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Human resource planning or man power planning is essentially the process of getting the right of qualified people into the right job at the right time. It is a system of matching the supply of people with openings the organization experts over a given time frame.
According to Edwin B. Geisler:-
Manpower planning is, "the process by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people, at the right places, at the right time, doing things for which they are economically mast useful".
According to Bruce P. Coleman:-
Manpower Planning is, "the process of determining manpower requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization.
According to Leon C. Megginson:-
Human resource planning is "an integrated approach to performing the planning aspect of the personal function in order to have a sufficient supply of adequately developed and excepted people to perform the duties and task required to meet organizational objective and satisfy the individual needs and goals of organizational members".
Emergence of human resource planning
The emergence of hr Planning reflect a broadening of the mission of the personnel function. New full time staff roles have been established in many companies to provide support to managerial practices HRP. HRP professionals fulfill various roles, depending on the tasks and organizational priorities. Consulting roles is vital in effective implementation of changes called for in HRP.AS companies deal with changing social and individual values, come face-to-face with the application of employment-related laws, and experience HR constraints I achieving business plans and objectives, HRM assumes an increased signification.
Activity of human resource planning
The major activity of human resource planning include:-
Forecasting future manpower requirements, either in terms of mathematical projections of trends in the economic environment and development in industry, or in terms of judgmental estimates based upon the specific future plans of a company.
Making an inventory of present manpower resources and assessing the extent to which these recourses are employed optimally.
Anticipating manpower problem by projecting present resources into the future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements to determine their adequacy, both quantitatively and qualitatively,and
Panning necessary programmes of requirement, selection, traninig, development, utilization, transfer, promotion, motivation and copmansation to ensure that future manpower requirements are properly met.
Characteristics of Human Resource Planning.
Following are the feature of human resource planning:-
Well Defind objectives:
The objectives of the organization in stratergy planning and oprerating planning may from the objective of human resource planning. Human resource needs are planned, on the basis of the company's goals. Basides, human resource planning has its own objectives, like developing human resource, updating technical expertise, career planning of individual executives and people, ensuring better commitment of people and so on.
Determine personal needs:
Human resource planning is releted to the determination of personnel needs, in the organization. The thinking will have to be done in advance, so that the persons are available at a time, when they are needed.
Having Manpower Invantory:
It include the inventory of present manpower in the organization. The manager should know the persons, who will be available to him, for undertaking higher responsibilities in the near future.
Adjusting Demand and supply;-
Manpower requirements have to be planned well in advance as suitable personse are not immediately available. In case sufficient persons will not be available in future, then efforts should be made, to start recruitment proccedd well in advance. The demand and supply of personal should be seen in advance.
Creating proper Work Environment:-
Basides estimating andemploying personnel, manpower planning also ensures that proper working condition are created.people should like to work in the organization and they should get proper job satisfaction.
It result in the development ofpolicies, programmes and procedures for the acquisition, development, preservation and utilization of the organization's human assets.
Manpower planning is a continuous or never ending process because the demand and supply of manpower are subject to frequent change. It is dynamic activity.
Objectives of Human Resource Planning.
Folowing are the objective of HRP:-
Forecat human resource Requirements:-
Human Resource planning is essential to determine the future human resource needs in an organization.In the absence of such a plan, it would be difficult to have the service of the right kind of people at the time.
Proper planning is require to cope with changes in market conditions, technology products, and government regulations in an effective way. These change call for continuous allocation or reallocation of skill and in the absence of planning there might be underutilization of human resources.
Realizining organizational goal:-
In order to meet the needs of expansion programmes and growth streaergy of the organization planning is essential.
The databased available provides a comprehensive skill repertoire, which facilitates for decision making as to the promotional opportunities to be made available for the ofganization.
Effective Utiliation of human resource:-
This databased is also useful for identifying surplus abd unutilized human resources and resources. In times of downsizing or in estimatind the cost benefit analysis of human resources would add value to the process.
Facilities Economic Development:-
At the national level, manpower planning is essential for economic development. It is particularly helpful in the generation of employment in educational reforms and in geographical mobility of talent.
Helps fill the Gap:-
Manpower planning identified the gaps in existi ng manpower so that suitable training programmes may be developed for building specific skills, required in future.
Need of human resource planning:-
Storage of employee and skill
The storageof certain catagaries of employees and variety of skills despite the problem of unemplyement
Change in tequnology
The rapid change in technology, marketing, management, etc, and the consequent need for new skill and new categaries of employees.
Rplacement of personal:-
A large number of persons are to be replaced in the organization because of retirement, old age, death, etc. there will be a need to proper persons for taking up new position in such contingencies.
There are always labour turnover in every organization. The degree of labour turnover may vary from concern but it cannot be eliminated altogather. There will be a need to recruit new persons to take up the positions of those who have left the organization.
Whenever there is a plan to expand or diversify the concern then more persons will be required to take up new positions.hrp is essential under these situations.
Human resource audit:-
Capabilities, skills, performance abilities and potentialities of each individual are evaluated in the human resource audit.
For improving in Quality of life and quality of work:-
Asubstantial improvement in quality of life and qualiry of work life backed by total quality management, require systemantic human resource planning.
Human resource plenning must always be backed by proper evaluation and appraisal systems. Periodical appraisal of performance, both in qualitative and quantitative terms, throwns light on actal performance as a result of planning.
HRP at Different levels:
Different institutions make hrp at different levels for their own purposes, of which national level, industry level, unit level, departmental level and job level are important.
National Level: Genrally government at the center plan for human resources at the national level. It forecast the output level of that particular industry.
Sectoral level:- Manpower requirement for a particular sector like agricultural sector, industrial sector or tertiary sector are projected based on the government policy, projected output etc.
Industry leval:- Manpower needs of a particular industry like cement, textile, chemical is predicted taking in to account the output level of that particular industry.
Unit level:- This covers the estimation of human resource needs of an organization or company based on its corporate plan.
This covers the manpower needs of a particular department in a company.
Job level:- Manpower needs of a particular job family within department like Mechanical Engineer, are forecast.
Importance or advantages:-
Future personal needs:-
Planning is significant as it helps determine future personal needs. Surplus or deficinency in staff strength is the result of the absence of or defective planning. All public sector enterprices find themseleve overstaffed now, as they never had any planning of their personal requirements.
Coping with change:-
Hrp enables an enterprise to cope with change in competitive forces, markets, technology, product and government requlations. Such changes generate change in job content, skill demands and number and type of personel.
Replacement of persons:-
A large number of persons are to be replaced in the organization because of retirement, old age, death, etc. There will be a need to proper persons for taking up new position in such contingences.
There is always labor turnover in every organization. The degree of labor turnover may vary from concern to concern but it cannot be eliminated altogather. There will be a need to recruit new persons to take up the positions of those who left the organization.
Whenever ther is a plan to expand or diversify the concern then more persons will be required to take up new positions.Human resource planning is essential under these situation.
Human resource audit:-
Capabilites,skill,performance abilities and potentialities of each individual are evaluated in the human resources audit. On many occasions, replacement charts or succession plans are kept so that potential executives are located for every position in the organization during the given future period.
Incresing Investments in Human Resource:-
Another compelling reson for HRP is the investment an organization makes in its Human resources. Human assets, as opposed to physical assets, can increase in value.
Disadvantages of human resource planning:-
Depending on forecast:-
Manpower planning involves forecasting the demand and supply of human resources.Thus the effectiveness of planning depends upon the accuracy of forecasts.
Many human resource specialists and the managers do not understand the whole manpower planning process. Becouse of this, there is genrally an identity crisis.
Suport of top management:-
Manpower planning Require full and wholehearted support from the top management. In the absence of this support and commitment, it would not be possible, to ensure the necessary resources, co opration and support for the success of the manpower planning.
It is risky, to depend upon genral estimates of manpower, in the face of rapid changes in the environment. Absenteeeism, turnover, seasonal employment, technological changes and market fluctuations are the uncertainties, which serve as constraints to manpower planning.
Expensive and time consuming:-
It is expensive or more time consuming prosescc . employee may resist manpower planng, felling tat it increasing the cost of manpower.
Human resource planning procces:-
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING MODEL
Envirnment scanning such as:-
Technological changes, including robotics and automation.
Demografical change, including age, composition and literacy.
Political and legislative child care, and educational facilities and priorities.
Social concern, including child care, and educational facilities and priorities.
Organizational Objective and policies:-
HR plans need to be based on organizational objectives. In practice, this implies that objectives of the HR plan must be derived from organizational objectives. Specific requirement in terms of number and charecteristics of employees should be derived from the organizational objectives.
HR Demand Forecast:-
Demand forecasting is the process of estimating the future quantity and quality of people required. The basis of the forecast must be the annual budget and long term corporate plan, into activity level for each function and department. such as growth, technology introduction and goal.
HR Supply Forecast:-
Personnel demand anyalasis provide the manager with the means of estimating the number and kind of employees that wikk be required. The next logical step for the management is to determine weather it will be able to procure the required nuber of personnel and the sources for such procurement.This information is provides by supply forecasing.
Once an organization personnel and supply are forecast, the two must be reconciled or balanced in order that vacancies can be filled by the right employees at the right time.HR programming the third step in the planning process.therefore assuming greater importance.
HR Plan Imlimantation:-
Implimantation required converting an HR plan into action. A series of action programmes are initiated part of HR plan implimantation.Some such programmes are recruitment, selection placement ,traning and development and succession plan.
Control and Evalution:-
This represent fifth and the final plan in HRP process.The HR plan should include budget, target and standard. It should also clarify responsibilities for implimantation and control, and establish reporting procedure, which will enable achievement to be monitored against the plan. These may simply report on the number employed against establishments and on the number recuited against the recruitment target. But they should be also report employment cost against budget, and trend in wastage and employement ratios.
In sort Human resource planning is continues process and it is effective to organizational goal and object such as purpose.HRP has to factore affected sach as 1) internal 2) exernal factor.The organization must plan for attracting and retraining key personnel. The needs must be determined in advance so as to permit adrquate time for the traning and development of required personnel. The man power planning must be done within the limit of a budget. There is no use formulating an excellent plan which cannote be implemented because of financial constraints. The process of HRP involves three key steps - assessing and making an inventory of the current human resource, forecasting the organization's human resources needs and matching the demand and supply of the human resources. The effective period of an effective manpower plan should be appropriate to the needs and circumatances of the particular organization. Moreever, planning should have the full support of the top manangement. Effective Human Resource Planning reduce the pressures on the management an employees, as both employment and retrenchment would be well planned and phased out over a comfortable time, span, avoiding unpleasant consequences.In short human resource planning must be help full in taking batter decision for future planning.