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I do completely agree with the statement being in as question that the process of recruitment and selection interact with other systems while in particular they are part of the way HR plans are implemented and they provide input to the overall functions of the organisation.
Once the right type of organisation structure is developed , it becomes necessary to fill in the various job positions with the right kind of people who can effectively perform their assigned activities. This is known the managerial function of staffing which is consisted of the several interrelated activities from which the core may be cited as follows:
Human resource planning (HRP)
Training and development
Before proceeding i would like to start with the root of these two components that is HRP(human resource planning).
Every organisation needs inputs in terms of financial resources (capital), physical resources(building,equipment etc.), and human resources(man-power) for the successful achievement of its goals. Out of these three resources, organisations do own capital and physical assets but as far as the third resource is concerned , it does not own people, so this resource seldom needs proper attention.
Human resources supply must be sufficient to ensure the smooth working of organisation, hence organisation requires human resource planning.
We can simply define HRP as the process by that an organisation makes sure that it has the manpower resources of right number,and kind which would be available at the right time and place that would be capable enough to the attain the end objectives of the organisation with due capability.
It is also true that HRP translates the organisation's objectives and plans into the number of workers needed to meet those objectives. Without clear cut planning, estimation of an organisation's human resource need is reduced to mere guesswork. In many organisations very few middle level or senior level executives are really aware of the long term and short term range objectives with the result, the requirement arising at a particular point of time due to natural attrition or opportunities created by the growth or development of new products or services cannot be met leading to grave consequences. In orer to tackle such emergencies, organisations need to engage in HRP.
The purpose of HRP is to assess where the organisation is , where it is going and what implications these assessments have on future supplies of and demands for human resources. Attempts are made to match supplies and demands , making them compatible with the achievement of the organisation's future needs.
In a nutshell we can say that HRP is a process which is comprised of the following core steps:
Assessing current human resources
Reviewing the organisation's overall objectives and revenue projections
Anticipating the sources from internal and external environment
Matching of the both demand and supply
PAYOFFS OF HRP
Checks the corporate plan of the organisation
Offsets uncertainty and change
Avails the employees with an opportunity for advancement and development
Facilitating the formulation of budgets in an organisation
Tries to foresee redundancy and plan to check it
Helps in planning for physical facilities and working conditions etc.
Facilitates the control of all the functions
CONCEPT OF RECRUITMENT AND ITS CORE FUNCTIONALITY IN AN ORGANISATION
Having identified the human resource needs, the first step of HRP gets over then comes the second step of the process and that is recruitment. As these needs are identified the next step is to meet these needs through recruitment. This activity makes it possible to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the smooth operation of the organisation.
Recruitment is the discovering of potential candidates for actual or anticipated organisational vacancies. It brings together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs. The ideal recruitment effort will attract a large number of qualified applicants who will take the job if it is offered. It should also provide information so that unqualified applicants can self-select themselves out of job candidacy, thus minimizing the cost of processing unqualified candidates. It is known as the positive process.
FACTORS HAVING INFLUENCE ON THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS
There are some factors which influence the recruitment process and are as follows:
Size of the organisation
Employment conditions in the community where the organisation is located
The effectiveness of the past recruiting efforts
Working conditions, salary and benefit packages offered by the organisation
The status of the organisation if it is declining or growing
CONSTRAINTS OF RECRUITING
Certain influences constrain managers in determining recruiting sources which are as follows:
Image of the organisation
Attractiveness of the job
Internal organisational policies
The requirements of the government and union
Recruitment is more likely to achieve its objective if recruiting sources reflect the type of position to be filled. Certain recruiting sources are more effective than others for filling certain types of jobs. The popular sources of recruiting employees are as follows:
Present permanent employees
Present temporary and casual employees
Retrenched or retired employees
Dependents of deceased, disabled, retired and present employees
ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL SOURCES
Better utilisation of existing talent
DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL SOURCES
Lack of competition
Educational and training institutes
Private employment agencies and consultants
Public employment exchanges
ADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCES
Infusion of new blood
DISADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCES
Frustration among present employees
CONCEPT OF SELECTION AND ITS THEMATIC PROCESS
Selection of personnel is a series of steps by which candidates are screened to find out which of them is best suited for a particular job. It is the process of dividing the applicants into two categories, namely
Those who are to be employed
And those who are to be rejected
Several steps are taken to gather information about the suitability of various candidates. Selection is not an easy process because a great amount of competence is required to choose the best employee for a job. The purpose of selection is to select the right man for the right job. It is a very important activity because it helps to minimise labour turnover and absenteeism. It will improve the morale of employees . selection of the right man for each job also helps to improve the quantity and quality of performance. If the right type of people are not selected, time , effort and cost involved in selection, induction and training will be wasted. Selection is considered a negative process because the number of candidates rejected is much more than that of selected persons.
It is different from recruitment. It is a negative process as it involves rejection of unsuitable candidates. On the other hand, recruitment is a positive process. Recruitment is the first stage while selection is the second stage of the staffing process. However, recruitment and selection are two faces of the same coin.
STEPS IN THE SELECTION PROCESS(PROCEDURE)
A well organised selection process should be designed to select suitable candidates for various jobs. Each step in the process should help in getting more and more information about the candidate. There is no ideal and perfect selection procedure appropriate for all the cases. Generally, the following core steps in this process are used which are known as universally acknowledged typical selection process elements or components:
Scrutiny of the applications
Preliminary screening or interview ( it is comprised of two types *informal interview and *unstructured interview)
The application blank where candidates are required to give full information about their age, qualifications, experience, family background, aptitudes and interests etc.
Selection tests like
Aptitude tests ( these include intelligence, mechanical aptitude,psychomotor, clerical aptitude tests)
Achievement or trade tests ( these include job knowledge and work sample tests)
Situational tests ( these include group discussion and in-basket tests)
Skill or dexterity test
Interest tests ( these include tests concerning candidates likes and dislikes in relation to work, job, occupation, hobbies and recreational activities)
Personality tests ( these include objective and projective tests)
Employment or selection interview, which involves a face-to-face talk with the candidate. It is comprised of the following types of interviews
Background information interview
Job and probing interview
Formal and structured interview
Physical or medical examination for the fitness and stamina of the candidate in relation to the nature of the job he or she is to assigned on and to assess the effects (any minor negative aspects if any) on his or her productivity
Final selection and approval rests on the head of the department in which job opening exists. The staff of human resource department must approve salary package and other benefits as per the terms and conditions thereof.
Placement is the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned and his assignment to that job.
The next stage is of induction. It is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he/she first joints a company and giving him/her the basic information about the company's history , objectives, policies, procedures, rules, regulations, codes, about the department, superiors, subordinates, peers etc. Which he or she needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work.
The all cited above steps are most important parts in the whole process of selection and every component plays vital role to make the process fast and apparent as a whole. The success of a selection process depends on all the steps cited under the head of staffing process. Human resource personnel by providing careful attention to each of these stages can aid an organisation in hiring capable people.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ABOVE TWO (RECRUITEMENT AND SELECTION )
Selection is different from recruitment. Selection involves weeding out or eliminating unsuitable candidates. Therefore, it is a negative process. On the other hand , recruitment is a positive process because it involves attracting a sufficiently large number of candidates so that the most eligible employees can be selected. Recruitment is the first stage whereas selection is the second stage in the procurement of employees. Selection is the complex process as the candidates are required to cross several hurdles while recruitment is the simple process as candidates are not required to cross many hurdles.
Having gone through the above discussion it can be concluded that recruitment and selection are the two sides of the same coin. Recruitment is known the positive process because it attracts all types of the potential candidates for applying in the company for a job while selection is known as the negative aspect of the staffing or procurement process because it weeds off the less productive and unsuitable candidates from the ongoing process and thus making the process more complex as proceeds to pass on the next step of the staffing process.
The thorough analysis of the two simply justifies that they both together form the initial base for the entire process of HRP as sub part while main in the staffing process and without these two the entire process would be of no use at all and the staffing process would mean for nothing but an incomplete spectrum for the procurement procedure.
It should also be noted that the both sources of recruitment have their positive as well as negative effects. Hence selection of the sources should be based upon while keeping in mind the nature of the job, time and resources to be used when selecting the type because wrong selection of the recruitment sources would cause a huge loss to the organisation and the same point to be also applied while moving on towards the selection process as the wrong selection of the candidate at the wrong job would cause a great loss to the organisation and would also have negative effects on the rest steps of the staffing process and would spoil out the entire process and the resources being used thereupon.
REFERENCES AND GUIDE
Dr. P. Subba Rao (2006) Human Resource Management (Vaigai,Pondicherry-3)
Dr. Upinder Dhar And Dr. Santosh Dhar (2002) Principles of Human Resource Management (D.D.E. Press, Pondicherry)
C.B.Gupta (2003) Business Studies (Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi)
Dr. Austin Chakaodza
Mr. Hemant Sharma
Dr. Emanuela Todeva