Basic to the success of all societies, organizations, and other groups is the effective use of human resources. The importance of managing human resources effectively has increased in this century as organizations have grown in size, number, and complexity, have developed new technologies and work environments, and has come to be viewed by society as providers of safe, meaningful, and satisfying work as well as monetary reward. Many organizations cite their people as their primary source of competitive resource management policies and practices to sustain that advantage. More importantly, they structure work and design training, performing management, pay and reward policies to help members of the organization succeed in achieving desired organizational outcomes.
Organizations need people just as they need raw materials in order to function successfully. In fact, it is not uncommon to hear managers acknowledge: "Our people are our most important assets". Organizations undertake human resource planning to enable them to meet their future "people" needs in the same way in which they plan for their nonhuman resources planning to achieve their goals in the long term strategy, during the development of strategies for matching the size and skills of the workforce to organizational needs.
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Jordan organizations are not isolated from what is going on the world regarding the increased concern of human resources management and to plan for future of such resources in parallel with achieving its objectives and its strategic plans on the long run. Greater Amman Municipality is one of the largest Jordanian organizations that undertake to provide huge amount of services for the residents in different parts of the capability of an area 668 sequence kilometers which is anticipated to increase by the end of this year, since many other small municipalities will be linked with greater Amman municipality. Such increment will lead to increase the current number of workers which is (1300) employees. Such increment will impose the revision of greater Amman municipality strategic plans related to human resources to cope with real needs of skilled labor force or equality the existing labor force.
The research problem is to evaluate the human resources planning in Greater Amman Municipality in terms of facts and challenges as a case study, through investigating the current situation and forecasting situation.
The study stems its importance from various dimensions:
The importance of Greater Amman Municipality role in terms of providing services of high quality according to its strategic plan.
Human resources importance and its role in achieving Greater Amman Municipality intended goals.
Lack of studies on the local level regarding human resources planning.
The study seeks to evaluate human resources planning and management situation in Greater Amman Municipality in addition to:
To identify the real exerted efforts by human resources planning and management in Greater Amman Municipality for the purpose of determinations of its actual need of labor force.
To specify the obstacles that face labor force planning process and the needed steps to overcome such obstacles.
To find out the availability of needed labor force in Greater Amman Municipality local environment.
To observe the availability of future plans to face the extension of greater Amman area for the purpose of determination numbers and quality of required labor force to face the next stage.
The study attempts to answer the following questions:
Is there any real planning of labor force planning, and its activities in greater Amman municipality?
What are the main challenges and obstacles human resources management face during planning and implementing plans related to human resources?
Is there any matching between human resources plans and other strategic plans?
To what extent top management is interested with human resources plans and implementing such plans?
What is the impact of human resources planning outputs on Greater Amman municipality employs?
Study population will consist of all workers in Greater Amman Municipality.
According to Schuler and Jackson (1996) human resource management practices and systems have been linked to organizational competitiveness, increased productivity higher quality of work, life and greater profitability.
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Pfeffer (1994) have argued that human resource management is vital in order for an organization to achieve organizational success.
Down et al (1997) have argued that many organizations tend to focus on the admistrative aspects of the human resource management functions, due to difficulties they face on the integration of human resource management to organizational goals.
Walker (1999) stated that human resource management strategies need to be integral to organizational strategies. They need to pay attention to multiple levels for strategy implementation, including organization development, recruiting and staffing, rewards, performance, and employee relations, they should provide for innovative ways to differentiate organizations in competitive markers and they establish an achievable implementation plan.
It is well known that workforce planning is both an organizational necessity and a managerial responsibility (Carnevale, Gainer and Meltzer, 1990). Through workforce planning, organizations choose goals based on estimates of forecasts of the future, giving form and direction to the efforts of managers and workers (Davis, Weckler and Paris, 1996). Concern for the future is intensified by the fact of rent less, unremitting change (Drucker, 1992). The purpose of planning is therefore twofold: to determine appropriate goals, and to prepare for adaptive and innovative change.
Workforce planning is defined as the activity by which managers analyze present conditions to determine ways of reaching a desired future state (Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2000). It embodies the skills of anticipating, influencing and controlling the nature and direction of change (Eastman, 1995). Workforce planning is a pervasive and continuous function involving complex processes of perception, analysis, conceptual thought, communication, decision and action (Duane, 1996).
Workforce planning is a costly affair. It requires money, time, and information (Ettore, 1993). Workforce planning costs include not only the salaries of executives who plan, but the costs of false starts that result when planning as it often will be, is incomplete or incorrect (Galbraith, 1995). Costs are incurred in acquiring, storing, and retrieving planning data, and in training planners (Gottlieb and Conkling, 1995).
Although workforce planning may be regarded in general as having many payoffs, it often is severely curtailed when economic conditions deteriorate (Goodwin, 1982). Those disillusioned with the results of planning are quick to attack it as a waste of money. Workforce planning specialists may be released or reassigned to other work. Plans under way or about to start may be canceled or delayed (Green, 1999).
Workforce planning costs are part of overhead, or fixed costs. They must be paid regardless of the organization's productivity levels. The salaries of personnel workers, for example, continue even workers are not being hired or trained (Hupp, Toni, and Westergaard, 1995).
The development of municipalities in the kingdom
Municipalities sector is deemed a part of public sector. Public sector is in charge of all governmental ministries and departments operations, and plays a major role in providing the citizens with all services provided by the government. It is worthwhile to mention that such sector is governed by civil service law, but some department such as municipalities are governed by special services law. Municipalities in Jordan are rooted to 1920s. Since then the number of municipal increased tremendously, it increased from 10 municipalities in 1920 to 340 municipalities in 2006.Municipalities' staff are exceeding 22 thousand personnel distributed as follows:
Â With respect to municipal missions and objective, municipal law number 29 for the year 1955 and its amendments dedicated functions, authorities and empowerments which are:
1.Â Â Â Â Planning and zoning: it includes future planning for lands and zoning streets, in addition to make planning and zoning studies for expansion or for new additions and monitor implementing process for buildings and master plans.
2.Â Â Â Â Provide infrastructure services specially streets.
3.Â Â Â Â Permition of buildings markets and crafts.
4.Â Â Â Â Prepare studies and designs: includes making engineering and architectural designs and studies for different projects. Prepare specifications and quantities tables and estimated costs and other documents concerned in procurements and tenders.
5.Â Â Â Â Bids and tenders: including implementing tenders according to works and equipments regulation done and receive offers and analyze them, pick up the best offered provided.
6.Â Â Â Â Supervise projects implementation: including monitor and follow up projects implementation activities, and supervise applying public and private standards and entrepreneurs contracts conditions.
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7.Â Â Â Â Collect and transfer waste to the landfills.
8.Â Â Â Â Healthy and environmental monitor and preserve public disciplines and orders.
9.Â Â Â Â Prepare local budgetsÂ and organise financial procedures for revenues and expenditures and related financial reports.
10. Provide cultural and social services, and build parks, gardens and cultural activities.
Population and sample:
Study population will consist of all workers in Greater Amman Municipality.
The methodology adopted by any study must be appropriate for the objectives of that study. Methodology is an explanation of why you collected certain data, what data you collected from where you collected it, when you collected it, and how you collected it and how you analyzed it."
The research will use both qualitative and quantitative methods, because qualitative method generally requires a more flexible approach to overall research design and conduct. Much qualitative research involves a more relationship between the various elements of the research
Qualitative research aims to give insights into perception, motivation and attitudes to answer: What? Why? How? (Chisnall 2001)
Qualitative research is more of an art than a science. It dose not judge itself against the normal measurable standards of science or social science. It is measured; rather, by its usefulness in helping those that commission it. It provides insights into people and their motivations.
Qualitative research methodologies are designed to provide the researcher with the perspective of target audience members through immersion in a culture or situation and direct interaction with the people under study. Qualitative methods used in social marketing include observations, in-depth interviews and focus groups. Hypotheses are generated during data collection and analysis, and measurement tends to be subjective. In the qualitative paradigm, the researcher becomes the instrument of data collection, and results may vary greatly depending upon who conducts the research. The advantage of using qualitative methods is that they generate rich, detailed data. A disadvantage is that data collection and analysis may be laboured intensive and time-consuming.
The basic techniques of these types of search are they include depth interviews - either as individual unstructured interviews or as group discussion, focus group, synectic groups, extended creativity groups sensitivity groups, brain-storming, Delphi role-playing, various kinds of projective techniques.
The quantitative method involves statistical analysis. It relies on numerical evidence to draw conclusions or to test hypotheses. To be sure of the reliability of the results is often necessary to study relatively large numbers of people and to use computers to analyze the data. The data can be derived from questionnaire surveys, from observation involving counts or from secondary sources. (Veal, 1997)
The strengths of the quantitative paradigm are that its methods produce quantifiable, reliable data that are usually generalizable to some larger population. Quantitative measures are often most appropriate for conducting needs assessments or for evaluations comparing outcomes with baseline data... The greatest weakness of the quantitative approach is that it decontextualizes human behavior in a way that removes the event from its real world setting and ignores the effects of variables that have not been included in the model.
Quantitative method is used when the purpose is as follows:
To describe the characteristics of certain groups.
To estimate the proportion of people in a specified population who behave in a certain way.
To make specific predictions.
Foregoing, the study will be conducted by both qualitative and quantitative approaches through semi-structured interviews and survey questionnaire which will be applied in the study for several reasons:
The research is designed to explore, evaluate, and assess Human Resources Planning at Greater Amman Municipality. Hence, there will be many complex, social and behavioural variables as well as relationship, which need to be explored in detail and which require a qualitative approach. This approach is appropriate since the social world in business is complex and unique; therefore, it is difficult to theories in the same way as the physical science (Saunder et al, 2000; Remenyi, et al, 1998).
It is important to apply a quantitative approach in this research, in view of the fact that, there are some elements which need to be investigated by quantitative tools; for instance, determinations of greater Amman municipality actual need of labor force
Data collection methods
The choice of a data collection method involves a series of compromises in matching the often conflicting requirements of the situation with the strengths and limitations of available methods. The data collection methods that are used in this research are as follows:
Secondary data will be collected from various resources such as technical publications, books and journals, trade association data, private data services, computer databases and other available resources.
Self- administrated questionnaire will be used to collect the required primary data. The advantage of this method is in its flexibility of data collection where researcher can administer complex questionnaires, clarify and explain difficult questions, the ability to reach the respondent ants specified in the sample effectively and efficiently and the ability to control the environment of data collection, thus enabling to collect information from a wide population at low cost.
The gathered data from the distributed questionnaire will be coded and checked for the usability of each response received. The researcher will use statistical software called SPSS to analyze the data. A descriptive analysis (mean, standard deviations, percentage) will be conducted. T- Test and ANOVA test will be used.