INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF OIL AND REFINERY PROCESSES

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This report is researching the ExxonMobil Company. This company has happened a big incident at Alaska that is the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. From this incident, we research back to what is this company doing for and why this incident will be happen.

This report will start form the aim of the ExxonMobil Company; this company is a company that produces petroleum. For their aim and objective is how to cooperate with their shareholder or employee. From this report you also can know about how the processes the petroleum comes out. The three important in the refinery the crude oil is the Separation, conversion and purification. The following for this report is talking about why the ExxonMobil Valdez Oil Spill will happen. Is that due to the problem of human, device failure and the route? The third mate and the chief mate are the main human problem and ExxonMobil Company also having an outdated device to support the production. After know about how it happen, we will look through the will get impact. The environment, economic, healthy and energy will get impact in this incident.

At last, we have to look for the improvement from the ExxonMobil Company what they prevent now to stop this type of incident happen again.

Introduction

On 24 of March 1989, Exxon Valdez oil spill that occur in Prince William Sound, Alaska. At that time Exxon Valdez has an oil tanker bound and spilled out 260,000 to 750,000 barrels of crude oil. This is the most devastating humanity caused to the environment disaster. This Valdez spill was the largest ever happen in U.S that until now the Deepwater Horizon oil spill still ranks well down on the list of the world largest oil spills.

However, Prince William Sound remote location and accessible only by helicopter, plan and boat. This may made government and industry response to the efforts and taxed existing plans.

In this introduction, there have cover out my report that the risk of the Valdez Oil spill and the improvement of prevent the Valdez Oil Spill. There are all clearly mention on the history of the Valdez Oil spill and it help us to gain more information about this incident.

1. Examine the aim and objectives of Exxon Mobil

Corporation.

Exxon Mobil Corporation is a petroleum and natural gas integrated for the world large publicly. This company also commits the world premier petroleum and petrochemical company. For the objective, ExxonMobil Corporation will go higher ethical standard to achieve the superior financial and operating result. They have a guide for them to how corporate with their shareholders, customers, employees and the communities between their relationships.

1.1 Shareholders

For the shareholders, ExxonMobil Corporation committed that the shareholders are the long-term value that enhancing their investment dollars to the company. So, ExxonMobil needs to achieve higher improvement at their business profitably and make the company more responsibly, so that they can expect that the shareholders can get their reward with superior returns. This also can drive company management to a high stage to prevent the company lost their profitably and responsibly.

1.2 Customers

Every customer also got expectation for what that going to buy. So, ExxonMobil Company success to make their ability to consistent to satisfy every changing to customer preferences so that they can commit to be more innovative and make more responsive to offering more higher quality product and services. They also will competitive prices for the entire costumer that can afford.

1.3 Employees

ExxonMobil Corporation workforce exceptional quality and provides valuable competitive edge. If want to build into this advantage, ExxonMobil Company will strive to hire or retain the most qualified people available. So, their opportunities to maximize for their success through training and development to prevent outdate. ExxonMobil Company commits that they need to maintain their safe work in environment enriched to the diversity and they characterize to the open communication, trust and fair treatment.

1.4 Communities

ExxonMobil Corporation commits to have a good corporate with the citizen for the entire place; they operate worldwide so that can maintain high ethical standards to obey the applicable laws, rules and regulations. ExxonMobil Company also will respect local and the national cultures.

2. Carefully observe the oil and refinery industrial

processes and operation.

2.1 Introduction

The petroleum fuels and lubricants are coming from the crude oil. It comes from deep underground on land or under the ocean that can transform by the plants and animals from millions of years ago those have been heated or pressurized over time. Crude oil has many types and each type of oil has a specific composition to determine by the original decomposed source material. All type of oil decomposed as well as the properties surround by the soil and rock formations. If want to make the crude oil become a fuels that need to depending which type of crude oil that we get, because it treated via different processes.[1]

2.2 The refining process

Once the crude oil discovered, drilled and bring to the surface on earth, it will transported to a refinery by pipeline, ship or both also use. The refinery is treated and converted the crude oil into consumer or industrial products. Separation, conversion and purification are the three major refinery processes to change the crude oil to finish good.

2.2.1 Separation.

Separation will perform in a series of distillation tower that the bottom product will feed to next from each tower. A furnace will be in front of each distillation tower heats and the partly vapourises will feed stream. Hottest point in the distillation tower is the feed section that can reach until 4000C. So that, components still liquid at elevated temperature become the tower bottom product. Others that form vapour rise up the tower through a series of stages then the temperature will decrease and the components condense.[1]

2.2.2 Conversion

Conversion processes primary purpose is convert low valued heavy oil into high valued oil. So these processes are very important to the refining process. Most of product refinery are based on the same building blocks, carbon and hydrogen chain which called hydrocarbons. Due to the converting from higher hydrocarbon to lighter hydrocarbon, it can compared to cutting link on a steel chain, so that it can form two smaller chains.

Fluidised Catalytic Crackers (FCC) is usually the key conversion that uses a catalyst to convert gas oil into a mix of Liquefied Petroleum Gas, petrol and diesel. Delayed cooker can convert the heavy materials by using high temperature to break the chain of hydrocarbon. This process will less reaction compare with the FCC and it also produces low valued petroleum coke as by-product. Hydrocracking process is more similar with the FCC that using high temperature and catalyst to get the desired and reactions. But this process different is the catalyst will stay at one place and the gas oil will pass over the catalyst. [1]

2.2.3 Purification

After crude oil pass through the separation and conversation, the products are ready to purification which is principally sulphur removal. Hydrotreating will be done on it, this process similar to the Hydrocracking but without the converting of heavy molecules into lighter ones. In this process, product are connected with hydrogen under heat and high pressure in the presence of catalyst, producing hydrogen sulphide and desulphurised product. The catalyst accelerates which is the shulphur reaction occur. After remove the shulphur reaction it will essential to meeting product quality specifications and environment standards.[1]

2.3 End Product

Modern refinery and petrochemical technology can transform the crude oil become the literally thousands of useful products. From this powering our car or heating our homes, it supplying by the petrochemical feedstock for the producing plastics and the medicines.[1]

3. Evaluate the risks in all areas that lead to the oil spill disaster and pollution.

3.1 Causes

The first cause is the human, the third mate Joseph Cousins fatigue and excessive workload. The incidents Exxon Valdez due to Joseph Cousins did not have enough time to rest or have a sleep. He needs to replace the second mate by not enough 4 hours rest and at the same day also his duty for a salinity test in afternoon. Joseph Cousins was unlicensed to navigate and his miss turn at Busby Light. The vessel was run around the Bligh Reef.

The second cause also is human; this time is the chief mate. He did not provide a proper way to navigation watch due to he is drunk. ExxonMobil Company has a blood test from chief mate. The test result comes up three time's legal limit for driving. Before turn on Busby Light, the chief mate put the vessel on autopilot and left the bridge back to his cabin. Chief mate should not left the bridge during maneuver and it also need to officer are always at the bridge.

A lack of pilot age service is the third cause. When Exxon hired Hazelwood when he finished a 28-days alcohol treatment program. Hazelwood witness testified that drank at least five double vodkas in the waterfront bars and at the same time he the only licensed captain on the navigation vessel. As result, Exxon was insufficient licensed vessel captain on navigation.

Vessel Traffic service is the fourth causes due to inadequate equipment and manning level, inadequate personnel training and deficient management oversight. The radar system was turned off when the incident happen due to it was in failure condition and Exxon did not repair the radar system.

The last causes are Exxon Shipping company fail to provide a fit master and rested and sufficient crew. Due to insufficient of crew, the crew needs to work overtime to complete their jobs. As the procedures, there are need two officers were in the bridge during maneuvering to prevent the Exxon Valdez grounding.

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4. Critically identify the consequences of all hazards of the

oil spill disaster.

4.1 Introduction

The Valdez oil spill disaster had cause impact to whole world and the impact that it cause will be the environment, energy, economy and the health. This four is the main impact that Valdez oil spill disaster cause serious in.

4.2 Impact

4.2.1 Energy

Near the northern part of Alaska, there have a bay that calls Prudhoe. This bay is the crude oil produce area. The production of crude oil that ANS take has been increase until one-quarter of U.S when 1988. ANS is the Alaska North Slope. So that, nearly two million barrels of crude oil was transport by using 48inch pipeline to the Port of Valdez.

4.2.2 Environment

. Exxon Valdez accident widely consider as number one spill worldwide environment damage. The marine mammals that live near Alaska are the victims when the spilled oil by Exxon Valdez. In the all, Sea otter is the most many die when they contact with oil. They sensitive to oil that spilled out due to they use fur to insulation and they get die easily due to hypothermia and stress.

4.2.3 Health

Now days, we need to leave or stay away from seafood. The reason we need to leave or stay away seafood is scare that they will contain some spill oil. Forms the testing of the organoleptic can look test out that this seafood freshness and prevent from the spill oil. During the clean up process, Exxon hired between above 2500 people to do it but about the workers safety and health risk, they are into the dangers to expose on their work so they easily effect to the material when they clean up process. For the workers, they didn't have any information about the material contain can harm their health.

4.2.4 Economy

After the spill oil disaster, recreation and tourism get affected. From late 1970, all the cruise ships didn't stop at Prince William Sound although when 1987 Prince William Sound total visitor had reach up to 88 per seasons. 1.8 million of tourist has been estimated by the purpose for recreation Prince William Sound due to the bauty of Kenai Fjords National park. All the birds, fish and the type of animal surrounding lands there near the Tatilek and Chenaga for their every meal will become less due to the Exxon Valdez Spill Oil Disaster. [10]

5. What are the improvements and changes in the management systems so to prevent the disaster from happening?

After Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Disaster problem come out. ExxonMobil learn a big lesson form this time incident. From this incident, ExxonMobil done their research to improve oil spill and also prevent this incident won't happen again.

5.1 Improvement

A new tank routes is to improve current tank and reduce the chance oil spill out as less as possible.

Provide more facilities or maintain old facilities for the vessels crew usage.

For all the vessel captain or pilot need to have training programs and improve skill program to make them more upgrade to their working environment. Captain and pilot is the controller so they need new information.

New and better technology for improving the vessel navigation and make sure integrity of oil containment systems.

Before start there working, drug and alcohol testing should be taking by every captain and pilot. This can make sure that all the workers working in good condition.

Conclusion

In all the research, it helps me more in detail of the ExxonMobil Company how they manufacturing and how they solve the incident that time they face on. Exxon Company is the world large petroleum and natural gas. From the research many people said that the Valdez Oil Spill have seriously impact the whole world. The improvement that ExxonMobil Company thinking out to prevent same incident happen again is working well now. Seriously they need to more take noted on their manufacturing production and always update or maintainers their device. Also need to have good rest time for the employee to have a good rest for the next day working.

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