Importance Of Education System Shape The Entrepreneurial Student Business Essay


The above topic is addresses the issue on how well the entrepreneurial spirit cultivated among the students through the education system. This article review's objective is to examines, report and summarize the cohesiveness of education towards entrepreneurship. This topic will be analyzes through macro perspectives. To make a concrete argument, this report will analyze the topic via importance, implications, tools and applications. On the same time, facts will be supported by academician or journalist's statements to enhance the reliability of evidence for the whole report.

1.0 Topic Introduction

There is doubtless, this issue has been highlighted by government and private sectors since a decade ago. By observing the current market labor demand, government tends to encourage citizen especially youth to generate their own business instead of waiting for employment. Due to the multiple advantages can be view from macro perspective, such as stimulate the growth of economic and increase job opportunities. Current education system in university level is putting this topic in high concern by emphasizing every of the Malaysia Universities academic outline should be include entrepreneurial oriented instead of pure academic oriented. According to Malaysia Education Minister, entrepreneurship course in master level and bachelor degree level is on the process of enforcement, offering and adapting in Malaysia's universities such as University Sabah Malaysia (UMS) and University Technology Malaysia (UTM). To enhance the effectiveness of delivering entrepreneur knowledge and information, there are several events or programmes such as seminars, conferences and workshops are being held across the university level which emphasised on the importance of entrepreneurship contribute to country, society as well as individual development. To strengthen the entrepreneurship theory in a practical way, MARA and SME Corp. Malaysia also offer diversify of entrepreneur program to enable students to get involve and apply their knowledge into a workable way. Fostering entrepreneurship is not restrict on theoretically but also should be apply in practically. That's how Malaysia government enforcing entrepreneur through education system by cooperate with multiple of Malaysia agencies. Therefore, the following part will discuss about how the entrepreneur course assisting Malaysia maximizing economic value and minimizing unemployment issue.

2.0 Importance of Education System Shape the Entrepreneurial Student

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In general, entrepreneurship is a core engine drive and direct nations' economic growth, job creation and competitiveness whereby this statement is supported by Scarborough and Zimmerer (2003) [1] . Therefore, the importance of entrepreneurial student can be view from several macro dimensions. In here, the discussion will be more focus on economic cycle. A critical question will address how is the current competitive job environment is pushing and encouraging entrepreneurial oriented course being offered in Malaysia Universities.

First, importance of entrepreneurial student can be defined from a nationwide perspective especially on economic cycle. As we know, entrepreneurship is one of the economic stimulator to develop country's economic growth and sustain the competitive advantage of a country. Adapt entrepreneurship knowledge into education system in university level is indirectly striking for higher popularity of students to shape themselves as an entrepreneur instead of to become employee. There is a statement define by Postigo and Tamborini (2002) [2] , positive relationship between popularity and creates wealth and the generation of job opportunities. As result, this cycle will contribute to the growth of economic.

At the same time, Gorman, Hanlon et al. (1997) also claimed most of the research result shown there is a proportional positive relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth whereby it is define it in terms of job creation, firm sustainability and technological change. Based on Lee, Chang et al. (2005) justification, the main reason is it has increasingly made entrepreneurship emerged as one of the most popular research domain in academic field to investigate on the importance and contributions of entrepreneurship towards the nationwide economic.

Throughout my own analysis, wages employment is not a long term guarantee job to secure our whole life time income especially in the private sector since the globalization demanded the aggressive job competition to be exists. According to Seet (2006) statement, university graduates who can easily apply a job upon graduation has no longer reflect the reality of nowadays' employment situation due to the competitive job environment in marketplace. In addition, limited job opportunities had increase the difficulty for fresh graduate to compete [3] for it. As a consequence, many graduates are unemployed.

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Thus, students are seeking for education that can equip them with the entrepreneurial knowledge. Therefore, Malaysia universities have responded to the unemployment issue by offering entrepreneurial courses to students. Specifically, it is assist to promote entrepreneurship to be developed as a professional career. It is a precaution step to assist fresh graduated student to explore themselves to the entrepreneurial world by unlocked and unleashed their potential to become an entrepreneur once they graduated. This is an alternative for fresh graduate besides expecting for wages employment. From government perspective, this is one of the step for them to minimize the unemployment issue among the university fresh graduate while expecting for economic growth when there is high popularity of graduated generate their own business at the business battlefield.

To identify the worldwide trend on entrepreneurship study at university level, there is a research shown in the United States region by Scarborough and Zimmerer (2003) [4] . The statement claimed that, there are more than 1500 colleges and universities offer entrepreneurship and small business management to 15,000 students. There is insufficient only entrepreneurial theory being taught to shape entrepreneur. Therefore, diversify of dialogues, forums and training programmes held by educational institutions to foster entrepreneurial spirit and develop entrepreneur traits among the students. As a result, Kantis, Postigo et al. (2002) [5] stated that students are also expected to value entrepreneurship as a personal and future career development after undertaking entrepreneur course. Based on statement given by Kolvereid and Moen 1997, entrepreneurship education is vital and is very essential part that could influence students' life career decisions. In fact, this statement also has been strongly recognized by Malaysia government to explain nowadays situation. This can be conclude, relationship among entrepreneurship education, economic growth and job options is strongly link to each other. The influencing level of this issue is broad and widely based on one's decision.

3.0 Tools and Applications Implemented to Promote Entrepreneurship in University Level

Basically, the functional of entrepreneurship education is aiming and emphasizing on cultivation of entrepreneurial culture whereby it is creating and increase awareness among students to promote entrepreneurship as professional career [6] . Anyway, there are 3 mains tools are identifies of delivering entrepreneurial knowledge to students such as role of university, entrepreneurial internship programmes, entrepreneurial curriculum and content.

First, the most fundamental part to channel the entrepreneur theoretically to students is goes through university such as University Utara Malaysia (UUM), University kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and University Malaysia Sabah (UMS). Universities are seedbeds of entrepreneurship to deliver knowledge and information to students and make the way to think and behave entrepreneurially. As Mahlberg (1996) stated, educational institution has been remarks as an ideal place in shaping entrepreneurial cultures and aspirations among students. As a provider of entrepreneurship training programmes, it should create an entrepreneurially supportive environment that could encourage entrepreneurial activity. In an order, it would help to develop an enterprise culture among university students who are future's entrepreneurs (Roffe 1999). Hence, it is very important to present a positive image of entrepreneurship as career option to draw students' attentions within the university environment by providing the resources and other facilities available to them. As an example, entrepreneur centre (UPPK) was formed at University Malaysia Sabah in an effort to be a centre for students to gather information regarding entrepreneur activities and running entrepreneur programme. Creating an entrepreneurial culture across university is to influence students' decision to creation businesses. Based on Gnyawali and Fogel (1994) [7] justification, this may cause by students' preferences towards future career are easily influenced by the external environmental conditions in which they are interacting with as they are young and always looking for appropriate models.

Secondly, to develop entrepreneurialism in current education environment, entrepreneurial curriculum develops differently across universities whereby it is either as an elective module within business administrative courses or a core course on entrepreneurship. However, this is common way on how Malaysia university education outline run the academic side of entrepreneurship. An interesting part found in entrepreneurship education in England by Levie (1999) [8] , there are 2 approaches of teaching entrepreneurship which are "courses for entrepreneurship" and "courses about entrepreneurship" whereby both is definitely influenced by the educational objective. Entrepreneur capability focus is refer to train students to be capable to deal with real entrepreneurial activity or to develop students' entrepreneurial competencies skill in a practical way is closely centred on courses for entrepreneurship. In vice versa, courses about entrepreneurship which only focus on teaching entrepreneurship as a required or compulsory subject in the syllabus via traditional methods [9] . This is the major challenge for academician to decide the educational objective on teaching method while also have to fulfilling the mission to develop entrepreneurial student through the academic process.

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No matter which way the academic's outline focus on, the content of entrepreneur education should address the development on 4 mains knowledge based on Vesper (2004) [10] . The 4 main contents are business-general knowledge, venture-general knowledge, opportunity-specific knowledge and venture-specific knowledge. Although there is variety of deliver entrepreneur knowledge among the educational institutions and can be refine in many different ways by journalist or academician. However, no matter it is traditional way or non-traditional way of teaching method, the ultimate mission of entrepreneurial programmes is to stimulate and promote entrepreneurship awareness among students in an order to increase their capability and competencies in future. In my perspectives, entrepreneur education is tends to futuristic oriented whereby it is considering longer way but it is not only restricted on a particular area of options.

Thirdly, learning process of entrepreneurship should not only restrict to the interaction within classroom. Nowadays, dynamic business environment enforcing entrepreneurial student develop critical entrepreneurial skills practically by interacting and explore themselves at the real entrepreneur world. This is claimed by Dilts and Fowler, it is an unavoidable process for entrepreneurial student to shape themselves as a real entrepreneur. Therefore, Malaysia agencies has come out a lot of entrepreneur development programs such as SME Internship program, ENACTUS and Founder Lab.

As myself experience involved at SME Internship Program which cooperate between Pusat Hubungan Industri and SME Corp Malaysia. As a student perspective, I did learnt a lot from this 6 months internship program at 2011/2012. Basically, it is an initiative to link SMEs to the universities as part of the Government efforts to strengthen the synergy between the industry and university to upgrade the SMEs' capacity and capability. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between SME Corp Malaysia and Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) to roll out this Programme to all public universities throughout Malaysia. The objective is to assist SMEs in improving firm performance and productivities through consultative approach by university students, under the supervision and guidance lecturers, as well as SME Corp. Malaysia's Business Counselors,  to promote entrepreneurship among students and to provide exposure on real life business environment and to assist the students to acquire the essential skills required both, either for working in the small firm or to start their own enterprises upon leaving full time education.

Throughout the consultation process in this program, students are required to cover several areas of business field to run the business operation to make improvement for the owner within the given period. The area cover are business operation & management, production, management, financial management, marketing and application of ICT.

After discover the whole process of internship, I found out that student are commonly facing same problem where is failed to apply the theory learnt into practical way. Paper working oriented is inadequate for student to sustain in competitive job environment. However, practically prove the result at last is the ultimate weapon to win the game. That's reason most of the entrepreneurial student lack of competencies skill to fulfil the demand of current job market. To strengthen the entrepreneurial skill, third parties like SME Corp Malaysia and MARA is playing an important role to assist students from different dimensions. It equip students with the skills before fresh graduate explore themselves at outside world.

Based on Mohd Shariff, Abdul Mutalib, & Ahmad Fadzil (2000) [11] statement, the objective of internship programme at university level is to enable students to be self standby for perspectives of industry practical and giving opportunities to student to experience the nature of dynamic work practices. According to Dodge and McKeough (2003) [12] , internship program is a pre-strategy that required student to apply the theoretical knowledge to applications as individuals' working skills in real career environment. A past research carried out by Hiltebeitel, Leauby et al. (2000) [13] stated, students with entrepreneurial internship experience tend to have higher job satisfaction than those without internship experience. As result, for those who have participated in the internship programmes tend to have higher career preparation about their jobs. Therefore, internship programmes integrated educational curriculum in standby university students towards entrepreneurial career in future. As conclusion, a good entrepreneurial internship programmes will have a great impact on encouraging university students to have higher interest in entrepreneurship.

4.0 Implications towards entrepreneurial student

5.0 Conclusion