This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Economic strength, Military strength, strong allies etc. have been considered as factors to determine the strength of nations. But it's not these external factors that matter the most. It's the citizens of the nation who matter the most. Once we create great nations the nation will become powerful. Such is the importance of education in nation building and hence in nation branding. As we Indians crib and complain about the much debated brain-drain, we all must realise that the Indian educational system and consequently, the Indian work-force, are losing to the western world's superior capacity to attract talent. This is mainly due to the west's advanced infrastructure; it is also a reflection of their ability to promote itself as a top education hub, to create an external perception that seamlessly compliments the evolved system of education.
Similar and parallel situations can be identified in foreign investments, tourism and exports and any other field which globalisation has thrown open to the world. By pulling down political and trade barriers across the world, globalisation has not only unlocked the immense potential outside a nation's own territory, but it has also fostered a competitive environment for tapping that potential. As nations today strive to channelize as much wealth and talent as possible into their systems, branding of nations has become an indispensable way to achieve these ends.
A superior nation brand can assimilate and integrate the nation's salient features in terms of culture, tourism, exports, foreign investment, public policy and attracting talent and thereby strengthens its international relations on these different fronts. However, it is the people of the nation and not the nation itself that drive nation branding and hence ensuring that the brand is true and conforms to public opinion is of utmost importance.
Whereas traditional consumer branding discovers the niche to which the product caters, nation branding helps the nation to carve out its niche in the world. But the similarity ends here, though. Whacky punch lines, sleek advertising and logos might do the trick for creating and sustaining consumer brands, but, a similar approach to nation branding might serve little purpose and be a burden on the country's exchequer.
Branding of a nation is far more complicated than consumer branding, in terms of the number of stakeholders and the implications. It must take into account interests from as diverse areas as the nation's history, its culture, export, tourism, education system, investment and public policy. A true and optimal blend of these diverse aspects lends a nation its unique identity, which differentiates itself from the rest of the world. Above being said, national identities are not immutable, in fact, they are constantly morphing to accommodate the changing tastes, both within and outside the country.
India has different degrees of sophistication, advancement, growth and education across the country, is uniquely diverse and hence a classic case of nation branding. On one hand it is a colossal task to harness the diversity and present a unified face, but on the other hand, once it is achieved, the uniqueness of the brand identity is unquestionable.
The question is however, whether India, over the decades, has been able to present its best face to the world, is highly debatable. While campaigns like 'India Shining', which unfortunately back-fired, and 'Incredible India' have been expensive affairs, whether they have been able to convince the people, both inside and outside the country, of India's prowess and potential, is doubtful.
Traditionally India is considered as a soft state, a surprisingly high tolerance level or inaction against extremism and terrorism has single-handedly gone a long way to weaken 'brand India', that was already reeling under the pressure of an inefficient health system and antique regulations concerning labour and land. Although even military and economic superpowers would agree that a certain amount of tolerance is required to maintain sanctity and to project a balanced image to the world, it is certainly a possibility that India has overdone the leniency part. India's apparent inaction against terror may well be construed as a sign of weakness.
It is time that India leaves no stones unturned in terms of presenting to the world that its future is signified by Bangalore's world class research centres, Delhi's state of the art infrastructure or Mumbai's fast-paced commercialism. Otherwise, India's global image might go on a downward spiral and would be more associated with the 26/11 Mumbai terror strikes or the horror that engulfed Gujarat in 2002 or the attacks unleashed on the Indian parliament in 2001. While extremism of this magnitude has widespread negative impact on foreign direct investment and tourism, incidents like the recent Delhi Metro mishap might strangle exports and offshore outsourcing. Sadly, contrary to what most people would think, terrorism and corruption are no longer the once-in-a-blue-moon aberrations in India and pose serious threats to the reputation of the country, not to speak of the security of its people.
India's strength always lies in its complexity. The nation has to create an asset out of this multifaceted and composite whole when most countries in the world are moving towards simplicity, following the principle that a common thread binds people stronger and makes nations more formidable. However, as far as India is concerned, diversity needs to be harnessed into a positive force, transcending barriers of region and religion alike. More than that, 'brand India' should be a reflection of its unity in diversity and declare boldly to the outside world that the Indian republic is strong enough to ride through times of turbulence.
We have to understand that Nation brand building does not offer knee-jerk instantaneous reactions. To rise up the ladder in the Nation Brand Index, where India is currently languishing at the 27th spot, India needs to put up sustained efforts to enhance its global perception on the aspects of exports, cultural heritage, tourism, governance, immigration and most of all, its people.
Hence, education has to be seen in totality and as comprising of all the constituents to promote the brand image of the nation. We are going to look at each of them in the following pages. The model that this section follows is as under:
Role of Institutions
The development of the nation requires constant supply of highly skilled human resources. This could only be done by having a good higher education. Branding through education can ensure the flow of students from other countries coming to study. A developing country has to ensure that there is a large resource of highly skilled citizens to drive the economies. A large number of students go to United States and UK as they have the best universities across the world.
World-class universities are known worldwide for the quality of their facilities, resources, and faculty. These colleges and universities offer top-notch education programs with highly qualified teaching staff. Many of these professors at the universities are leading authorities in their field. Some of them are Nobel laureates!
The research at many of these universities is cutting-edge and often published in journals worldwide. Be it computer science, bio-sciences, arts, commerce, accounting, management, engineering, medicine or any other field of human endeavor, these universities undoubtedly offer the best resources to excel in what you want to do. The funding available at these institutions is unparalleled anywhere in the world.
Because of the vast wealth of resources available at these institutes, the opportunities for practical training related to your field of study unparalleled. Most college and universities have established affiliations with employers and researchers in different fields of study, thereby creating an avenue for students to obtain hands-on and invaluable experience even while they are studying. Many programs even require that students obtain practical training before they graduate. In many cases, these opportunities are not available anywhere else in the world.
The comprehensive research university is framed by the teaching-research nexus, which integrates its different missions and shapes its institutional culture. There is little clear evidence that there are consistent positive links between research work and the quality of undergraduate teaching. This is not surprising. The all-important 'teaching-research nexus' is vectored not by professional work in each domain, but by status. In elite universities, research status and degree status feed into each other. High research performing universities with stand-out faculty attract bright students and their mostly affluent families. These student-magnet institutions accumulate prestige, cashed out as tuition revenues and further leveraged to raise public and private monies that buy high-cost faculty and sustain research programs. Research performance is visible and measurable in ways that are generally understood (publications, grants, applications for doctoral study, etc.). It attracts cross-border faculty, and enhances the university's capacity in all global spheres: cooperative projects, competition for grants, raising donations and drawing foreign students. Well-funded research infrastructure allows universities to deploy their best performing faculty so as to concentrate areas of strength, and to secure intellectual leadership at both national and global levels. Research supplies the material know-how and symbolic capital that helps keeps the research university at the cutting edge. The primacy of research is grounded in day-to-day materiality, though its alleged productivity for teaching is not.
International students bring academic, cultural and financial benefits, and the majority of universities have international strategies which recognise that. The HE sector needs, however, to guard against the risk that the recruitment of international students will be seen as driven by short term gains in fee income by ensuring that the teaching and research offered are of high quality. Building genuine partnerships and engaging in thoughtful collaborations will lead to more sustainable relationships with institutions and students from other countries.
Role of Government
For many developing countries, the use of education as one of their chief and most important policy tools would require a refocusing of national policies and strategies across the board. That refocusing would entail integration of education into all of the government's policies and strategies, customization of education policies and strategies to suit the level of development of the country, its available resources, strengths and limitations; and achieving a balance between the interests of the public versus the needs of the private sector, industry and right holders so that certain public policy space may be created for the customized integration.
As developed countries have a longer experience with education policies, and in the use and enforcement of Education rights, developing countries need to bridge that gap by increasing domestic awareness about education in the context of development, and actively and effectively promoting the use of education in national strategies and policies, in education, and in nation branding and national culture.
Education and Economy
Higher education plays a critical role in the economic success of a nation and has greatly enhanced key components of our civil society such as knowledge generation and dissemination, open discourse, and tolerance of diverse ideas. An effective education policy will be able to fuel the growth of an economy.
The Structure-Conduct-Performance framework is essentially a checklist of performance drivers that have proven significant across a variety of for-profit and non-profit industries. The framework is essentially a checklist of performance drivers that have proven significant across a variety of for-profit and non-profit industries. The performance drivers fall into several categories that aggregate naturally under the headings of industry structure and producer conduct, as shown in figure. Industry structure includes the nature of demand, the nature of supply, and industry chain economics. Conduct constitutes the actions of the industry participants in response to that structure, including decisions on pricing, new product introduction, capacity, integration, and internal efficiency. Finally, performance measures are multifaceted; in the case of American higher education they include reputation, fund-raising efforts, research production, and the value of its product'education' to its graduates. Some of the key components of the SCP framework as it applies to higher education are illustrated in the image below.
SCP Framework Applied to the Higher Education Sector
Structure? Conduct? Performance?
Nature of Demand
' Steady growth, 40% non-traditional
' Aggressive tuition increase partially offset by targeted discounting, expanded outreach programs
' Competition for top students and professors
' Moderate innovation in degrees/course content Education
' US retains most of the world's top institutions
' Growing share of philanthropic support
Nature of Supply
' Increased capacity utilization
' Highly fragmented , with different producer segments
' Barriers to entry /exit
' Real cost growth
' Expanding international producers Capacity change
' Capacity increases slowly for education
' Electronic / online channels
' Little takeover/divestiture Research
' Academic research has driven US economy, knowledge, innovation and improved health.
' Steady funding growth
' US share declining
' Significant faculty power
' No other party has exceptional power
Information markets weak
' Economic and social value of education significant
' Continuing access issues
' Few cost-focused efforts have produced differentiating effects
' Flat productivity
The United Kingdom is arguably one of the most robust nation brands, being rated in the top six for all six brand 'dimensions'; namely Governance, Exports, Immigration and Investment, People, Culture, and Tourism. The increased internationalisation of higher education potentially brings great benefits, both economic and otherwise, for the UK and its universities. In order to ensure that the UK continues to experience those benefits, there are a number of issues that need to be kept in mind. The provision of high quality post-graduate education is essential to enable the HE sector to thrive. If the UK higher education sector is to succeed in attracting the most highly qualified students to study here at post-graduate level, it needs to work with the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills to provide more systematic support.
There are a number of reasons why what happens internationally in higher education is important to the UK's higher education sector. UK is the second most popular destination in the world for international students, and the most popular country for study amongst EU students, who make up approximately 5% of students in UK HE institutions. It has a high reputation for the quality of research; according to Research Councils UK, 'In terms of its research base the UK is internationally excellent and highly productive, and by many measures is second only to the US in terms of the quality of its output.' This in turn attracts both investment and people. The British Council told us that over the period from 1995-6 to 2002-03 on average around 1.4 academics arrived in the UK for everyone who left. The benefit, in purely financial terms, of being the choice of place of study for 100,000 EU student and over 200,000 non-EU students is enormous.
The Higher Education Policy Institute has recently calculated that the net direct cash benefit from fee income and living expenditure of EU students is at least '800 million per year; for non-EU students the figure is '3.3billion. EU and non-EU students who go on to work in the UK after graduating are calculated to increase GDP by '2 billion per year. These are huge sums of money for universities and for the wider economy, and so at least maintaining, and preferably increasing, the numbers of students is a vital task. While the picture is relatively good for the higher education sector, there are significant challenges. But research capacity is growing elsewhere, particularly in China and India. We were told that the USA had increased its research investment in China by 25% a year in recent years, but only by 8% a year in the UK. The expanding economies of countries such as India and China are generating an increasing number of potential HE students and a number of countries have taken steps to make themselves attractive destinations. Australia has substantially increased investment in recruitment measures, and 18 mainly US and Australian international campuses have been established in Singapore in only three years.
We also learnt in Australia that, because of skill shortages, a student studying there might gain points towards residency entitlement, which clearly acts as an incentive. These advantages can quickly erode. Having English as the medium of teaching has helped the UK to maintain its popularity with international students, but now courses taught in English are available in many non-English speaking countries, including France, Germany, the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands. Studying for a degree or post-graduate qualification is more expensive in the UK than anywhere else except private US universities. A recent survey suggested that a significant minority of international students thought that the value for money of the education they received in UK HE institutions was unsatisfactory. Institutions may therefore find that they have become reliant on income from international students which is not stable in the medium or long term. On the other hand, we were told that on the basis of costs compared with revenue generated there was no significant financial premium from recruiting international students.
International students also constitute more than a quarter of all post-graduate students in the UK, and more than 50% of post-graduates in six broad subject areas. International students are therefore maintaining the viability of some subjects for post-graduate study in this country, as well as providing significant income. In this sense the UK higher education sector, at post-graduate level, is becoming less domestic and more international. The rapid expansion of the HE sectors in China and India presents another challenge for the UK. Half of all non-EU students who study in the UK come from just five countries; China (which accounts for almost a quarter of the total) and India are two of them and Hong Kong is another.15 Increased HE provision in these countries may well prove attractive to those who might otherwise travel abroad to study, not least because of reduced costs.
The table overleaf shows that the UK's Governance ranking has gone up one place to 6th, with more positive perceptions of the new Government, as has the UK's ranking for Immigration and Investment (to 3rd), highlighting that Britain is seen as a great place to live, work, and study.
Culture: As mentioned previously, the UK's ranking for the 'culture dimension' fell from 3rd in 2008 to 4th in 2009 and down to 6th in 2010. The decrease occurred despite the UK holding its position for each of the culture statements which contribute to the overall culture dimension score: excels at sports (8th), has a rich cultural heritage (8th), and being an interesting and exciting place for contemporary culture such as music, films, art and literature (4th).
People: Other nations are seen to be more welcoming than the UK (rank 13th), so there is some room for improvement here. But, perceptions of British people are not negative; many would be positive about employing a UK national (rank 5th) and would be open to having close friends from the UK (5th). These ranks have not changed since 2009.
Immigration and Investment: United Kingdom is seen as a great place to live, rated as the 2nd best place to study for educational qualifications and 7th as a nation with a high quality of life ' many people would be prepared to live and work in the UK for a substantial period (rank 4th, up from 7th in 2009).
All in all we can see that the United Kingdom is a very strong nation brand, rarely ranked outside the top ten nations for each of the statements that contribute to the overall ranking of 4th. It is clear that Great Britain is a strong and robust nation brand; its ability to weather storms such as the banking crisis, the economic downturn and the MPs' expenses scandal shows that Brand Britain will continue to be very highly regarded for years to come. Despite its strength there are areas of relative weakness, where different nations have contrasting views of Britain's natural beauty and welcome. Britain got to address the issues coming up in education sector and also have to counter the threat from upcoming education-branded countries like Australia to maintain its position.
Higher education plays a critical role in the economic success of the United States and has greatly enhanced key components of our civil society such as knowledge generation and dissemination, open discourse, and tolerance of diverse ideas. On a worldwide scale, United States higher education has achieved widely recognized pre-eminence.
The United States hosts more international students each year than any other country in the world, a number fast approaching 800,000. In fact, international students comprise approximately 4% of the total undergraduate United States University and college population, and 10% for United States graduate school. These international students coming from every corner of the world choose to study in the United States because they believe that a United States education would afford them the best preparation for their future career. They leave homes, families and friends to pursue their dream of higher education in the United States In fact, international students who study in the United States contribute more than $13 billion to the United States economy each year!
The United States offers international students some of the most exciting, rewarding and comprehensive array of study options. International students who choose to study in the United States have almost unlimited study choices. Furthermore, international students who successfully complete their United States study are highly sought-after by employers worldwide. While the reasons for which international students choose to study in the United States vary from student to student, there are some general advantages of studying in the United States, as mentioned below.
1. World class learning institutions
United States universities are known worldwide for the quality of their facilities, resources, and faculty. Most of the American colleges and universities offer top-notch education programs with highly qualified teaching staff. Many of these professors at the universities are leading authorities in their field. Some of these are even Nobel laureates.
The research done at many of these universities is cutting-edge and often published in journals worldwide. Be it computer science, bio-sciences, arts, commerce, accounting, management, engineering, medicine or any other field of human endeavor, the United States universities undoubtedly offer the best resources to excel in what you want to do. The funding available at these institutions in the United States is unparalleled anywhere in the world. Schools such as Harvard, Stanford, MIT, Cornell, Yale, Carnegie Mellon, Columbia, Princeton, Purdue, UC Berkeley, University of Pennsylvania, John Hopkins, Northwestern, Duke, Dartmouth, CalTech, Georgia Tech etc. are all world famous institutions.
2. Endless study choices
One of the best things about studying in the United States is the vast array of academic options available to the students. Since the United States is such a large country with vast resources, almost every field of study is available in the country. One can study everything from Incan History to Nuclear Physics. That is why even students from many advanced EU nations choose to obtain their training in the United States If you can perceive it, you will most probably find some place in America to study it.
The United States has more institutions of higher learning than any other country in the world. The United States education system features many types of institutions, academic and social environments, entry requirements, degree programs, and subjects in which you can specialize.
3. Worldwide recognition
A degree or a certificate from a college or university is not worth much if it is not recognized by employers, other institutions or field authorities. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to ensure than the degree you are aspiring to earn is recognized in the place you plan to use it in. Fortunately, majority of the colleges and universities in the United States are given professional accreditation by almost all governing bodies in all parts of the world. The universities have to earn their accreditation by meeting certain criteria, helping ensure a quality education, as well as a degree or certificate that is recognized. There are thousands of United States schools that offer credentials recognized in almost every corner of the world.
4. Supporting industries, training & research
Because of the vast wealth of resources available in the United States, the opportunities for practical training related to your field of study unparalleled. Most college and universities have established affiliations with employers and researchers in different fields of study, thereby creating an avenue for students to obtain hands-on and invaluable experience even while they are studying. Many programs even require that students obtain practical training before they graduate. In many cases, these opportunities are not available anywhere else in the world.
5. Global focus
In the last few decades because of globalization and opening up of many economies in the world, American colleges and universities have started focusing on the global aspects of each subject, better preparing students with a worldwide view of their field. No longer can students be successful by merely focus on certain geographic areas when obtaining their academic training. Most United States learning institutions have recognized this and offer a more comprehensive and global curriculum to meet these new trends.
Since the United States university system utilizes credit and unit system and often accommodates working students, most schools offer academic programs that are flexible in nature. This means that, very often, one can choose when to attend classes, how many classes to enroll in each semester or quarter, what electives or optional classes to take etc.
United States universities offer flexibility not only in choice of courses, but more importantly there is also the option for students to move from one institution to another. Completing the first two years of a degree at one institution, usually a community college, and then moving to another, is quite common.
The freedom you get to choose your own courses at your own pace is in complete contrast to the rigid educational curriculum followed in other parts of the world, including India. You could mix Biology with Computer Science, Arts with Medicine, Accountancy with Chemistry and nobody would ask you a thing! The universities in the United States basically let you decide what you want to study, when you want to study and how you want to study to complete your degree. They also give you full freedom to take control of your research endeavors. In all the American education system is very conforming to each student's needs.
Regardless of what degree a student chooses to pursue in the university, he or she will have to use computers and other technologies in order to succeed. Many universities try to incorporate the latest technology into their curriculum, encouraging students to obtain proficiency before they go out into the workplace. Specialized technology, such as the newest medical education in medical schools, allows each student to maximize their true potential and gain experience that is marketable in the real world.
A United States degree offers excellent value for money. A wide range of tuition, fees and living costs, plus a liberal financial help from universities make study in the United States affordable for thousands of international students each year.
The "well paid" interns' educations available in the United States are hard to find anywhere else. For example a computer science graduate student with the right aptitude could find a chance to work at Google Labs, Microsoft Research, and Intel Labs even before they complete their degree.
9. Culture and People
America is a melting pot of people from all over the world. One will find most Americans to be very hospitable, friendly, polite, kind, generous and accepting of foreigners. There may be a few exceptions, as in any country, but these are not the norm. In general, the people are smart, funny, gregarious, innovative, and eager to learn. These are the traits that many international students adopt and take home with them.
10. The Campus experience
The American classrooms are a lot more fun than just the academics. Students have an absolutely informal equation with your professors. They treat you as peers and not as students. You could walk into a classroom with a burger in one hand and a coke in another, and the professor would not find it objectionable. In fact, they themselves sometimes come to the class in their shorts and t-shirts. So culturally, studying in the United States will be a totally different experience as compared to your home country.
Besides all these reasons, going to another country to study is an experience in itself. You get to meet people from all parts of the globe that in turn gives you a truly global outlook. The lessons learned by co-existing and living with other students from all over the world are priceless. You evolve into an individual who is at equal easy working in Bangalore or Boston, Delhi or Denver, Mumbai or Miami or for that matter Lucknow or London. Once you go out of your country and study for two years in an American university, the geographic boundaries cease to exist for you. You could deal with Americans, Britons, Germans, Chinese, French, Spanish, and Japanese with equal ease.
Significance of Marketing Communication for reinforcement and revitalization of nation branding through education
Education plays a very important role in the economic development of the nation. The much talked about brain drain proves this fact. Nations which have benefited from the brain drain are invariably are nations which were able to attract brains from around the world with their world class universities which provide them with research options and industry exposure which other nations can never offer. US, UK and Australia are examples of such countries and the other nations have a lot of catching up to do. These countries used marketing communications for projecting education as part of their nation's brand.
India as a nation is going to have a huge edge over the others if India can ensure world class facilities and path breaking research activities in their institutions. The main advantage India will have is the expense of education at India. A decent 2-years master's degree from a University in the US will cost around US$ 120,000 while the same will cost US$ 30,000 in India. India is home to the first ever university and India has been attracting students from around the world ever since. So we really have to reinforce the idea of India as an education hub for intellectuals across the globe and revitalize the same and put in efforts to regain lost glory.
Activities of marketing communications in education should also be concentrated on making marketing efforts aimed at satisfying the intellectual needs of the local and international talent. The role of promotion in education development is to adequately inform students about specific areas of expertise in India like biotechnology, IT, space etc. to attract them to it. Promotional activities are coordinated by all those involved in education sector and at all levels so that, based on mutual interest and marketing concept, the educational edge is successfully presented and business targets are achieved. Promotion therefore bears particular significance in the activities of universities in educational system and is also very important for the development of education.
In such successful brand revitalizations, brands often use multiple elements of the marketing mix to extend their period of maturity. A brand can change its product features, target markets, packaging, distribution, communications, and pricing strategies. Brands which fail to execute the brand revitalization process correctly can confuse consumers, lose market share, damage brand equity and can be withdrawn from the market. The brands which alter the marketing mix most successfully are the ones that remain relevant over the long term.
India is a country which has to do a lot in this effect as it is a fast developing nation and will face a huge human resources crunch if this menace of brain drain is not met with immediately. Joint educational ventures with universities from US are a good start. The government has to act immediately and pump in funds to the education sector. With a strong growth expected in the Indian economy going ahead, it is clear that human resources will be the key competitive advantage that the country has to sustain this robust growth. So, a strong foundation in the form of a robust education system will be the cornerstone to leading India's growth over the next many years.
With the Government showing a clear willingness to engage the private sector in accomplishing the daunting task of educating India's 13.5cr students, there are thus significant opportunities to tap for companies like Educomp Solutions, Everonn Systems India and NIIT Limited, both in the Government schools and Private schools businesses. With the burgeoning demand for skilled human resources also in sectors like Financial Services, there exist significant opportunities for growth in the Corporate Training business as well. We can remain positive on the Indian Education Sector and believe that it is a multi-year growth story that will play out over the next many years and thus, are enthused about the growth prospects of companies serving this space.
We would like to give the following recommendations:
1. Create a customized and strategic education action plan for the nation:
Make a political commitment at the highest level to create and refine a detailed vision and strategy for a country driven by innovation and creativity. Ensure that education policies are integrated into national development strategy and strike an appropriate balance between public policy objectives and the incentives and infrastructure which fuel innovation and creativity.
2. Enhance the 'national education reserves':
Make clear that one of the criteria for successful development is the quantity and quality of education of its nationals.
3. Participate in the global education industry
Support domestic educational institutions in furthering their presence in the global scenario; integrate the nation's brand and its culture and cultural heritage into that process. Fully utilize the international institutions to internationalize the nation's reserves.
4. Change attitudes :
Facilitate innovation ' culture thinking and positive attitudes at all levels ' local, national and international ' and readjust the attitudes of key players.
5. Begin the future today
Think in terms of the world in 2050'when the children of today will be in charge. Stimulate creativity and innovative thinking and activities in the education system.
Typical segmentation of competition in national higher education systems
universities Self-reproducing, combining historical reputation, research performance, and student quality/degree status. Driven by status attraction/accumulation not revenues per se. Non-expansionary in size. Limitless ambitions for social status and power. Wealthy. Relatively closed
universities Struggling to live as Segment 1 but unable to break in. Tendency to brain drain of best students and researchers to Segment 1. May engage in selected commercial activities to generate revenues, but not so efficient in commercial terms. Resource scarcity. Semi-open
(university or other) Student volume- and revenue-driven. Some are private for profit institutions, or public sector operations with a large commercial component, tending to expand. High resource scarcity. Tendency to hyper-marketing and shaving costs/quality under market pressure. Open