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This report explores ideas about culture and structures which influenced by organization. In this report we will describe the nature of culture and structure of organization. We will also discuss about the factors which influence individual's behaviour at work.
Culture of an association is the typical way of doing things in the organization. It particularly relates to behaviour patterns and relationships. The culture of an organization develops over time. It is created by the people that work for the organization its manager and workforce. Any company's values and beliefs depend on cultures which are shared across the business. Company organization's also effect on its strategy and focus on the consumer. A key factors of the new approach has to change the corporate culture and build an atmosphere within the company those values : consumer facility which focus given that an skill that is agreeable and sociable as well as efficient team work, for the reason that this lead to superior support and the contribution of greatest training attractive ownership used for decision as a result to facilitate manager explain problems themselves rather than pass them on to others respecting every one thus everyone feel they be able to contribute having the cut-throat will to succeed thus each person is aim to develop and be successful.
Organizational culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaption and internal integration, which has worked well enough to be considered valid and transmitted to new members. (Schein 2004, p.17)
Example of culture
MICHELIN: - our culture is based on a strong belief in our skills. We are industrialist. We have a job, a mission that we have defined more precisely as improving the mobility of goods and people. Everything that rolls affects us. We are like a tyre; supple and strong. We have always stuck to our core business. We never wanted to turn ourselves, like some others into a conglomerate with media, energy or yogurt interests. (The late Eduard Michelin quoted in financial times, 25 April 2003).
Open systems: - open system represents an open systems view, in which people recognize that the external environment plays a significant role and is a vital source of ideas, energy and resources.
Rational goals: - members see the organization as a rational, efficiency -seeking unit. They define effectiveness in terms of production or economic goals that satisfy external requirements. Managers create structures to deal with the outside world. Leadership tends to be directive, goal oriented and functional. Key motivating factors include competition and the achievement of predetermined ends. Example is large, established businesses mechanistic.
HUMAN RELATIONS OPEN SYSTEMS
INTERNAL PROCESS RATIONAL GOAL
Source: based on Quinn et al. (2003)
Internal process: - in internal process members pay little attention to the external world, being more focused on internal matters. Their goals are to make the unit efficient, stable and controlled. Goals are known, tasks are repetitive and methods stress specialisation, rules and procedures. Leaders tend to be conservative and cautious, emphasising technical issues. Key motivating factors include security, stability and order. Examples include utilities and public authorities suspicious of change.
Human relations: - people emphasise the value of informal interpersonal relations rather than formal structures. They try to maintain the organization and nature its members, defining effectiveness in terms of their well-being and commitment. Leaders tend to be participative, considerate and supportive. Motivating factors include attachment, cohesiveness and membership. Examples are found in voluntary groups, professional service firms and some internal support functions.
The structure of an organization is the sum total of the ways in which it divides it's labour into distinct tasks and then achieves co-ordination among them. (Mint berg, 1979).
Although work specialization divides the tasks of the enterprise into smaller jobs for individuals, an opposite process groups jobs together in functional, divisional or matrix forms. The other forms use teams and networks as the basis of structure. Organizations are structured in different ways which shows in diagram:-
PRODUCTION PURCHASING HUMAN RESOURCES
PRODUCT A PRODUCT B
Product division A
Product division B
Purchasing agencies manufacturing companies
Human resources distribution
Analyse the characteristics of different organisational structures:
Structure may be the arrangement through which various organisational activities are divided up, and just how work is matched. Structure is pivotal between task and process. A company must be properly structured for that conditions that finds itself and - particularly - the duties it's made the decision to handle. The result is therefore, that strategy ought to be determined first, then the organisational structure.
Fundamental essentials structures that derive from functional division and departments. Fundamental essentials type of structures such as the following the organization's rules and methods towards the structures. Various structures under traditional structures are:
Line Structure - This is actually the type of structure which has a very specific type of command. The home loan approvals and orders within this type of structure come all the way through inside a line, which means the title line structure.
Line and Staff Structure - Though line structure is appropriate for many organizations, especially small ones, it's not effective for bigger companies. This is when the road and staff business structure is necessary.
Functional Structure - This type of business structure classifies people based on the function they perform within their professional existence or based on the functions carried out by them within the organization.
Fundamental essentials types of structures which are based on the various divisions within the organization. These structures could be further split into:
â€¢ Product Structure - An item structure is dependent on organizing employees and work based on the various kinds of items. If the organization produces three various kinds of items, they're going to have three different divisions of these items.
â€¢ Market Structure - Market structure can be used to group employees based on specific market the organization sells in. A business might have 3 different marketplaces they will use and based on this structure, each will be a separate division within the structure.
â€¢ Geographic Structure - Large organizations have offices at different place, for instance there might be a north zone, south zone, west and east zone. The business structure would then consume a zonal structure.
This can be a structure that is a mixture of function and product structures. This combines the very best of both mobile phone industry's to create a competent business structure. This structure is easily the most complex business structure.
Some Other Kinds of Organizational Structures
Bureaucratic Structure - This type of structure could be observed in tall organizations where tasks, processes and methods are standardized and this kind of structure is appropriate for huge businesses which involve complex procedures and wish smooth administration of the identical.
Pre-Bureaucratic Structure - This structural form is better summarized in flat organizations where administration and control are centralized and there's hardly any, if any, standardization of tasks.
Network Structure - Within this type of structure, the business managers are needed to keep and coordinate business/professional relations with organizations for example clients, suppliers and affiliates to be able to acquire a collective purpose of profitability and growth.
Team Structure - Organizations with team structures might have both vertical in addition to horizontal process flows. Probably the most distinct feature of these a business structure is the fact that different tasks and procedures are allocated to specialized groups of personnel in a way like a harmonious coordination is struck one of the various task-teams. We should locate a business structure that works well with the business because the wrong setup could hamper proper functioning within the organization.
Every organization need some form of organizational structure for effective working. Every organization has different structure. Every organization have different department responsible for effective work. Every organization marketing department which is responsible for market planning and market research. For customer requirements there will be a customer service department in every organization and for the selection of new employees and for recruitment there will be human resource department in every organization. In addition there will be an information technology department in every organization to support their online services and sales.
Features of culture and structure
Relational ship between culture and structure:-
Organizational culture and organizational structure relationship is a significant topic that is frequently unobserved.organizatioanl structure works within an organizational culture, but organizational structure is not totally disconnect. Organizational culture is better built representation, a more universal term which refers to a large umbrella of smaller topics and issue within an organization. The structure refers to the infrastructure and the various methods and practices within that infrastructure which helps an organizational culture run with the efficiency and consistency. A culture of improvement, teamwork and corporation means that the Company has a firm base of associations and open communication channels on which to build its growth. The relationship between organizational culture and organizational structure can be rigid to inform separately, but in a fully healthy culture that is accurately what should be ordinary when all is performance usually.
Leadership culture is defined by the collective action of formal and informal leaders acting together in the help of organizational goals that ultimately marks the difference. When we speak about the leadership it is the both leaders themselves and the relationship among them, the skills and behaviour of the leaders are required to execute the organization strategy and make the most wanted culture. The collective leadership capabilities of the leaders acting together in the groups and across the boundaries to implement strategies. (William and Michael, 2011.)
The impact of managerial styles on organisational effectiveness:
Today leader face the task of prospecting and holding onto competent employees in organizations. A leader's capability to inspire, motivate and make resolve for common goal is vital (Bass, 1997). But ideas of life changing and charming leadership stress feelings and values (Yukl, 1994) and imply leader and fans raise each other to greater amounts of morality and motivation (Burns, 1978). The various kinds of management could possibly be the answer to their failure or success. Each management style has its own benefits and drawbacks.
Autocratic style of management
This kind of management style enables companies to help keep a blueprint. It is because the building blocks of the autocratic type of management originate from the thought of a rustic that's run with a king or dictator. This kind of management follows a blueprint and also the employees just follow the road to perform their job. This really is effective for any business that is involved with daily routine job.
Paternalistic management style
The bottom line is this management style informs the folks what is the best for them. This might seem identical to the autocratic style, however with the Paternalistic type of management, the company leaders are searching for the input of the employees. This provides the workers the chance to voice their opinions and concepts. This enables for additional understanding of the workers needs, as people as opposed to just plain business.
The Democratic management style may be the style grafted in the government system from the U. S. States. This management style is effective because normally you will see several leaders of the identical business which are lending their ears towards the employees to be able to provide good two-way communication. The Democratic management style is effective simply because they allow employees below these to make decisions' by themselves similar to the different States that comprise the U.S. in addition to their metropolitan areas, can make their very own laws and regulations.
Laissez faire management style
The laissez-faire type of management requires the manager getting minimal charge of those activities of the subordinates. It's best employed once the subordinates are experienced and motivated for example doctors and PhD students in which the progress of the jobs are supervised through the supervisory manager and given feedback and advice.
Unorthodox management style
Normally, mainstream society has a tendency to not have access to a favourable view towards people who don't comply with what mainstream society needs of these. This really is because of these special kinds of people being misinterpreted when it comes to their different thought process, behaviour, appearance etc and they are consequently shunned and ostracized.
The theories relating to work relationships and interaction:
Like a new section of inquiry, the area of positive associations at the office develops the positive psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000 Snyder & Lopez, 2002), positive business (Cameron & Caza, 2004 Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003), and positive business behavior (Luthans, 2002 Luthans & Youssef, 2004) scholarship actions by shifting the lens from models that explain inadequacies to models that explain states of abundance. These positive scholarship actions provide the observation that by concentrating on the issues, pathologies, and restrictions connected using the worst of conditions we neglect to capture the processes, states, and final results connected with the very best of conditions. The bottom line is, we have to change our perspective in the shadow towards the light, from "what is wrong" to "what is appropriate."
Impact of managerial styles on organizational effectiveness
Performance of an organization is depending upon the leadership styles which are used in that organization. Leadership style has a significant relation with organizational performance. Leadership styles put a positive and negative effect on the performance of organization depends upon the style of leadership.
Motivation is a driving force by which a person can achieve a desire set of goals. Motivation is a mental derives who encourage a person to achieve something what he want. Basically there are two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal and extrinsic is external motivation. Motivation is an important need for every organization. If an organization wants to get more profit and want to achieve a desire set of goals then they have to motivate their employees. They can motivate their employee by giving the reward, better working conditions, proper health treatments and by promotions. By doing this employee will concentrate on work and put his best effort on work. There are number of different views as to what motivate workers. Some of them are:
Taylor theory of motivation: According to Taylor's theory if an organization wants to maximize their productivity they need to motivate their workers by giving close supervision and control to workers, mangers should have to give breaks from the work after a small interval of time to the workers, workers are paid according to number of products they produced, appropriate training and tools given to the workers. As a result of this workers are encourage to work hard and concentrate on work to increase their productivity.
Analyse the culture and structure of one organisation and evaluate how they impact on its effectiveness:
Business structure may be the way a business conveys, distributes responsibility and adjusts to alter. Based on the Reference for Business, business structure is when a business utilizes its assets to attain its goals. Growth a significant component that impacts business structure is company growth
Customer service is important in business; so many companies have created entire divisions dedicated to customer service and retention.
Technology can have an effect on the way your organization is structured and just how work flows. The Reference for Business highlights that after computer systems grew to become popular.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of team working :-
Organizations all over the world are very well along ten years-and-a half evolution in the appearance of work-shifting from individual jobs in functionalized structures to teams baked into more complicated workflow systems (Devine, Clayton, Phillips, Dunford, & Melner, 1999 Lawler, Mohrman, & Ledford, 1992, 1995 Mathieu, Marks, & Zaccaro, 2001). A number of forces are driving this change. Growing competition, consolidation, and innovation create demands for skill diversity, high amounts of expertise, rapid response, and suppleness. Teams enable these qualities (Kozlowski, Gully, Nason, & Cruz, 1999).
The growing transmission of computer systems into all areas of the place of work combined with broadband communication enables teams to become situated together or distributed across some time and space (Bell & Kozlowski, 2002b). This change within the core of team research was clearly identified by Moreland, Hogg, and Hains (1994), who noted the relative decline of group research in social psychology, by Levine and Moreland (1990), who came to the conclusion that small-group research ''is alive and well and living elsewhere [outdoors the confines of social-psychology labs]'' (p. 620). A minimum of seven major reviews from the work-team literature in business psychology made an appearance between 1990 and 2000 (see Bettenhausen, 1991 Cohen & Bailey, 1997 Gully, 2000 Guzzo & Dickson, 1996 Guzzo & Shea, 1992 Hackman, 1992 Sundstrom, McIntyre, Halfhill,&Richards, 2000).
Develop a programmed of professional development and training for a large organization
Most of time what happens the company hire the person who has great theoretical knowledge but they have not the skill to apply that knowledge in real life or in field at that time company schedule the special training programme for all new staff and for those who is old but not so efficient as they have to.
Training is a process of staff development for the purpose of improving the performance of an incumbent holding a position with assigned job responsibilities. It promotes the professional growth of individuals. In-service training is a problem-centred, learner-oriented, and time-bound series of activities which provide the opportunity to develop a sense of purpose, broaden perception of the clientele, and increase capacity to gain knowledge and mastery of techniques.
Structure of a development programmed and the benefits
After recruitment and selection process the company has planned on training programme for newly require staff and during to this training period the new person was the policy of the company and how to they have to work and which is the rules and regulation they have to follow. And secondly new person become familiar to their colleagues and co-workers.
Resources required for such a programmed.
In-service training may broadly be categorized into five different types: (1) induction or orientation training, (2) foundation training, (3) on-the-job training, (4) refresher or maintenance training, and (5) career development training. All of these types of training are needed for the proper development of extension staff throughout their service life. David Goss (1994, pp. 60-80).
This report is design to familiarize to the topic of organizational culture and structure. In this report we covered the methods organizations might use to address issues related to way to understand culture and structure. In this report we discuss how above issues works in an organization to get positive results, how organizations motivate their employees, approaches to organizational decision making. For example when organization should try to achieve greater efficiency in customer service, managers adopted the operative goals of schedule, cost and quality. The operative goals provided direction to employees and helped attain overall company goal of continuing to have consecutive quarterly increases in net revenues, net earnings and shipments.