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The business organization is a man made system. This has a dynamic interplay with its environment customers, suppliers, Government and many other agencies with a view to reaching a number of objective goals. Even though the basic functions of a leader are trade jional - planning, organization, control and communication, by applying new styles and techniques leaders have to perform the functions of exercising control and converting dis - organized resources of men, machines and money to be successful in the highy competitive business world of today.
Eight attributes of lasting leadership
Building a strong corporate structure
Finding and catering to under-served markets
Spotting potential winners
Using price to build competitire advantage
Managing and building the organisation's brand
Being a faxt learner
Despite the time-saving benefits that stereotypes may offer, many psychologists agree that they can also spell trouble. There are three important reasons for this view:
1. unlike generalizations we make about things or even animals, our generalizations about people are much more likely to miss the mark.
People are extremely complex and their behavior is often highly variable from situation to situation. Therefore, when stereotypes are used to make judgments about people especially about their traits and abilities there is a high probability that those judgments will be wrong.
2. We often apply stereotypes automatically.
All of us who drive will undoubtedly be familiar with the experience of arriving at some destination without remembering the exact actions that got us there. We followed the traffic rules and operated the car successfully (or so we assume) even though we were not consciously monitoring or paying attention to our behaviors we performed the task automatically. Stereotypes enable us to function in a similar way on social tasks or interactions. With the "help" of stereotypes, we can and do arrive at perceptions or judgments about individuals without having to tie up our attention. The trouble comes when we accept that these perceptions have a solid basis in fact because we are unaware of the role that stereotypes have played in creating them.
3. We unintentionally respond to people in ways that elicit from them the very behaviors that confirm our stereotypes.
For example, imagine a woman is being interviewed for a management position. If the interviewer believes that women are not "management material,"he/she may unintentionally ask tougher questions of the women candidates and be more critical of their responses. As a result, women interviewees may stumble in their answers, providing less satisfactory responses than the men interviewing for the job not because they are any less competent than male interviewees, but because the interviewer directed more difficult questions to women. In effect, the interviewer has caused the women candidates to act in ways that fit his/her stereotype of their lower competence. Such consequences of stereotypes are serious for organizations. Few can afford to fail at correctly identifying and leveraging the true abilities of all their talent
The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as how
The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products);
The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media);
The behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions;
Limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome;Â
How consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and
How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.
Bill Gates was born on October 28, 1955 in Seattle, U.S.A. He tackled his first computer in 1967 when he entered a private school. In 1968 he wrote his first soft-ware program, a version of the basic. An all purpose programming Language was developed while studying at Harvard in 1973. Microsoft was launched in 1975 with a view to commercializing soft wave for the personal computer. After two years, he earned a big profit by landing sort-ware programming projects. Microsoft was incorporated on June 25, 1981; IBM introduced its personal computer with Microsoft 16 Bij operating system Ms. Dos 1.0. Year 2000 saw the introduction of micro soft's Net strategy by Bill Gates and Steve Ballmer. In 2001 micro soft launched office XP and windows XP. In this year the company entered the highly competitive video games market introducing its Xbox. 2002 saw a break though in another personal computer as Microsoft launched the tablet PC a computer with on which users can write with a stylus. 2003 was significant for our leader Gates as Microsoft earned 32.19 billion dollars. By this year Microsoft had 55000 employees working in the branches spread over in 85 countries. Queen Elizabeth conferred on him the Honorary Knighthood. Out leader had to face a set -back in 2004 in which yearw Microsoft was finced $ 613 by the European commission. In the same year an amount of 1600 million dollars was paid by Microsoft to Sun Sicro systems to settle antitrust and patent issues.
Today Microsoft windows operating system resides on more than 95% of the world's PC's by setting a uniform, global standard it helps customers. Their browse rapidly became popular.
Despite many challenges Microsoft has moved on ward and upward and has assumed peak position without any equal and our leader Bill Gates is the world's richest man today.
4.2 The leader.
Bill gates, the leader of my choice is dominating the globals oft-ware industry. His policy of fighting it out and facing the challenges without un-rending courage brought in rising revenues and profitability Microsoft, his company is retaining its biggest grip on the market despite challenges. Not only Microsoft makes operating systems, but also it prosuces soft-ware applications. His 'buy it or bury it' approach even though criticized by a few competitors worked well Microsoft also engaged in the preparation of web browser and operating system software to promote itself in another side of soft ware market . A few competitors criticised this. But Gates went on and reaped best results. Throughout his career the leader of my choice has repeatedly out - shined others as a quick study capable of responding to emerging developments and sharing them to his advantage Internet is a living example of this. One of the earliest lessons Gates learnt was to treat soft ware as a business. Gates was of the view that hardware without software was meaningless. Internet allowed PC users to connect to one another and made the world a smaller. Gates became the market leader by developing the internet explorer web browser. Gates through Microsoft supplied productivity software as well as and authoring tool. He employed another time tested tactic of acquisition. He took over Hotmail a popular e-mail concern. By these moves based on fast learning and speedy action Gates propelled micro-soft to the top must position.
One of the important strengths of Bill Gates is his ability of good team building. He has the vision to bring in people and let them serve the company. He combines agility and ability and his concern for empowerment is great. For him, empowerment is delegating necessary control to effective, skilled and diligent employees. He sees empowerment as management's promise to employees that they will be supported and rewarded for taking action and finding new ways to contribute. He reyards the following as viable concepts which cover effective decentralization of responsibility
Establishing a high level of participative management
Decentralization of the power structure
Creating a large extent of autonomy throughout the organization
Development of effective work groups
He is also conscious of the following limitations.
Not every job requires empowered employees.
Empowerment is penultimate to performance.
Research and much of the experience of recent years show that a high degree of empowerment facilitates the attainment of the following long - run objectives of lasting leader ship.
Raising the levels of employee motivation
Increasing the readiness of subordinates to accept change.
Improving the quality of all managerial decisions
Developing team-work and morale
Furthering the individual development of employees.
As far as Gates is concerned this does not mean that a leader should always leave all decisions to his assistants. He is cautious and knows that to provide an individual or group with far greater freedom than they are ready for at any given time will tend to mar instead of facilitating the attainment of desired objectives.
The following are some of his own words.
"I put most of my problems into my group's hands and serve as a catalyet"
"I always talk things over with my subordinates. But make them understand that I have the final say"
He considers the following forces as important practical and desirable. According to him of a leader is sensitive to these forces, he can better assess the problems which face him and choose the best type of leadership behaviour suitable for him.
In the leader
Force in the subordinates
In the situation
* Forces in the leader
Our leader is conscious of the following in ternal forces operating within his own personality and gives importance to them as these make himself more effective to handle problems and achieve success.
His value system which attaches importance to organizational efficiency, personal growth of subordinates and company profits.
Great extent of confidence in his subordinates.
His own leadership inclinations. He functions comfortably and naturally as a highly directive leader he resolves problems and issues orders with ease.
* Forces in the subordinates.
Out leader is conscious of the forces affecting the behaviour of his subordinates. He adjusts his behaviour to enable his subordinates to act most effectively. He makes them,
To assure responsiality for decision making
Understand the directives given to them.
To have an interest in the problem and to feel that it is important.
Identify and understand the goals.
Develop an expectation to share in decision making.
* Forces in the Situation
The leader has to face environment pressures Bill Gates is aware of the fact that pressures stemming from the organization, the work group and the pressure of time affect a leader like him. He looks into group effectiveness, the extent of experience, the degree of confidence in the ability to solve problems and solve problems with his specialist back ground knowledge of factual data relevant to a given issue. Pressure of time does not bother him much as he is fast, exceedingly
speedy like the gazelle which is always on the run to escape from its predators some personal characteristics which helped him to rise to the topmost position.
He never has unlimited trust in his friends; he knows how to put his enemies to proper use.
He makes other people to come to him.
He always wins through his actions never through argument.
He always knows as to whom he is dealing with
In certain unavoidable circum stances he gives in and seeks settlement
He always enters action with boldness
He always plans all the way to the end.
He plays to peoples fancies
He masters the art of timing.
He works on the heart and minds of others.
He preaches the need for change and knows where to stop.
He has the art of finding out eacheman's marits.
5.0 Other leaders.
5.1 Andy Grove
Andy Grove became the CEO of Intel in 1987. In 1990 he led the "Intel inside campaign. 'Intel supplied more than 80% of the micro - processors to the world's computers. Grove was aggressive in matters concerning his company. Because of his aggressive branding campaign and globally net worked economy Intel became one of the world's top technology companies. He put aside conventional logic. His qualities like
were instrumental in his being named as the most influential and the best of the best business leaders.
Bogle delivered great value to investors. His approach was an extrn- ordinacy one very different from others. His strategy was to own the entire stock market at very low cost. Bogle was a pioneer in introducing and helping to popularize index funds. This kept fees extremely low for investors.
He has enormous impact on the average person
His view that a single person could make a huge difference in business.
He believes in delivering great value at low prices.
5.3 Warren buffet
Because of warren Buffet Berkshire Hathaway could deliver high returns to its investors and Solomon brothers could could restore confidence in a great measure immediately after its severs management crisis
Warren Buffet is a man for all seasons.
He is an extra ordinary investor.
He is a genius in spotting good investment opportunities
He had a high degree of intelligence power.
5.4 Sam Walton
Late Mr. Sam Walton's approach to Wal-mart's customers was good. He realized his goal of making a wide range of products to cater to average people at the lowest price. This made him to take the retail company from a single store to a megacorp
He believed that a single person can make a huge difference in an industry.
It cannot happen overnight but it is possible over a pexiod of years.
He also believed in delivering great value at low prices to customers.
5.5 Frederick Wallace Smith
Fred Smith had a big idea. It transformed into an entire industry over night. Federal express founded by him grew faster and became the world's first overnight delivery system. Now fed-ex is handling 55 million shipments a day in more than 220 countries. The company's jets are transporting time sensitive packages to and fro very fast. Fed Ex is now an information technology firm managing customer's internal supply chains and their shipments are transported from one country to another speedily
Fred Smith likes to fill an unset need in business
He is fast seizing the opportunity by overnight innovation.
None of the leaders discussed above has all the attributes mentioned in section 3.0 of this assignment. One attribute in not enough to ensure long-lived leadership. But each of them is a lasting and efficient leader as he has some attributes. The numbers only vary. But Bill Gates has more attributes than any other. That is why he stands out as the richest man in the world.
All these leaders con fronted challenges with utmost courage. Andy Grove had to shun conventional logic and lead with his own ideas. Bogle had to adopt a strikingly different approach from those during his time to build up enormous impact on the average person. Fred smith had to work hard to show the customer how much more efficient he could be in shipping only what they want. Warran Buffet had to steer clear from the accounting and governance scandals that rocked U.S. companies at that time. Sam Walton had to make available a wide range of products available to average peonle at the lowest possible price. The leader of my choice Gates had to deal with regulators on both sides of the Atlantic. Because they are lasting leaders they overcame all these obstacles and their businesses are still growing and they will grow and prosper in future also.
The leader of my choice Bill Gates and every other business leader discussed in this assignment are keenly aware of the forces which are relevant to their behavior at any given time. They accurately understand themselves, the individuals and groups they are dealing with. They are also capable of assessing the readiness for growth of their.