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Employees are the integral part of organizations, without employees it will not be possible for organizations to work or to carry out organizational process. Human resource management is popular term widely used by popular industry experts and popular press.
Human resource management helps to develop and manage people within organizations. As it is related to skilled employees of organization, it is also sometime called Talent management or personnel management. This process is about managing and developing employees. Human Resources take care of people from the time they're interested in the organization to long after they leave. Typical HR activities include Job placement, job description, staffing, compensation, employee and labor relations etc.
Humans are such asset of organization that, if used to their full capacity, will improve organizational performance and process. It is the asset to be invested in.
HRM function is responsible for selection, attraction, assessment, training and rewarding employees as well as supervision of organizational leadership and culture, and ensuring compliance of labor and employment laws. HRM practices are concerned with to increase the effectiveness and contribution of employees in the attainment of organizational goals and objectives. As it is possible to obtain organizational goals and objectives only if the organization is efficient in human resource management while being efficient in management.
Different aspects of HRM:
Broadly there are three meanings that are usually attached to human resource management. The first aspect states that it is about the persons working in the organization, and these people are regarded as valuable resource of organization and it is necessary to invest efforts and time in their development. The other aspect says that these are human beings; it means that each employee has their own special characteristics and we cannot treat them like nonliving things or material resources. This approach focuses on need to make organizational life more human, and incorporation of human values into organizational process. The third approach considers the social realities as well. It does not only focus on employees as individuals but also considers processes, units and social realities in organization. In this approach, dydadic situation is considered. Dydadic refers to the situation in which a person and his supervisor are involved, as every person has to play different roles in his job in organization, various teams in which people work, team process, and as part of whole organization.
HRM, it in its essence is qualitative improvement and nourishment of employees of organization who are the most valuable part of organization, resources and sources and end users of all products and services. HRM is more than what old disciplines such as personal management and behavioral science were concerned about. It is more than just development and training of employees, rather it is multidisciplinary process from beginning to end. HRM is a scientific process that enables employees to improve their capability and competencies so that they can play their future as well as present role in efficient way so that goals and objectives of organization can be achieved. Only achievement of organizational objective is not considered but employee needs are also met adequately at the same time. HRM is a production model approach to personnel management. The model of HRM is employee oriented, emphasizes on optimization of individual skills, motivation of employees etc. employees can be motivated using consultation approach, consultation will result in high level commitment of employees to meet organizational objectives.
HRM not only concerned with employment practices, but also structure of firm that is necessary to carry out the functions of organization. It is not only about managing people in firms, but it is about managing employees as well as their work in organizational process. People are managed both in individual as well as collective dimensions.
Apart from contemporary human resource management, traditional personnel management is separate from business, non strategic, short term and is constrained by limited scope and definition of their roles. Traditional management is concerned with "managing people" and "administering" people in organization, whereas HRM is about developing people, and enhancing their skills and abilities. It is a preventive process that plays its role in very strategic way.
Some important assumptions o HRM are:
It is the nature of self development, more than development from outside
Along with development of its employees, organization also undergoes from process of development and gets overall benefits with this development
Organizational members are reservoirs of untapped resources of organizations
These resources has unlimited scope of development.
With true HRM process, organization further develops a culture that emphasizes on harmony in subordinate and superior relationship, collaboration, teamwork, open communication.
Top management takes the initiative for HRM, formulates necessary plans and strategies, and creates an overall climate and support for its implementation.
Objectives of human resource management:
HRM ensures the availability of competent and skilled workforce that is willing to work, as its primary objective. In addition HRM has other diverse objectives as well. Some important ones are:
These objectives, recognizes role of HRM that it plays in bringing organizational efficiency. It is not an end in itself; rather it is only a mean to assist organization in achieving its objectives. HRM department is present to serve the organization.
In functional objectives, HRM tries to maintain level of department's contributions that are appropriate for organizational needs. HRM selects, train, and develop human resources so that they can be adjusted to organizational needs and demands.
Personal objectives of HRM help employees to achieve their personal goals. Such goals will enhance their individual contribution to organization. It is important in this regard personal objectives should be maintained if they are to motivated, maintained and retained, in other case, employee performance may decline.
Table 1: HRM Objectives and Functions Objectives Supporting Functions
William B. Werther, Jr., and Keith Davis, Human Resources and PersonnelManagement, p. 15
Functions of Human Resource management:
Major functions of HRM are; planning, staffing, employee development an employee maintenance. All these functions have shared objective of having skilled employees in adequate numbers, with appropriate abilities, knowledge and experience needed further in future. Each function can be assigned to one of four areas; here are some functions that serve multiple purposes. Such as performance appraisal system can be used as measure to stimulate employee development and salary administration purpose, Compensation function serves on two sides also, it attracts employees to serve the organization, and facilitates their retention.
Following section provides brief description of each function of HRM:
Human resource planning (HRP):
This type of planning is deciding about how many employees are needed, which type of workforce is required in order to meet organizational goals. HRP is critical part of HRM functions, it requires research to get information, analyze this information and determine about the future forecast of human resources that will be needed in future to carry out organizational purpose and achieve its goals.
Job analysis describes and specifies the nature of job, its requirements, such as skills and experience required to perform the specific task. After carefully analyzing the situation, job description is made. Job description provides in detail, what does a job requires from applicant, duties and activities that job holder will perform etc. job description serves as source of information for mangers and employees etc.
This function refers to selection and recruitments of human resources for concerned organization. In this function, actual selection takes place for different posts. In this function, people actually become the part of organization. Through recruitment process, qualified personnel are attracted to apply; eligible candidates are hired by recruitment process.
Once the selected personnel are part of organization, orientation process is carried out to guide the new employees so that the faces less difficulty to adjust into organizational setup. In orientation process, different aspects of job of selected, for example, including pay and benefit programs, working hours, and company rules and expectations etc.
Tainting and development:
In order to have better performance and fewer errors from employees, training and development is used as a tool in human resource functions. In addition to providing training for new or inexperienced employees, organizations often provide training programs for experienced employees whose jobs are undergoing changes.
HRM is no doubt an important process, but the process should be carried out honestly and in just and fair ways.
EEO and Affirmative Action:
Equal employment opportunities are right of all. Ethics requires us that there must be not discrimination among applicants and there should be equal opportunities for all.
EEO prohibits discriminative action against anyone. It ensures that in hiring process no one will be given priority for selection on the basis of their race, gender etc.
Affirmative actions are corrective measures against discrimination practices in past.
It does not means that even those who are not eligible for the concerned post can be hired by managers, only eligible candidate are allowed to apply an to be considered for final selection. In all hiring situations, EEO principles should be applied to every vacancy being filled.
Compensation and benefits:
Compensation is a broader term and includes all the frings, benefits, and all rewards that an employee receives for performing his job. Some times compensation includes both, the pay, as well as rewards, in some cases only pay is included in compensations. Sometimes compensation also includes non monetary rewards, such as enjoyment at workplace, pleasant working environment etc.
Benefits are another form of compensation,. It includes the benefits other than direct or basic pay employee receives for specific job in the organization. Employees are offered both legally required as well as benefits offered on employees' direction. It costs organization so much that it has become a major consideration for organizations while planning for human resources. Benefits provide many basic employee needs, thus related to maintenance area.
Health and safety:
It is important to provide safe environment and workplace to employees before expecting maximum productivity level. When they work in a place, that is safe to work and carry no health hazards, productivity levels will increase. It is a legal requirement to provide safe working place to employees. On the other hand it is beneficial for organization to keep record of employee health in order to determine employment history and occupational exposure records, illness and injuries on job, worker's compensation records etc.
It is important that Records must be maintained with accuracy, relevance, timeliness, and completeness. Appropriate and reasonable safeguards must be established to ensure security and confidentiality of the records any occupational illnesses (cancers) can occur decades after the employee retires. Employment records help in assessing the work relatedness of such illnesses.
Employee and labor relations
Employee relationship refers to dealing with employees, who are representing labor unions. Unions are organization of employees which they use as mean to communicate their demands to upper management of organization. These unions try to effect the important decisions such as wage rates, working conditions, benefits, and other important aspects of employee work at organization. With regard to labor relations, the personnel responsibility primarily involves negotiating with the unions regarding wages, service conditions, and resolving disputes and grievances.
Role of HRM in organization:
Human resources are the backbone of every organization, that's why their management is important as well. Human resources plays key role in success or failure of organization as well as in shaping organizational behavior. If any company has competent and skilled workforce, and know how to mange it successfully and how to use their potential, how to keep them committed, how to align their personal objectives with organizational objectives etc. in this way, if human resources are managed carefully and strategically, they can assure the success of organization. So the role of HRM can be optimized with careful planning of Human resource and practicing other HR functions efficiently with proper planning.
Almost all contemporary organizations has human resource management department within their organizational structure. It tells the importance HR has in any organization. HRM department hire or fire personnel for organization. It elects appropriate employees through different resources. Train them for specific tasks, develops different skills and plan how to use their skills and abilities in maximum in order to achieve organizational objectives.
HR and personal learning:
During all classes, I have got the opportunity to learn a lot about HR, its practices, importance, application, current and future aspects of learning etc. it has been very exciting experience learn about HR and HRM. All of the above addressed areas reflect the learning during all classes. It has made me enable to apply this learning and knowledge in my career as well as in personal life. HRM is not an easy task; it requires enough intelligence and ability to understand human nature smartly. In other words, it is some sort of psychological task that is involved in HR management job. You must be smart enough to understand the behaviors of people, how you can use their abilities in positive, right direction and such other important tasks. So this learning will be very helpful in present as it has taught how to deal with humans and how to mange relations with them. We are all humans and have to interact with each a lot of time, in this context and amount of interaction, the ability to deal with and maintain relationships is very critical one. The skill and learning will be very helpful in future. It will help a lot in building a bright future in professional life. As I have learned through this course that, in order to survive and sustain in any organization, to shape organizational behavior super and efficient one, it requires as one of its most critical elements to know how to deal with human resources and how to manage them effectively.
Humans are such asset of organization that, if used to their full capacity, will improve organizational performance and process. It is the resource to be invested in. it will be the long term investment by firm, and will return a lot in long way. Human resource department has very critical function to perform that plays key role in organizational success or failure.