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The word strategy has been derived from the noun strategus which means commander in chief. Thus the usage and the development of the word is composed of stratos which means army and agein meaning lead and while talking in the context of the management, it means planning for the long term which thus denote the specific patterns for the actions and decisions taken by the organization to thus accomplish the goals. Strategic management is thus considered to be the continuous activity which requires the constant adjustment for the poles like environment, senior management and the available resources.
Strategic framework when overviewed can be defined as the process of executing decisions which are critical and perform tasks and whole other activities which are directed towards the implementation of strategies of the organizations. The process of the strategic management consists of the steps that involve implementation or development of the mission and vision of the organization, a vision for the future of the organization and mission that can define the work and quality of the organization. The framework also consists of the values that can define your mission and actions, strategies that help you to achieve or move towards success and plans and action for the goal of the organization. The vision for the future of the organization depends on the organization's success which further depends on the employees of the organization that how well they understand the company goals, vision and mission, thus having the vision statement like how should the employees should resonate with the organization to help them feel excited, proud of their own work and the vision should also stretch to give the shape and the direction to the future.
models of strategic human resource management (shrm)
Strategic management is a cycle that depends on several factors that are thus interred linked and activities feed and follow on one another too. An organization's human resource practices and policies must fit with the strategy in the environment which is competitive and the business conditions which are thus immediate. This model is referred to as the matching model.
The matching model
Human resource organizational structure and system should thus be managed in the way that is thus congruent with the organization's strategy. The mission's strategy, the organizational structure and the human resource management are all inter linked and to the group of these three, they are inter linked with the political forces,economic forces and the cultural forces. There must always be a fit between the competitive strategy and the internal human resource management strategy
The control based model
The first approach is based on nature of the workplace control and specifically on the managerial behavior to monitor and direct the role performance of the employee. The starting point is referred to the transformation of the labour power into the labour. Alternative human resource strategies include early system of the individual control replaced by structural forms like technical control and bureaucratic control. Topology of human resource strategy includes responsible autonomy and direct control strategies followed by process based control and outcome based control.
The resource based model
This approach is grounded to the nature of the exchange of the reward effort. The sum of the expertise and the people's knowledge, social relationships serve as the source of the competitive advantage. Sustained competitive advantage is not achieved through the firm's external position of market but through the careful analysis of the capabilities and skills. This approach exploits distinctive competencies of the organization's work and the resources of the organization have been divided into tangible and intangible resources.
Thus the key concepts include the control based model, the strategy of differentiation, the hierarchy of strategy, the leadership, the human resource strategy, the low cost leadership, the resource model, strategic HRM, strategic management and the workplace learning.
human resource strategy and business strategy
The issues of the human resource strategy include the outcome that is the vision, mission and priorities of the organization. The challenges include the pattern of the policies and practices; it means how the decisions regarding different policies and practices of the organization are taken. Thus we have two types of human resource strategies that include espoused human resource strategy that gives us the road map of the strategy and the other emergent human resource strategy which tells us the way to the road actually traversed by the organization.
The one way downward arrow of the human resource strategy tells us about the five p's- philosophy, programs, policy, processes and the practices. The strategic choices have been divided into three- first one is upstream or first order that defines the long term direction of the organization, when the first order decision is taken to take over the another enterprise, it is referred to as the second order strategy and the third order strategy establishes or defines the basic parameters of the organization and the HR strategy is determined by the decisions taken at the three different levels.
The business strategy includes the linkage of the HR policies and practices with strategic management of the organization which thus includes steps like internalization of importance of HR on part of the line managers, the integration of workforce into organization to thus foster the commitment or the identity in best interest with strategic goals of the organization.
The issues and challenges associated with the human resource strategy and the business strategy are the conceptual clarity, identifying the bundle or the whole lot of practices of the human resources that thus deal with the strategic models which are competitive in the business world. The challenges also include the impact of the big decisions of the corporate world on the organization, issues like the mission and goals of the organization, environmental issues, the challenges of the strategies, to formulate strategy for the organization to have the whole benefit keeping in the mind the employees satisfaction, see that the strategies are being implemented in a proper way and thus evaluating the outcome of any strategy implemented. The multilevel business issues include the contextual factors like the product market, the labor market, the capital market, technology, government policies, union policies and free trade agreement policies which thus include different level strategy like corporate level strategy which depends on what business is the organization in, business level strategy which depends on the how do the organizations compete in the corporate world with the other organizations working in the same business and the functional level strategy which is involved with the business level strategy and has several factors like the marketing, the manufacturing, the finance and the human resources.
external and internal environmental factors influencing strategy formulation and implementation of sustainable competitive advantage
The internal factors that affect are the organizational strength and the weakness of the organization and the external factors that affects are the opportunities for the organization and threats to the organization. Thus the factors that are the most important to organization's future are the strategic factors that can thus be summarized as SWOT which means strength, weakness, opportunity and threats. The firm resources and the capabilities which include value, limitability, rarity and the non-substitutability which thus give shape to the strategies and thus the sustained competitive advantage which in return develops the organization's resources and capabilities.
The strategic formulation involves the managers that are senior at post and make the strategic choices that are thus related and taken in regards of the internal factors and the external factors. Term strategic choice is the question why is the decision made and who made the decision, so the notion draws attention to the management as the political process while actions and decision on issues are taken by the power dominant group, thus while incorporating the strategy of choice in the theory of the organizations, the operation of the essentially political process is being recognized in which the opportunities and the constraints are the functions of power that are thus exercised by the decision makers in light of the values. Thus the outcome is linked with the senior management and the employees. Thus the perspective of the strategic choice on the decision making of the organization makes discourse on strategy concrete and thus provides important insights.
strategies to deal with HR issues
The strategies to deal with the HR issues are lined below-
The corporate level strategy
It describes the overall direction of the corporation in terms of the philosophy towards management and the growth of the business unit which thus have initiatives like establishing the priorities of the investment and the steering resources of the corporation, the initiating action to help improve the performance of the business units with whom the corporation was first involved, finding useful ways to improve synergy between the related business units to have a greater increased performance and the decision making which thus deals with the diversification.
The business level strategy
It includes the low cost leadership strategy and the differentiation strategy which can thus be part in two ways- the narrow and the broad. The low cost leadership strategy thus attempts to increase market share of the organization by having lowest unit cost and the price compared with the competitors and thus the simple alternative to the cost leadership strategy is the differentiation strategy which assumes that the managers distinguish the products and the services from the competitors in the industry by thus providing higher levels of service and higher quality products. The competitive scope can thus be viewed as the broad target and the narrow target and the competitive advantage as the low cost and the uniqueness. Thus we have a chain of prospectors, analyzers and reactors.
The functional level strategy
This strategy pertains to major operations of the functions within the business unit that thus include the development and the research, manufacturing, marketing, HR and the finance. Thus the strategy level is typically concerned with the maximization of the resource productivity and to support the business level strategy.
When we look at the outcome, the process and the locus of the workplace control, we can have four more strategies-the commitment HR strategy which is focused on the internal development of the employee's competencies and the outcome control, the traditional HR strategy which is focused on external recruitment of the competencies and the behavior or the process based control., the collaborative HR strategy which involves organization's subcontracting work to the external experts which are independent, giving the extensive autonomy and thus evaluating the performance in terms of the outcomes, the paternalistic HR opportunities which thus offer the internal promotion to the employee's and the learning opportunities which is thus the process based control mechanism.
Dubai human resources forum is the organization which meets my personal requirement as the forum is very enthusiastic and all the senior managers are always keen to share their own experiences, seek for the personnel and professional development and communicate and network properly. The forum's is also open to any individual who is connected and related to the HR and want to pursue their own objectives in the field. They meet once fortnightly for a workshop, seminar or a networking event. It is an organization member of chartered institute of personnel development in UK and thus encourages the attainment of the professional standards. This I chose Dubai human resources forum as the professional organization I would like to join.