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The structure of company's management is divided into different levels such as; chief executive, deputy chief executive, board of directors, upper level management and lower level management. The top level of management deals with decision making and provides guidance to company's lower level management. And then the lower level management provides same guidance to subordinates and staff. When it comes to the culture of a company there are different cultures those are adopted by different companies depending upon the regions and area of business. For example FIAT a car manufacturing company in recent years has made some cultural changes like they redefine the role of managers, maximize the employee's effort and appreciated the ideas of staff.
AND IT'S EFFECTS ON BUSINESS PERFORMANCE
The performance of every business is mostly dependant on the system of company's management as many companies in previous years run by centralized management system. In centralized management the company faces the problem of bureaucracy the low chances of efficiency and accuracy of information and there is inefficiency in decision making And no single person is responsible thus it proves as irresponsible type of management. On the other side decentralization is proper type of management and there is no risk of having bureaucracy in company. Decentralization influence every individual and also motivates as information provided to every individual about company's performance and the most important advantage is the short communication links under decentralization enable a higher degree of efficiency.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE
There are many factors that influence individual performance at workplace. For example in a big factory that manufactures certain products which requires heavy machinery and the machinery sounds louder and could irritate workers so, if a rock music played at workplace in factory so it could make workers to enjoy their work and they feel a passion at work. And the work place must be comfortable and have enough space so, that the workers can move from one place to another place and in most of the factories every individual has to operate more than one machine at a time. So, machines should place at a properly so, the operator can operate more than one machine at a time is called (ergonomics) Pleasant working environment. The other factor is good payments. As every individual contributes a lot for company so, he or she should be paid as what they deserve. Promotion is the other factor which influences the workers, employers and staff to concentrate more on their job and it influences them to show their interest. A good training is very important every individual who newly Joins Company should provided with full job knowledge and proper training should also be provided so, they can operate the machines careful and properly produce good results. And a good management should also require at workplace. Managers with certain leadership qualities and friendly and motivate in nature also requires.
There are different organizational theories. (LAURIE J MULLINS formerly principal and lecturer, university of ports mouth). He proposed the definition "as theory helps in building generalized models applicable to a range of organization or situation. It furthers provides a conceptual framework and gives perspective for the practical study of the subject"
(LAURIE J MULLINS)
Different organizations have different theories. Some of them are classical theory, neoclassical theory and modern organization theory. (MAX WEBER in 1947 proposed that classical theories are the fundamental of bureaucracy, authority and power). By using of classical management theory we can understand the scientific management approach. Now a day's modern organization approach is very useful and it plays an immense significance rule for the success of management.
IT'S RELATION IN TO MANAGEMENT IN PRACTICE
To utilize these organizational theories in an organization the manager should have the qualities of leadership. And manager should be responsible, flexible, efficient with some creative ideas and should lead the team and aiming for synergy. Â "HYPERLINK "http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/may/14/tesco.executivesalaries": HYPERLINK "http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/may/14/tesco.executivesalaries"Tesco chief Sir Terry Leahy has all of these qualities. New chief of marks and spencers mark bolland also has the quality of bringing change to company.
TWO APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT
There are two famous approaches to management they are: the classical approach and scientific approach. The classical approach is placed to emphasis on the planning of work and it helps in the technical requirements of the organisation. It is very useful to provide a clear understanding in how the organization works and how work can be improved. This approach had played an important role for much organization in olden days And this approach is based on certain principles like: the principle of co-ordination, the scalar principle and the functional principle And the basic aim of these principal is to influence people to act together, hierarchy of organization and specialisation of different kinds of duties. Another approach is scientific which is mainly concerned for the improvement of management as means of increasing productivity. A major contribution to this approach was F.W. TAYLOR (1856-1917) as he was known as the father of scientific management. This approach has certain principles to develop the true science for each person; there should be a scientific selection, training and cooperation among the workers and proper distribution of work and responsibility among the workers and management. And both this approaches are utilized in classical times and even at present most of the organization they believe scientific management is the key to improve the management. For example: Tesco and Sainsbury they just formulate the policy of scientific management. Then only the management influence and motivate the workers to perform their daily job perfectly.
"Motivation can be defined as those processes within an individual that stimulates the behaviour and channel it ways that should benefit the organisation as whole"
(MINER, 1992, P54)
The theory which motivates the workers to perform their tasks in actual they do not want to do it and the theories which influence the worker to improve the efficiency at workplace and show their personal interest in performing their tasks. Every single individual who works for company and get paid should motivated by different motivational theories depending upon the circumstances at workplace. The classical writers they mentioned that the manager should have capability of reading minds and understanding the needs of workers and the company should fulfil the needs of workers. So they get motivated which makes them to show their personal interest. Because every individual who works for company get paid but, most of them they are unhappy and most of them they start losing interest at work so, providing some incentives to worker similarly acquiring the interest of worker at workplace. This are some of theories to motivate the existing workers and for newly joined workers the company should provide good training so they can learn each single and they can perform it according to the direction given by their managers. Their performance should be criticized by their managers and seniors so; the new comers can be more familiar with their managers and seniors.
FACTORS CURTAIL THE SUCCESS OF TEAM WORK
In any organization performing of tasks can become easily if there is coordination among the team members and manager should have capability to carry his team so, they can understand and perform the task together. But, there are factors which may lead to destroy the success of team work like if there is no interaction and understanding between the team members and managers then there is a high risk of failure in task either if task performed successfully but after performing task the manager or the team members can easily find out that how much mistakes they had done And the another factor that may also curtail or diminishes the success of team work is if the team is not fully trained or they have not provided with the knowledge of job or given task then there is lot confusion may task can take much more time in actual it doesn't takes. The various behaviours of the team members must mesh together in order to achieve objectives. There are two types of task the simple task and the complex task. In simple task if the information is provided to single person with knowledge of task then it can be successful and in complex task every single who involved in task should have certain interactive behaviour and the proper task knowledge. Especially when tasks given to a group it should be given to selected people who have some experience regarding the performing group tasks and they must have some skills of working in groups and there must be communication among the people who selected for task. A manager or a senior member with certain leadership qualities should be assigned as a leader of team.
In business world where we say money is life blood on the other side we can say that technology is energy which helps business to move forward by saving time. In this generation every business aims to globalise and develop. For both globalisation and development technology plays a vital role. The impact of technology is favourable in result for the development of every organization. As it helps in making decisions easier and it provides accuracy in every field of marketing and it reaches to the people in an impressive way as human cannot. It can be misused and some time sudden failure can happen. After an improvement in technology most of the organisation utilized it. A recent example of TESCO has clearly evaluated the impact of technology on organization as well as on costumers. In 2007 when Tesco first time introduced the Tesco club card they got more than 8, 00 000 applicants as it attracted the people. The club card was installed with a points based system software means when costumer shops at Tesco more and more it increase the points of club card and the customer get more discounts and free vouchers to shop at Tesco. So there is an increase in costumers and increase in daily sale and increase in revenue.
In conclusion i would like to say that a part of the success of company is depend upon the management as all the staff or employees they perform their task according to the directions given by management. To lead a team or to run a company management has to learn the different styles of management.