, Zara, Massimo Dutti, Zara Home). The group is also the head of the Morocco Mall project, a site hosting a shopping center which extends over 200,000 mÂ² (cafés, restaurants, shops, bowling, ice rink, aquarium).
More than 200 businesses and trademarks of the most prestigious are referenced. To ensure the proper functioning of its projects, Aksal recently launched its training academy "Aksal Academy" in order to train 5,000 people. AKSAL Group -Web. 27 Jan. 2013.
Aksal group has built a large part of its success and reputation on its human and social policy. They are convinced that there is no sustainable economic growth without involving and developing the staff. Thus, it is essential to assist the processing of group via the four key strategic axes used by the HR department: strengthening the corporate culture that attracts the best skills and contribute to the performance of the group, appreciating individual excellence and teamwork. It is also about retaining talent by providing them with the "best place to grow," as well as promote a responsible group to the socioeconomic environment with social responsibility.
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Aksal has two types of requirements in terms of human resources needs, at headquarters level and store level. Generally, it is at the level of Morocco Mall that the need is valued at 5,000 direct jobs. 1,200 are destined for group Aksal, primarily for retailers. Beyond that, the group recruits at headquarters level. In terms of profiles, they look basically for the ability and the skills and motivated individuals who respond to the values. They are looking essentially for sales advisers, coordinators, cashiers, store managers, brand managers and merchandising, maintenance and logistics. The HR manager also noted, in the interview, a need in the sectors of catering, fashion and decoration."L'ÃÂ©conomiste, Le Premier Quotidien ÃÂ©conomique Au Maroc."Â Le DRH De La Semaine Samira Haddouch D'Aksal.
Regarding the sources of employment, internal mobility is always favored because they give importance to potential employees. The second source of recruitment is based on spontaneous applications received across the institutional website.
For the sophisticated profiles in terms of functional experts, a call for tenders is launched in Moroccan cabinets and international ones and also a support from the brands partner.
Finally, since 15 February 2012, the main source of recruitment after internal mobility is through Aksal Academy website, and partners that are Anapec and schools with which they have signed a partnership agreement.
Training policy is based on three types of support: room training, workshops, internal and external coaching. "Le Groupe Aksal Ouvre Son AcadÃÂ©mie." N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2013.