Implementation of Change in WAPDA (Water and Power Development Authority)

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History of WAPDA

WAPDA, the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority, was created in 1958 as a Semi-Autonomous Body for the purpose of coordinating and giving a unified direction to the development of schemes in Water and Power Sectors, which were previously being dealt with, by the respective Electricity and Irrigation Department of the Provinces.

Since October 2007, WAPDA has been bifurcated into two distinct entities i.e. WAPDA and Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO). WAPDA is responsible for water and hydropower development whereas PEPCO is vested with the responsibility of thermal power generation, transmission, distribution and billing.

WAPDA is now fully responsible for the development of Hydel Power and Water Sector Projects. PEPCO has been fully empowered and is responsible for the management of all the affairs of corporatized nine Distribution Companies (DISCOs), four Generation Companies (GENCOs) and a National Transmission Dispatch Company (NTDC). These companies are working under independent Board of Directors (Chairman and some Directors are from Private Sectors).

WAPDA is one of the largest employers of human resources in Pakistan. Over the years WAPDA has built-up a reservoir of Technical know-how and expertise which has made it a modern and progressive organization.

Leadership theories

There are many leadership theories to understand the concept of leadership. Below are enlisted leadership theories and their short definitions to understand:

Great man theory

Leaders are born not made.

Trait Theory

Leaders have inherited qualities.

Behavioural Theories

Leaders can be made rather than they are born. This theory believes that what leaders actual do.

Participative Leadership

This type of Leadership actually involves other people to make the decisions for the particular task to make any decision. This style of leadership avoids the autocratic style. In this type of leadership decision making is more appropriate. Most of the organisations adopt this style.

Situational Leadership

In this theory leaders lead according to the situation. Leaders motivate the subordinates by different methods.

Contingency Leadership

According this theory leadership style may change according to the different situations. One style may not be effective in other situation.

Transactional Leadership

This style of leadership clearly states the rewards of the subordinates. Punishments are not stated but they are understood to create a formal discipline within the organisations.

Transformational Leadership

This type of leadership style puts passion and energy to into everything. They develop a vision, sell a vision, finding the way forwards and leading the charge.

Leadership style in WAPDA

On the previous pages we have shortly discussed about different leadership theories. It gives us an idea that what type of leadership an organisation may have or may adopt. When we analyse functions and operations of WAPDA, it is cleared that the Leadership style in WAPDA is Participative Leadership.

It is such a huge organisation and has its branches in all cities, grid stations and other maintenance departments. Such organisation cannot be run without involvement of the subordinates' views in the decision making and its operations.

WAPDA is a bundle of internal and external stakeholders. Such as private companies, government, engineering companies, maintenance companies, construction companies, insurance companies, media, training & development, finance, banks, domestic consumers, industrial consumers and many more are involved.

WAPDA's need is to be participative leadership style

Circumstances to implement change in WAPDA

Since last two decades the overall demand of electricity has been tripled in Pakistan. The demand of any product or service is generally directly proportionate to the population.

In 1980 the population was 100 million in Pakistan but in 2011 it has been reached up to 160 million. The increase in population has created over all demand of various sectors like auto mobile industry, construction industry, oil production and imports, home appliances industry, infrastructure etc. Actually population has affected all over industrial sector demand. Deduction of trees (greenery) has created over all global warming and pollution. Many forests have been now transformed in to factories and roads.

Industry and foreign exchange has created jobs and buying power in the country. In 1980, the usage of air conditioners was only in offices and very few in homes. Fan was quite enough in summer season. But due to pollution, the temperature in summer raises up to 50 deg C in various regions of Pakistan. This rise in temperature is un-bearable for the people. The usage of air-conditioners has been increased in summer.

Air-conditioners need more power for their operations due to their heavy compressors. When more consumption of electricity occurs, WAPDA needs to do load shedding (off the power supplies in various areas to distribute the energy).

WAPDA off the electricity of one area/city/town and switch on the electricity of other area/city/town and this process carry on round the clock. And average power shut down per area/city/town is 8 to 12 hours in 24 hours. This process goes through whole the summer season and even whole the year in different cities.

In simple words we can say that demand has been increased rapidly and due to certain reasons sufficient supplies are not being maintained. Electricity deficit creates many problems in the country like failure of industrial/production sector, agriculture sector, health sector and consumer riots etc. Though, all the sectors suffer due to shortage of energy and over all country moves towards backwardness.

Currently WAPDA is producing energy though Dams and furnace oil engines. In future WAPDA has planned many other small and large size Dams but according to rising demand of electricity in the country these will not be sufficient in coming 20 years.

WAPDA wants to introduce wind mill energy technology to generate electricity in various parts of the country. There are many areas in Pakistan, which have sufficient flow of wind to run a wind mills.

What is a Cause-and-Effect Diagram?

A Cause-and-Effect Diagram is a tool that helps identify, sort, and display possible

causes of a specific problem or quality characteristic (Viewgraph 1). It graphically

illustrates the relationship between a given outcome and all the factors that influence

the outcome. This type of diagram is sometimes called an "Ishikawa diagram"

because it was invented by Kaoru Ishikawa, or a "fishbone diagram" because of the

way it looks.

When should a team use a Cause-And-Effect Diagram?

Constructing a Cause-and-Effect Diagram can help your team when you need to

Identify the possible root causes, the basic reasons, for a specific effect,

problem, or condition.

Sort out and relate some of the interactions among the factors affecting a

particular process or effect.

Analyze existing problems so that corrective action can be taken.

Cause and effect/fish bone diagram of WAPDA


Coal is not being utilised

In-Sufficient Electricity output/Load Shedding


Less reliability

People attitude

In sufficient water source

High cost of maintenance

Too late decisions

Furnace oil Generators



Force field analysis

Force field is a time honoured problem solving and action planning technique was first described psychologist Kurt Lewin in 1950s (Lewin 1951). In the organization planning adaptation a 'force' refers to any influence acting in an organisation such that an organisation's state is changed by the presence of that factor.

Randolph E.Schwering, School of Management, Rockhurst University, Kansas city, Missouri, U.S.A.

It shows which forces are against and which forces are in favour of the change.

Given diagram is the force field analysis of WAPDA:

Forces for Change


Change Proposal

Forces Against change


Industrial sector is declining. Labour attitude


Finance department


Consumers are fed up of load shedding and doing riots in different cities


Introduce/Add Wind Mill Energy Technology in existing technology

Technical stake holders of the organisation


Health sector has been suffered


May people of the area will be against where the windmills will be installed


Overall demand of electricity has been increased


Fear of economic backwardness of country


Global warming






In the above diagram we can see that on the left hand side, forces for change are given and their score is 6 and on the right hand side forces against change is given whose score is 3. If we analyse the current situation the change can be easily implemented through proper process.

Change in organizations in General

Change is one of the few things that is constant. In the business world, only those people succeed who change to the changing situations. They sniff out a little change in the environment and change dramatically to exploit the changing situation to their advantage.

Change is good. Changing for good is better. Changing the approach to reach the goals is the best. Changing the way we do things positively can reduce the time and the cost of doing things. In business sense, a change for good increases the productivity and reduces the wastage and cost of producing a good or a service.

The types of changes that generally take place in an organization are

• Strategic changes

• Technological changes

• Structural changes

• Changing the attitudes and behaviours of personnel

Strategic changes refer to the change in the organizational vision, mission, the objectives and the strategy adapted to achieve those objectives.

Technological changes refer to the change in the technology being implemented in the production or in the services being offered. As the technology is always evolving, companies have to implement newer technologies as new technologies reduce the cost of production and increase the profitability as it will result in higher rate of production.

Structural changes are the changes to the structure of an organization. This change can be both internal as well as external to the organization. Internally, structural change will include changing the overall way in which the activities are done, which can include the change in the processes or departments, the way they function, merging two or more departments into one department., etc.

Changing the attitudes and behaviours of personnel are the changes that are needed to be made for the purpose of changing the attitude, increasing the employees' awareness about the organization, etc.  With the advent of new technologies, the personnel need to learn new things in order to keep up with the rest of the industry. All these things constitute change in the attitudes and behaviours of personnel.


Specific types of Change

Different kinds of change require different strategies and plans to effectively gain employee engagement and acceptance of change. The three types of change that occur most frequently in organizations are developmental, transitional and transformational.

Developmental Change

Developmental change occurs when a company makes an improvement to their current business. If a company decided to improve their processes, methods or performance standards this would be considered developmental change. Companies are continually processing developmental change to some degree in order to stay competitive. This type of change should cause little stress to current employees as long as the rationale for the new process is clearly conveyed and the employees are educated on the new techniques. When major change such as the decision to close a division, if the company attempted to implement developmental change as the first step in streamlining the business, employees may be more likely to accept the change. The employees could see that the company attempted different strategies before determining that closing the division was the only option.

Transitional Change

Transitional change is more intrusive than developmental change as it replaces existing processes or procedures with something that is completely new to the company. The period when the old process is being dismantled and the new process is being implemented is called the transitional phase. A corporate reorganization, merger, acquisition, creating new products or services, and implementing new technology are examples of transitional change. Transitional change may not require a significant shift in culture or behaviour but it is more challenging to implement than developmental change. The future of the organization is unknown when the transformation begins which can add a level or discomfort to employees.

Transformational Change

Transformational change occurs after the transition period. Transformational change may involve both developmental and transitional change. It is common for transitional and transformation change to occur in tandem. When companies are faced with the emergence of radically different technologies, significant changes in supply and demand, unexpected competition, lack of revenue or other major shifts in how they do business, developmental or transitional change may not offer the company the solution they need to stay competitive. Instead of methodically implementing new processes, the company may be forces to drastically transform themselves. Date visited Januar 3, 2011, 22:55

Change Implemented in WAPDA

If we analyse the details given on previous pages we can see that if we consider in general, change in WAPDA will be strategic change and technological change. But specifically if we see, the change going to be occurred is development change.

At this stage organisation needs to achieve its goals and organisation is implementing a new strategy in it. On the other side organisation is going to add a new technology.

Specifically organisation is implementing a developmental change. Organisations want to improve its processes and performance by adding new methodologies in it.

Change models

Following are some change models:

Kurt Lewin change model.

Richard Beckhard 1969.

Marshak 2004.

K.Thurley 1979.

Bridges 1991.

The 4 D process of appreciative inquiry.

The Kuebler Ross model of change.

John Kotters change model.

The change journey (HUMAP).

Cyclical process frame work (CFAN).

Theory U (Otto Sharmer).

From above mentioned change models, most appropriate change model for WAPDA is John Kotters change model

John Kotters change model

Kotter (1996) states while change efforts have helped improve some organizations in the competitive markets, many situations have been disappointing and the results have been disastrous for the employees and those in charge. Kotter points out "the biggest mistake people make when trying to change organizations is to plunge ahead without establishing a high enough sense of urgency in fellow managers and employees". The thought that this could not happen to our organization is one of the main causes of failure while instituting organizational change. Some changes take years and even after a number of years, they may fail for a variety of reasons.

1. Establishing a sense of urgency

a. Examining market and competitive realities

b. Identifying and discussing crises, potential crises, or major opportunities

2. Forming a powerful guiding coalition

a. Assembling a group with enough power to lead the change effort

b. Encouraging the group to work together as a team

3. Creating a vision

a. Creating a vision to help direct the change effort

b. Developing strategies for achieving that vision

4. Communicating the vision

a. Using every vehicle possible to communicate the new vision and strategies

b. Teaching new behaviours by the example of the guiding coalition

5. Empowering others to act on the vision

a. Getting rid of obstacles to change

b. Changing systems or structures that seriously undermine the vision

c. Encourage risk taking and non-traditional ideas, activities and actions

6. Planning for and creating short-term wins

a. Planning for visible performance improvement

b. Creating those improvements

c. Recognizing and rewarding employees involved in the improvements

7. Consolidating improvements and producing still more change

a. Using increased credibility to change systems, structures and polices that don't fit

the vision

b. Hiring, promoting and developing employees who can implement the vision

c. Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes and change agents.

8. Institutionalizing new approaches

a. Articulating the connections between the new behaviours and corporate success.

b. Developing the means to ensure leadership development and succession.

John Kotters Model to implement change in WAPDA

4. Communicating the vision

a. Vision must be communicated to every personnel and stakeholders through media.

b. Teach new guidelines to the stakeholders.

2. Forming a powerful guiding coalition

a. Assemble a group with authority and power to lead the change effort.

b. Encouraging the group and subordinates to work together as a team. The Group will consist of technical and managerial authorities.

1. Establishing a sense of urgency

a. Examining market and competitive realities i.e. demand of electricity has been increased.

b. Country is facing industrial, health, education and economic crises due to shortage of electricity.

3. Creating a vision

a. Creating a vision to help direct the change effort. That new technology will resolve the problem

b. Developing strategies for achieving that vision.

8. Institutionalizing new approaches

a. Articulating the connections between the new behaviours and corporate success Highlight the difference between conventional system and additional new system. Highlight the solution due to change.

b. Developing the means to ensure leadership development and succession.

6. Planning for and creating short-term wins

a. Planning for visible performance improvement. Who is positively in favour? Who has performed better for the change?

b. Recognizing and rewarding employees involved in the improvements.

7. Consolidating improvements and producing still more change

a. Hiring, promoting and developing employees/expertise who can implement the vision

5. Empowering others to act on the vision

a. Train the staff.

b. Changing systems or structures that seriously undermine the vision. Under which structure and department the upcoming system will run?

c. Encourage risk taking and non-traditional ideas, activities and actions. That developed countries has already adopted this system, why can't we??

Explanation of the change process implementation and change agent role

In other words if we express the previous page diagram of implementation of change, we can say that first of all we have to communicate the idea within the organisation. We must have to highlight the benefits of windmill technology i.e., it has less maintenance expenses. Geographically there are lot of places in the country where the wind flow level is quite high, we can utilise this natural resource for production of energy. It will reduce the energy production cost for consumer and industrial user.

Next we have to delegate the authorities (as change agent) that who will start this process as a project. There will be number of technical and non technical stake holders, who must have to carry this project in future as a team. We have to negotiate with the authorities, convince them and influence them to do implement the change. We must have to obtain all the information regarding windmill technology.

Usually in this type of process conflict occurs. If there is any conflict among the team members. We must have to clear the conflicts. We have to delegate rewards after successfully completion of the project. Even though you develop a team but there is always stress creates in the organisation. For a successful change process we must have to reduce the stress among the team members because change process seems like extra work for the team members. This needs to be having good time management. The work must be divided in different modules and must be delegated among the team members. It must be assigned and expected to be done in a specific time frame. External technical expertise need to be involve to train and reduce stress among the team members.

Assessment of work and team members must be done. Who has done more work, who is more involved in the process? It must be maintained as record. Whole the implementation process must be monitored. Team members must be rewarded and appoint to head the particular task in future. For this purpose, must support your decisions to support others. That they will be actual rewarded, this may help in future to implement any other change. External stake holders must be also rewarded.

After implementation of change, benefits of new additional technology must be highlighted internally through seminars and externally through media. A comparison of previous system and additional new system must be shown to all the stake holders especially to the industrialists and domestic consumers. Per unit cost of production, low maintenance cost, new jobs, utilization of natural resources, development of installation sites, living standards of local villagers, addition of technical and non-technical professions, easy and low handling cost though all the related benefits must be publicized through media.

Stakeholders involved into the change process

WAPDA is a huge organisation. When we see its functional activities i.e., production of electricity, it has large numbers of stake holders. Such organisations plays vital role or we can say it is like back bone of the country.

There are many external and internal stake holders, who will be involved in the change process.

List of internal stakeholders:

Management. Top/Middle/Lower.

Finance department.

Accounts department.

Human resource department.

Training and Development department.

Purchase Department.

Import Department.

Architecture department.

Civil engineering department.

Mechanical and process engineering Department.

Electrical engineering department.

List of External stakeholders:


Government custom and trade department.


Industrial sector.

Agriculture sector.

Electrical equipment suppliers.


Civil engineering contractors/suppliers.

Private architectures.

Electrical engineering contractors/suppliers.

Industrial fabricators.


Foreign suppliers/manufacturers.

Foreign technical consultants.

Civil aviation authority.



Insufficient and supply of energy through dams

High Demand of ElectricityC:\Users\greenleafe\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\23NY1H6H\MC900354039[1].wmfC:\Users\greenleafe\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\4Y930PUO\MC900231563[1].wmfC:\Users\greenleafe\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\DIKQJYLM\MC900023743[1].wmf C:\Users\greenleafe\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\YGBF85OI\MC900071251[1].wmf

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C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\MEDIA\CAGCAT10\j0195812.wmfC:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\MEDIA\CAGCAT10\j0297551.wmfC:\Users\Guest\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\L2G43V0D\MC900185425[1].wmfC:\Users\Guest\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\FZXAI2R4\MC900329595[1].wmfC:\Users\Guest\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\TNDDDJ46\MC900432247[1].wmf

Labour, Consumers and Industry need have insufficient supplies of energyC:\Users\Guest\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\L2G43V0D\MC900325932[1].wmfC:\Users\Guest\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\FZXAI2R4\MP900448679[1].jpg



This report reveals that change apparently seems like a difficult task but if systematically implement it with the help of theoretical and practical approaches, it is an easy process. It introduces new eras within and outside the organisation. Stakeholders of the organisation may resist in the beginning, as it is the nature of human but when they managed, assigned with reduced stress and rewarded, any type of change can be easily implemented.