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This assignment is about management of human resources and performance specially the purpose of training and development for employees and for organization. Organizations deal with most of the aspects of resources and performance issues in which are common for every business. In this assignment I discussed about human resources management and performance issues, their remedies through training and development, reward and benefit systems.
Research from different books, journals, article and website result I am starting discussion about it because resource management especially human resource management is very delicate issue for organization. The most important thing is that there is a lot of information and research material is available on website, journals, Articles, and books regarding my subject and chosen area of Human Resource Issues. Human resource management mean how to handle manpower, their rewards, training and development, performance appraisal and their efficiency for business.
2. Management of human Resources and Performance
In business human resource management involves different techniques and approaches focused on the management of human resources to accomplish business goals and aims. Human resource management occurs in every business environments. Decision making in the business human resource system is based by the followings; social and economic conditions, the formal authority structure of the local government, and other stakeholders in the decision-making process. Social and economic factors, formal authority structure, interest groups and other government agencies involved in the human resource process. These include social and economic factors (community needs and resources); formal authority structure (degree of local government autonomy or home rule granted in state-local relations, especially with respect to financial management decision making); interest groups and other government agencies (political strategies developed and coalitions formed around particular issues). All these factors define the specific political and organizational environment, ultimately affecting resources decisions and outcomes.
Armstrong and Baron define "performance management as 'a process which contributes to the effective management of individuals and teams in order to achieve high levels of organizational performance. It establishes combined understanding that what is to be achieved and what approach to leading and developing people which will ensure that it is achieved'." They go on to different stress levels because it is 'a strategy which relates to all activity of the organization which formulates in the context of its culture, style, human resource policies and communications systems. The nature of the strategy depends on the organizational and can vary from organization to organization.' Through this strategy they can manage the performance of the organization and achieve the goal.
3. Human Resource & performance
issues in organizations
It is very difficult to identify performance issue in the organization if you are a member of the organization than you can do it easily but if you are any outsider or consultant to provide services than it will be very difficult for you to do that work. In companies there are many issues which are related to their production, performance, quality of work, working environment, facilities for worker and management inefficiency. So to coup up to these issues it is very necessary for any one that he had a full and detail knowledge of these issues how to solve them and what are the causes of these. If you don't know what are the causes of these issues than you cannot solve the issues and if problem solve by any mean than it will not be its proper solution so their must be deep understanding of these issues and their solutions.
When we start with the performance of the company which include Poor performance, which is missing deadlines, behind schedule, over budget or poor quality, may or may not be signs that your planning implementation has performance issues. Performance issues are not a cause of business suffering from loss but if this continuous poor performance lead you to the poor business performance. Here are some poor performance issues examples;
Excessive absenteeism - team members absent usually specially near to weekends on Fridays and Mondays, which extend their weekend because of which organization's efficiency and deadlines missed. These problem lead organization to derail from its steady path and performance, also become hazard in achieving goals.
A team member consistently missing deadlines - members of team missing the dead lines continuously. At the time of assigning the task they committed that they will deliver this on time but on due date they make lame excuses and disappoint the manger and seniors.
A team member consistently delivering poor quality - this team member has their name on the performance sheet that it is making trouble for its group and every one in the performance of their duties. He frequently says that he did not do any thing but it was the fault of other, but actually that was his fault.
A team member is always asking for help from the team - this team member will always see the work of the its other team member or other stations although he can do work easily, but he takes help form other to do his work which is supposes to be done by him so makes disturbance for him self as well as others in doing their work.
The team, or an individuals of the team, complain of a team member which is interfering in the productivity - when this happens than a lot of time waste because of that productivity effect and quality of work decrease. Because of this employee cannot fully concentrate on their work, they cannot give full hundred percent performance, effectiveness and efficiency of employees decreases
Conflicts in the team - if the members of the team have conflict with each other than they will not be able to give full performance to the organization because of which efficiency effects. If any one member of the team is not cooperative than the whole team can be suffer loss because of one member. In team work every individual has his responsibilities and duties which he has to perform then team can finish its work.
Conflicts between a team member and stakeholders external to the team - this team member always seems to be involved in a dispute with someone external to the team. These are frequently the same people that are involved in the inter-team conflicts. The customer, suppler and other stake holder got effected from the behaviour of that individual.
Inappropriate physical behavior - some time in organization theses type of behaviors are unlawful i.e. drinking smoking and eating in wrong place, using drugs and alcohol, showing inattentive or sleepy behavior, hygiene issue, barbarian behaviors are very poor performance in organization progress..
Inappropriate communication style - i.e. shouting on seniors, quarreling with fellow members, aggressive behavior, no patient, making fun or humor of colleagues, conflict with supervisors & customers.
Quantity of work (untimely completion, limited production) - the staff of the company did not priorities the time and their work according to the need of the work so they do not know when work should be complete and submit. They have no schedule of work. They do work just with their own will with out understanding the importance of time. If there is any query or request of work or inquiry they do not respond properly according to need of the work. If only one worker accomplish the work, most of other worker involve in unrelated work instead of doing and performing their own duties.
In the work of the employees there are a lot of errors and mistakes in it because of unchecked the work due to that they did not meet the expectation of the need of the customer/client. In the site of production huge material wasted which is not normal in practice it is abnormal loss which company have to suffer because of untrained, inadequate and incapable staff. There were many other flaws in the system which companies have to suffer.
Inappropriate behaviors - Work Behaviors Which Result in Performance Problem was because of Negativism in work, hostility among team worker and employees because of power games to get high position in company and in the eye of owner/director of the company those employees do leg pulling and company performance suffers. Employees refuse to take order from their superior because they good in the eye of the owner. No body takes responsibility of the work or loss or damage. There was no check and balance and accountability on them so they can do that.
Usually these types of problems happen when there is centralize system in organization. Boss is very busy so he cannot look after every matter but he want to manage cash and don't trust on any body else him. Also in those organizations where there are no rules, strategies, and meeting take place. When change come in organization they Resistance to change by unwillingness, refusal or inability to update skills also Resistance to policy, procedure, work method changes.
4. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training is the most common technique to increase performance and efficiency of the employees which increase the performance and efficiency of the organization as well. The other thing which is besides training is development. In general training specified the role and task on the other hand learning and development is broader term which applies to increase the skill and knowledge for the better career of employee in or out the organization.
Learning may be considered as a key theme of all training and development. Training can be thought of as helping people to learn:
For the present and future health of the organization;
For personal fulfillment within the organization;
And in helping the organization to learn, to cope better with its fast-changing environment.
Training and development can be defined as "the planned learning and development of the people as individuals and as group to the benefit of the business as well as themselves" (Garavan et al., 1995:4)
Training, development and the knowledge of skills are the main part of business life and economic successes. In every part of life or business through training and development we increase or skills and become professional in that field. We can do a lot of research on a specified field with these key aspects without these we cannot do up to the mark. Through training the organization can increase its revenues, profitability, productivity and competitiveness in the market, it can also create a bench mark for other organizations and in the industry through its best practices. With training and development organization can improve its labour, trade and professional work force in negotiation to set their reward and benefits.
For individuals, education, training and development increase their knowledge, prospects and opportunities to remain in employment for more years, increase their rewards and decrease the chances of unemployment for themselves. The main function of human resource department is to train firm's employees and development them according to the need of the time and achieve firms goal in given resources. By training and development employees working capacity improves they can work better in team environment, they can work collectively to get firm goal, employees can adopt them self to the demanding need of technology for the organization so company don't need to hire new staff to do work. Employees come more socially to each other understand each other cooperate with them, so work friendship comes in employees because of which working alienation decrease or almost finishes.
TYPES OF TRAINING
There are many types of training and development take place in organization but most important and common types are as follows:
Health and safety
Ability to improve personal learning and performance
Motivation, judgment and leadership skills
5. DIFFERENT KIND OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUE
1. On-the-job Training and Lectures:
|On-the-job training and lectures mean that employees train on the job during work, senior or outside the organization any person come and give informal training through lectures or participation in work. This type of training is not consider as good because employees don't concentrate much on the training because they have to finish task and assign job so efficiency is not good. Lectures are also provided by the management to the staff for their work efficiency and contingency situation at work
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These are the computer generated instruction which help individual to learn and enhance his knowledge. This type of learning is computer based which educate individual through a systematic sequence.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
It is other type of computer based informational learning in which students can learn with their own knowledge and speed, they don't need to be good but they can become more effective and good with the time. It is quite similar to programmed instruction but with slightly higher development capacity in which individual can see its performance data and improve its learn performance.
4. Audiovisual Techniques
In audiovisual techniques staff / individual can enhance learning through television, movies, recording because when practical knowledge shown through TV, projector, electronic board and closed circuit television improve learning capacity and capability to a great extent. These electronic tools bring revolution in the learning system which are very beneficial for organizations.
Training simulations is recent advantage for businesses because in this type of training employers can train and develop their employees to the recent business requirement which is very beneficial to the business. In it business can set the market model which is a copy of real world, they can control the input factors according to the need of business and get result on its basis which help them to deal with real world's business need. They can formulate policies and decision on the basis of this model and modify their decision to get better results on alternate decisions. Now days this type of training is very common in education and business management to improve employees.
6. Business games
This type of technique was common in old ancient days. Mostly it was used in old war days. In it usually officers were train to combat business war techniques for hundreds of years ago. It is basic business technique which was essential for businesses; many businesses are still using this type of thing but in addition with interpersonal skills.
6. benefit of traning and development for businesses
There are many benefits of training and development. It play an important role in the growth and development of the company, company can achieve its objective with in specified time effectively and efficiently. Now a days most of the companies are spending on their employees training because employees are the assets of the company. Following are the main effects of it.
Build a performance culture.
Hire the right supervisors
Build trust and partnerships between supervisors and HR
Build constructive relationships with labor union personnel
Ensure communication between supervisors, employees and their appointing authorities
Identify the source of the problem before taking action
Focus on success
Address issues immediately
Consider the impact you want
Identify required competencies
Consider implementing a performance work plan.
Give employees access to external support
Goal Setting and Employee Involvement
Recognition and Reward
Training and development play very important and vital role in the development of any organization, especially when the organization is under performing and its resources are not utilizing at full capacity. In many organizations same situation is there which can be resolve through training and development. If the organization has the above mention performance issues than these can be resolve because of the technique and the types of training can be helpful to it.
The aim of the training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding values to its key resource ie the staff / employees. When organization employees are well trained than they can perform better, make the best use of their natural abilities, helps to grow with in the company to promote himself. Also it reduces the learning time for employees starting in new job on appointment, transfer or promotion and ensures that they become fully competent as quickly as economically as possible. So training and development is very important for every organization.