Insight into Leadership development


Unlike the generations before, since the young group was toddlers, they have been pampered, nurtured and programmed with a variety of activities since they were toddlers to become both high-performance and high-maintenance (Tulgan). The millennium generation has been brought up in the most child-centered generation ever (Cathy O'Neill, senior vice president at career management company Lee Hecht Harrison in Woodcliff Lake, N.J.). Many of them have traveled and have many enriching experiences. They may clash with older generations they see as competition or not as skilled. [1] 

Both Generation X and Y are confident and become entrepreneurs by creating their own job, custom life and career (Kossek). [2] They believe in their own self worth and are not shy about trying to change the companies. Generation X is known for their independent thinking, addiction to change and emphasis on family, while Generation Y is even intense (Tulgan) with high expectations for themselves and their bosses. [3] Data also shows that 80% of 2662 campuses report offers at least one such course to inspire and develop entrepreneurs. [4] 

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Their parents are their role models who are from time of incredible change. Generation Y admires integrity. They can partner well with mentors, friends, colleagues and teams who are resourceful. They expect respect, [5] fairness and directness from their superiors, who must share with them often their professional career development. They are urged to learn continuously for more knowledge, so that they can be more ready when finding new challenges. They would set clear and reachable goals in a short period as they are goal-oriented and look for ownership. [6] Some criticize that people who were young before, have gone through the same journey. We may recognize from the article of Generation X, who has the same comments received in the 90s. Many Generation X have become good leaders now.

Different from earlier generations, the young group tends to have a group thinking mentality and collaborates comfortably with peers (David Stillman of Minneapolis "When Generations Collide" in 2002). Many would go into business with friends. Data from US Bureau of Labor 2005 shows that self-employed category of young people age from 16 to 24 would grow 5% from 2004 to 2014. More than the 2% growth last decade due to changes of life style from Internet, home office and less capital. [7] Through internet, young generations are linked with "diversity" and "multiculture" and are more tolerant and open-minded. This is suggested in an analysis of studies by the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement, the University of Maryland's School of Public Policy. Spirit of volunteerism, interest in the world around, and sense of civic engagement are built. A study of more than 260,000 college freshmen by UCLA's Higher Education Research Institute found that 66.3% of freshmen said it is "essential or very important" to help others, the highest percentage in 25 years (Dave Verhaagen, a child and adolescent psychologist in Charlotte and the author of Parenting the Millennial Generation, 2005). They would rise to the occasion and show courage with determination, innovation and vision that make their environment a better place. [8] 

Management should look into Generation X and Y for organizational commitment for nurturing them. From the characteristics mentioned above, these generations are not quite committed to an organization, but in a different ways, like to their family, social duties and themselves. Commitment is defined as the relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in a particular organization. It can be conceptualized into three factors - a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization's goals and values, a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization. [9] The alignment of organization and individual's identification and involvement are required. Referred also to the model of commitment by Meyer & Allen in 1991 [10] , which is an extended model from Mowday, Porter, and Steers. The model has identified three commitments:

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Affective commitment with personal, structural, and job related characteristics, and work experiences. Strong and positive attachment can be developed for employees whose experiences within the organization are consistent with their expectations and satisfy their basic needs. Organization's goals and employee's wants are aligned.

Continuance commitment develops as the employees know about the investments in an organization by Becker's "side bet theory" in 1960. [11] The discontinuance or unavailability of alternatives comparable elsewhere, the invested elements will be voided, for instance pension, co-workers, networking, participation in management, The employee has to remain in the organization in order to reap the profit.

Finally, normative commitment develops based on the concept that loyalty is encouraged through socialization [12] or obligation with the company is felt amongst the employees feel, from which the company has offered them with benefits, like training, promotion, and career development [13] ??? (Scholl, 1981???).

Apart from these, researches have shown that commitment is directly or indirectly related to job-related behaviors. Mowday et al (1982) acknowledged that organizational commitment 'can provide employees with stability and feelings of belongings' (p.139) which can off set the negativity of stress on attitudes and health. [14] Porter, Crampon, and Smith (1976) discovered that the will to strive extra effort, the desire to remain, and the acceptance of the organizational goals and values tend to decline in the months prior to the separation of employees who left, while those who stayed reported nearly constant levels of organizational commitment. [15] A job commitment formula, from which the job turnover is found in direct relationship, with turnover resulting from decreases in level of job commitments. It is further suggested that declines in job rewards, increases in job costs, divestiture, or improving alternatives should reduce job commitment, and in turn, increase job turnover. [16] 

Retention is becoming a greater challenge as mentioned by Steve Miranda of the Society for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, Virginia. Three hundred and twenty graduates were surveyed online by Experience, Inc. They found an average tenure of 1.6 years at a first full-time job and 36% stayed less than a year. The young group is craved for stimulation and feared of boredom by Dan Nagy, associate dean of global business development at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Claire Schooley, a San Francisco based senior industry analyst at Forrester Research mentioned that some companies have appealed the young group with management training program, mentoring environment, recruitment and retention. [17] Many travel and take jobs unrelated after. Researchers say they have been raised under the importance of high self-esteem, so they appear to challenge the boundaries of corporate behavior and would walk away in no time when they have a problem in the workplace (Neil Howe, co-author of the book Generations). "Our message for employers is you want to organize them in groups and structure the work and give them constant feedback." [18] 

Employers are examining new ways to recruit and retain and trying to sell younger workers on their workplace flexibility and other qualities generally attractive to the young people. At Abbott Laboratories in Chicago, recruiters are working out flexibility to college students company benefits, flexible work schedules, telecommuting, full tuition reimbursement and an online mentoring tool. Aflac, an insurer based in Columbus, Ga., is highlighting such perks as time off given as awards, flexible work schedules and recognition. Xerox is stepping up recruitment of students at "core colleges", which the company refers to universities that have the kind of talent Xerox needs. Its seems that self-employed is more superior than not self-employed in all flexibility aspects, except, health and retirement plan (Pew Research Center). More than 60% of employers say they are experiencing tension between employees from different generations, according to a survey by Lee Hecht Harrison. The survey found more than 70% of older employees is dismissive of younger workers' abilities. [19] 

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From these characteristics, in order to nurture leaders from the generation X and Y, linkage to the organizational leadership can be presented. The effects from motivating and satisfying the people who followed as expectancy in reaching the goals or objectives, from these expectations, House (1971) has formed the path goal theory of leadership. [20] This explains the degree of motivation, which leads to the perception of satisfaction and expectation on the performance connecting to the rewards. It explains whether the person will put efforts, from which it depends on the perceived desirability of the outcome and the expectancy on the value of performance rewards. Just like Alfac Laboratories in Chicago and Abott insurer in Columbus GA, both tried to understand and meet the Generations' expectation and offered accordingly. [21] 

It is believed that happy employee means higher productivity, lower absenteeism and turnover. This correlates to job satisfaction. The definition from Locke's Affect Theory (1976) about job satisfaction is 'a pleasurable or positive emotional state, resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience'. [22] 

To make employees happy, the Content theories stress on needs, values or expectations, which link to individual's perspective in determining their levels of satisfaction. [23] Like the well known Maslow's (1954) Hierarchy of Needs Theory which states the five human needs ascending from lowest to higher orders - from physiological to safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. As the lower order of need is sequentially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. [24] Based on Maslow's hierarch, Herzberg (1966) developed motivators and hygiene factors. Motivations include factors such as achievement, recognition, work, responsibility, advancement and growth, which lead to job satisfaction and corresponds to Maslow's higher order needs. Hygiene factors include factors like company policy and administration, supervision, pay security and physical conditions which when adequate, do not lead to job satisfaction. But when inadequate, these would lead to job dissatisfaction. They are necessary conditions for employees, but do not produce job satisfaction themselves. [25] 

Almost the twin to Content theories, Process theories the connection to job satisfaction can be understood by the concept of individual thinking processes in their different behavior - how the motives obtaining satisfaction developed. This leads to Expectation and Equity theory explaining job satisfaction further the extent of the gap between what the job offers and what the individual expects. [26] More theory comes up as Needs and Value Fulfillment theory explaining job satisfaction, which matches individual needs to the provided job and also considers the changing values and adaptations through time. [27] 

As understood, no single theory can explains all. But the most important factors are work that is challenging and makes the mind moving with equitable rewards, supportive job conditions and colleagues. [28]