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The human resource is the one of important resources for successful development of every company. Human resource management is a strategic management of an organization's people with the setting of environment. According to Sheppard (2003) it is considered as the most valuable assets that contribute to the achievement of the organization's goals and objectives. The main or core focus of Human resource management is people. It is related with gathering, maintaining, improving and motivating the people in the right environment. It helps to consider ethical issues for the mutual procedure in case fairness, respect and transparency and such. It ensures a congenial environment to have the right person in the right place.
Sims (2007) point out that human resource management considers the strategic fitness about the individuals and teams approach to develop the organizational effectiveness. Human resources are inimitable, appropriable, valuable and scarce, and no substitutable asset which can create competitive advantages. People and their skills is the one thing that competitor organizations cannot imitate. So, human resource management is firmly embedded in important business strategic levers to ensure continuing success. Human resource management is a blend of human capital management practices which is required for both corporate practices as well as image of the company. Human resource management is a distinct aspect to personnel management which is committed to gain competitive edge by creating strategic deployment a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques. HRM is essentially a business-oriented philosophy for managing people in pursuit of excellence
Tesco Plc is firmly established as the leading food retailer in the United Kingdom. It is estimated that one pound in every seven spent on food in the UK is spent at Tesco stores. Tesco is very popular in all over the world. Tesco's market share is nearly twice that of its nearest rival and its dominant position has been exploited effective to grow its non food businesses to a point where they have significant scale and are highly profitable, earning meaningful returns on investment, in their own right.
According to Tesco Plc (2010) today Tesco is an international business of significant scale and is active in 12 countries beyond the UK including Europe, Asia and North America. In excess of 28 million customers are served by the 160,000 employees of the Group's international business which generates profits of £700m on sales of £13.8 billion. As of 2008 over the international business has been developed to a point where half of Tesco's selling space is outside of the UK. The Tesco brand was conceived when Cohen bought a shipment of tea from T E Stockwell and made the new labels using the first three letters of their name and adding C and O from his own. Thus Tesco came into being in 1924. Funding Universe (2010) mention that Tesco progress is continuously growing day by day. In 1929 the first store was opened in Burnt Oak near Edgware in London and the company floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1947 as Tesco Stores (Holdings) Limited. Throughout the 1950s and 60s Tesco grew organically and through acquisitions to a point where it owned over 800 stores. Tesco founder jack Cohen was an enthusiastic advocate of price promotions and was amongst the first to embrace the Green Shield Stamp trading stamps scheme which offer inducements for shoppers to shop at his stores in 1963 and became one of its biggest clients
TASK-1 INVSTIGATE HOW HRM CONTRIBUTES TO THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES
IDENITFY AND EXPLAIN ANY THREE KEY HRM ACITIVITIES OF THE ORGANISATION YOU WORK FOR AS AN HR DIRECTOR
HR management is composed of several groups of interlinked activities taking place within the context of the organisation. Organisational effectiveness depends on having the right people in the right jobs at the right time to meet rapidly changing organisational requirements. Right people can be obtained by performing the role of human resource function, in this report I am going to discuss three HRM activities which are very important in any large organisation or company.
Performance management is the means through which managers ensure that employee¡¦s activities and outputs are congruent with the organizational goals.
Some aspects of performance can be measured through performance appraisal. It is the process through which an organization gets information on how well an employee is doing his or her job. According to Bandit and Haines (2004) performance management has strategic, administrative and developmental purposes. It is very important in Tesco Plc .There are a few approaches to measuring performance. The comparative approach requires the rather to compare an individual¡¦s performance with that of others. This approach usually uses some overall assessment of an individual¡¦s performance or worth and seeks to develop some ranking of the individuals within a work group. Three techniques fall under the comparative approach: ranking, forced distribution, and paired comparison.
When a person plays a role of Hr Director it is really very keen factor in the human resource management. Hrmguides (2010) claim that recruitment is the process of locate manpower to meet job requirement and job specifications, there are many factors affecting recruitment process the working conditions, salary and benefit packages , compensation, incentives , size of the organization, employment condition in the community where the organization is located. For example as a HR director of Tesco Plc I have be a very keen in selection and recruitment process because it is very important for me to select and recruit a right candidate for my organisation if I am fail to do this then we cannot achieve our goal or objective.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
HRM contribute to the achievement of organisation objectives first of all training and development is really very important for achieving goal or objective of Tesco s. As a manager of Tesco's performance appraisals not only assist in determining compensation and benefits, but they are also instrumental in identifying ways to help individuals improve their current positions and prepare for future opportunities. According to Redman and Wilkinson (2004) as the structure of organizations continues to change through or expansion the need for training and development programs continues to grow. Improving or obtaining new skills is part of another area of HRM, known as training and development. Kelly (2008) claim that each of the training methods mentioned has benefits to the individual as well as to the organization. Some of the benefits are reducing the learning time for new hires, teaching employees how to use new or updated technology, decreasing the number and cost of accidents because employees know how to operate a machine properly, providing better customer service, improving quality and quantity of productivity, and obtaining management involvement in the training process. When managers go through the training, they are showing others that they are taking the goals of training seriously and are committed to the importance of human resource development.
1.2 EXPLAIN HOW THE THREE KEY HRM ACITVITIES WERE ACHIEVED THROUGH EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF HR RESOURCES
According to Torrington, Hall and Taylor (2008) there is a big amount of frustration and dissatisfaction with currently method of performance management. This approach is based on ratings scales, goal, objective and other performance indicators. It's very effective in organization and therefore as a HR director I have to encourage the employees who are working with my organization I have to talk with them informally and with the help of this employee knew about their performance they knew about their weakness and strengths. For example in Tesco Plc there are many employees from different region work together and from them every year I have to give some of them who shows their honesty, hard work and punctuality as a HR director of Tesco I have to give them honour and award every year for their contribution.
Recruitment has big impact in my organization because if as HR Director I failed to get a right candidate for my organization then it will be trouble for me and for my organization in future. So with the help of recruitment I can find a right employee for my organization. according to Eldis (2010) we have to plan our recruiting to ensure successful candidate selection for example as HR Director we should go through candidate resume, interview, personality in other hand in my organization employee have to serve the customer on till so I have to arrange some computer test because when customer come on counter with their goods they can serve them easily. Furthermore when the time of selection I have to use not traditional style of selection but I have to write scenarios, brief role plays, and give an employee a task to solve a problem which will be helpful for the employee when he actually work with the organization.
Training and development programs are introduced to organizations to improve the knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees through effective management. In addition, development and training programs are essential for an organization to successfully train and educate their employees. Strategic human resource (2010) mention that the quality and variety of the training companies provide is a key for motivation. Reasons for training range from new-hire training about your operation to introducing a new concept to a workgroup. Quality training and development programs are essential in keeping the staff motivated about learning new concepts and keeping the department profitable.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ANY TWO HRM MODELS WHICH EXIST INTHE ORGANISATION YOU WORK FOR AS AN HR DIRECTOR
This model is has six dimension of analysis for example HRM strategy , HRM practices, HRM outcomes, behaviour outcomes, performance outcomes and finally financial outcomes. Bandit and Haines (2004) mention that this model is very authoritarian in the sense that it is rely upon the assumption that HRM is different from traditional personnel management. This model is also very idealistic, implicitly the belief that fundamental element of the HRM approach, such as commitment have a direct relationship with business outcomes.
On other hand Guest model has acknowledge that the concept of commitments is not as good as the relationship between commitment and high performance is. In this model the employee relationship is view as one between the individual and the organisation. So some extent it is helpful for Tesco Plc and some extent it is not.
For Tesco Plc this one is suitable model of human resource management. The Harvard model is strongly influenced by behavioural research and theory and stands in the tradition of human relations. Kleynhans (2005) this is a humanistic and anti authoritarian viewpoint which holds that employees will only adopt an organisation's objectives if they wish to. They will not demonstrate enthusiastic and commitment if they are forced to comply. Accordingly, although strategic decisions making is challenged through top manager there is an emphasis on participation throughout the organisation they argue that the well-being of employees must be considered separately and distinctly from that of the organisation. Employers can be affected economically, physically or psychologically by HR policies. But manager have different values and will weight those consequences differently according to those values. Some will focus on the organisation at the expense of workers whereas others will regard employees as having legitimate claims to fair treatment.
TASK-2 EXAMINE HR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS
2.1 IDENTIFY AND EXPLAIN THREE HR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS IN YOUR ORGANISATION
It's vital that we avoid discriminating when we come to recruit staff. Not only is it against the law but by putting every applicant on an equal footing we stand more chance of getting an employee who is perfect for the job. As the owner of a small business, we are liable for any discriminatory action brought about by our employees. According to Hendry (2005) it is against the law to discriminate against someone based on their sex, sexual orientation, marriage status, race, colour, nationality, ethnic origin, religion, or because of a disability, pregnancy or being part of a trade union. It's also illegal to discriminate against part-time workers. When we welcome to interview candidates then certain questions are strictly banned. We can't ask, either directly or indirectly, whether someone is married, gay or plans to have children. Hrmbusiness (2010) believe that to encourage our status as a fair employer we can take steps to become an equal opportunities employer. We can implement an equal opportunities policy into our business, set an action plan with targets, provide training for staff, review our recruitment process on a regular basis, draw up justifiable job criteria, offer pre-employment training and consider offering flexible working hours.
According to Sims (2007) performance Appraisal or evaluation is the HRM method used to determine the extent on which the employees are performing the job effectively. Performance appraisal should also be viewed as a system of highly interactive processes which involve personnel at all levels in differing degrees in determining job expectations, writing job descriptions, selecting relevant appraisal criteria, developing assessment tools and procedures, and collecting interpreting, and reporting results. Performance appraisal can be either Informal, when supervisors think about how well the employees are doing and Formal, when there is a system set up by the organization to regularly and systematically evaluate employee performance.
MOTIVATION AND MAINTENENCE
The motivation induces to action work. Through work the person is capable to satisfy the material requirements. Motivation is very important in Tesco plc because as HR Director I have to motivate employees to work hard and give their best. Green (2002) opines that the satisfaction of the material requirements also is the basic motivation. There is a set various ways and motivation theories which can be divided into two basic groups: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The basic of ideas for workers is compensation reception for over norm the performed work. It is a good way of improvement of a spirit and working capacity in group. As housekeeping that is group work it is impossible to perform over norm without excellent work in group. It also will be the basic stimulus for work training in group. But as well as any ways it has the minuses.
2.2 CRITICALLY EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE HR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS IN MEETING THE ORGANISAITONAL OBJECTIVES.
Equal opportunities play a big role in Human Resource Management its effectiveness is very vital in all aspect of operations in an organization. Every organization always tried to give equal opportunities to their staff in terms of all factors which are irrelevant to their abilities. But there are so many obstacles as a HR Director of Tesco Plc I have to ensure equity and access, Tesco is committed to policy of selection of the employee and appointment of the employee basis of their past experience, qualification, confidence. Business balls (2010) point out that Sometime we are failing to achieve our objective for example in Tesco when we recruit so many employees in current year but later on when there is a matter of equal opportunities it include wider range of inequalities based on disabilities, race, sex, age, marital status, sexual orientation, nationality and social class which are critical and accurate exploration of equal opportunities.
On the other hand motivation is important for Tesco Plc but on some reasons the basic minus is accustoming of people to awards, they start them to perceive as due. Absence of awards can lead to conflicts. The basic way of the decision of this problem, increase of awards as under our conditions it economically is not favourably necessary to think over system of increase of awards without the big financial expenses.
Lastly performance has also many disadvantages for example
If not done appropriately, can be a negative experience.
Are very time consuming, especially for a manager with many employees.
Are based on human assessment and are subject to rater errors and biases.
If not done right can be a complete waste of time.
Can be stressful for all involved.
Finally a performance appraisal is only as good as the performance management is part of. If an organization merely does performance appraisals for the sake of doing them, they are wasting their time. But if they strategically incorporate performance management into their strategic plan to implement business goals they will provide a process to accomplish those goals
TASK-3 ANALYSIS ON HOW THE HR PERFORMANCE CAN BE ENHANCED IN THE ORGANIZATION
3.1 CRITICALLY REVIEW HOW HR PERFORMANCE IN YOUR ORGANISATION IS CURRENTLY INDICATED AND MONITERED
HR performance is very valuable source in organization it is also known as key success indicators and it is also very important to achieve organizational goals. Key performance indicators are measurements that reveal the critical success of factors of an organization. All key factors are different from each other and it depends upon the organization. For example in Tesco Plc if our key performance is customer service any customer coming in our organisation we have to serve and help them as soon as possible and sort it out their problem, because if we ignore this factor and didn't give customer response or any delay then customer can change the company and finally our business lose money.
Bandit and Haines (2004) states that key factors always reproduce organizational goals, so first of all we have to set a target or goal for organization and think about how we achieve or accomplish that particular goal. In my organization HR performance monitored in so many ways but I want to discuss in this assignment some of these, as a HR director I arranged meeting of staff member I got effective feedback on the staff member's performance throughout the review period. For example in Tesco Plc when we analyse monthly performance of employees and we sort it out so many higher performance throughout the month and we decide this performance in our fixed parameters of the organization.
Swanson and Holton (2009) mention that recruitment, training and development of employees quality and also providing best working conditions with appropriate increase opportunities has been convene with high standards. Separately as of these functions, being obedient with rules and regulations of the country and keeping a way of the best performing employees and on condition that them with opportunities for growth and maintain them for the best results has been approved out methodically. But in Tesco Plc sometimes there were many bad experiences about employees which are destructive for Tesco.
3.2 SUGGEST WAYS ON HOW TO IMPROVE THE INDICATE AND MONITORING PROCESS
Monitoring pays attention at the aim improving the project's design and functionality of an operation. According to Kelly (2008) the creation of customer satisfaction has to be met by organizations by proving adequate customer service. Customer satisfaction can principally be met through provision of products or service requested on acceptable specification, cost and timing, because of this Tesco has its own slogan that "every little helps". The utilization intensity of resources serves as one monitor of performance as well as the value of productivity output per employee. In performance management and management control two measures that can be exercised can be the actual behaviour of the system compared with requested standards
Hendry (2005) opines that HR planning is an effective method to understand and estimation the employee requirements. It is also an opportunity to effectively equipment the changes in the organisation with increase of decrease in need of employees. Maintain of efficient staff and new recruitment becomes much easy with the understanding of the requirements and forecasting of future needs. The over indication activities are directly related with the various factors in an organisation similar to culture, workforce development, values and active income structure. HR planning involves various factors like Job Category, Selection Method, Analysis of collated data etc. Future desires are forecasted depending on the existing revenue ratio and a detailed study into the reason for the same. This helps in the recruitment which follows by analysing the new applicant and extent them across the existing situations. Forecasted result helps enhanced understanding of the desires and avoids employment of excess staff.
Human resource management is the creation of the relation of the overall strategic aim of the organization and the human resource strategy and implementation. Initially, in this process the employee and organization are managed in such a way that aim of the business strategy and then create human resource management such as recruitment, selection, reward, compensation, training and incentives? With the help of human resource management approach that involves commitment, ideas of culture, and mission. In this report I have mentioned HRM models; I compared two models of HRM as a director of Tesco Plc. I have also mentioned HR planning methods and how to improve the monitoring process. Majority organization adopts formal human resource management. The HR dept entail in every decision of the organisation because it manages the most important factor in an organisation which is Human Resource. The various analyses approved out on the different activities of all-purpose HR dept and that of Tesco's explain that it has been highly successful in employ the right activities helping them maintain their position in the market.