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This report will discuses how do the core Human Resources Management function link to organization development, Today's customers demand continually improving quality, rapid product or service delivery; fast turn-around time on changes, competitive pricing and other features that are best achieved in complex environments by innovative organizational practices.
The first step is about definition of HR, OD and its method. The partnership between Human Resources generalist, Organization Development consultants and Business leaders is base on mutual responsibilities toward organization and its staff.
Human Resources management recruits Staff, Organization Development consultants trains them while Business leaders look after them, but the benefit of their partnership is that each function can provide the other with knowledge that helps them to contribute - that may be the process/ objective views of the organization Development associate or the details business/ personal insight the Human Resources associate possesses.
Organizations today are facing number of challenges due to collection of environmental factors. The managers of those organizations must plan, organize, lead and control effectively to manage cultural differences to become a successful organization globally.
HR and OD are related function in many organizations, where both are concerned about critical people processes. All of them are involved in employees through problems solving, recognized the trends in organization and training them. Although they have a common function, they often have a different area of focus.
( Ruona & Gibson 2004)
OD has centre of attention on long term strategic people processes such as change management, facilitating design, facilitating tools, leadership development, team development, individual development, training, mission, vision and values. While HR tends to focus on short term tactical people processes such as recruiting, data management, conflict management, legal issues, compensation, culture modeling, performance review, benefit and salary structure. (OD Specialist W. L. Gore and Associate inc. 2005)
The field is a derivative of System Theory and Organizational Psychology. Human resources have earned a number of related interpretations in time, but continue to defend the need to ensure employee well-being. Every organization now has an exclusive Human Resource Management Department to interact with representatives of all factors of production. The department is responsible for the development and application of ongoing research on strategic advances while hiring, terminating and training staff (Nankervis et al. 2008)
Human Resource Management functions
Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource management is based in the efficient utilization of employees in achieving two main goals within a corporation or other type of organization. The first goal is to effectively make use of the talents and abilities of employees to achieve the operational objectives that are the ultimate aim of the organization. Along with realizing the goals of the organization,
Human Resource management also seeks to ensure that the individual employee is satisfied with both the working environment and the compensation and benefits that he or she receives. Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.( Nankervis, Compton &Baird 2008)
This is particularly challenging in organization where one of the biggest challenges will be finding, retaining and developing a superior global workforce. Successful companies know what the jobs entail and seek to hire those candidates who can be more successful and effective with the lowest amount of support. Well written job descriptions, and competency models that clearly delineate success behaviors make for effective selection and hiring. Understanding cultural differences in the recruitment process, the selection of candidates and what motivates employees in various cultures is crucial to the success of global organizations. (Beer, M & Spector, B 198)
Targeted Interview techniques
The selection process can be supported using and teaching Behavior Event Interviewing (BEI) or Targeted Interview (TI) techniques. While not difficult to learn, they are far more effective at identifying exactly what capabilities particular candidates could bring to an organization. This is particularly important when recruiting and selecting across cultures.
Assimilation new employees
In this competitive environment for attracting good global talent, companies need to pay particular attention to the perception of the company on the part of candidates and new hires. A well thought out and extensive assimilation (adaptation) process often makes new employees more likely to stay. This process should start before the offer is made, and many companies have assimilation plans for at least the initial six months on the job. This is especially important in group and relationship cultures as it helps the new employees feel welcomed into the group and gives them time and structure to establish relationships that will be important to the employee as well as anchor their loyalty to the company.
Cultures with a preference for Certainty (prefer to know the structure & rules rather than handle ambiguity) prefer competency based performance systems. Communicating exactly what is expected and defining the levels of behaviors and assessing employees all against the same criteria feels fairer to many employees. Performance systems that depend on manager discretion can be viewed as "favoritism" and "unfair." Hence it is necessary to establish criterion for performance management that suits cross cultures, without discrimination.
The development of an organization and particularly, how it manages change impacts the success of its business. Managing change and growth across cultures and geographies requires specific knowledge of the impact of change and growth needs in particular cultures.
An organization must understand the cultural nuances of change in many cultures and can support its organization in collecting and analyzing data on work culture and employee climate surveys to assure responses are culturally appropriate. The understanding of cross-border change initiatives can greatly reduce the usual issues created by change initiatives and address culturally specific issues relating to such cultural dimensions as Need for Certainty.
Companies that institute either small or large scale change need to attend to the needs of the employees before, during and after this process. Organizations must support the Change process throughout its life cycle.
Facilitate the charter of change implementation teams
Provide consulting on employee communications
Provide change team leader support and data/information from assessment results
Provide the organization with data on the impact of the change Design and deliver cross-cultural training for multi-cultural or virtual.
Organization Development (OD) is the systematic applications of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter group, organization, etc., to bring about planned change. Its objectives are a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability, and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures, and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances, and the fast pace of change within the environment (Wood et al. 2010).
The change process supports improvement of the organization or group as a whole. The client and consultant work together to gather data, define issues and determine a suitable course of action. The organization is assessed to create an understanding of the current situation and to identify opportunities for change that will meet business objectives.
Organizational development (OD) is an application of behavioral science to organizational change. It encompasses a wide array of theories, processes, and activities, all of which are oriented toward the goal of improving individual organizations. Generally speaking, however, OD differs from traditional organizational change techniques in that it typically embraces a more holistic approach.
Organizational Development is all predicated on the notion of improving organizational performance through proactive activities and techniques. It is also worth noting that organizational development, concerned with improving workforce performance, should not be mistaken for human resource development.
Organization development is the planned process of developing an organization to be more effective in accomplishing its desired goals, it combines the human resource development in that HRD focuses on the personal growth of individuals within organizations, and focusing at the same time on developing the structures, systems, and processes within the organization to improve organizational effectiveness.(Ruona, W E A & GIBSON S K 2004)
Organizational Development Basics
Although the field of OD is broad, it can be differentiated from other systems of organizational change by its emphasis on process rather than problems. Indeed, traditional group change systems have focused on identifying problems in an organization and then trying to alter the behavior that creates the problem.
OD initiatives focus on identifying the behavioral interactions and patterns that cause and sustain problems, rather than simply changing isolated behaviors (Wood et al. 2010)
OD efforts are aimed at creating a behaviorally healthy organization that will naturally anticipate and prevent (or quickly solve) problems.
OD programs usually share several basic characteristics. For instance, they are considered long term efforts of at least one to three years in most cases. In addition, OD stresses collaborative management, whereby managers and employees at different levels of the hierarchy cooperate to solve problems. OD also recognizes that every organization is unique and that the same solutions cannot necessarily be applied at different companies this assumption is reflected in an OD focus on research and feedback. (Wood et al. 2010)
Another common trait of OD programs is an emphasis on the value of teamwork and small groups. In fact, most OD systems use small teams or even individuals as a vehicle to implement broad organizational changes.
The catalyst whether a group or individual that facilitates the OD process is known as the "change agent." Change agents are often outside consultants with experience managing OD programs, although companies sometimes utilize inside managers. The advantage of bringing in outside OD consultants is that they often provide a different perspective and have a less biased view of the organization's problems and needs. The primary drawback associated with outside change agents is that they may lack an in-depth understanding of key issues particular to the company. In addition, outside change agents may have trouble securing the trust and cooperation of key players in the organization. Wood et al. 2010)
For these reasons, some companies employ an external-internal team approach, which seeks to combine the advantages of internal and external change agents while minimizing the drawbacks associated with the two approaches. "Are change agents necessary for organizational development to take place?" "Once recognized, organizational development involves substantial changes in how individuals think, believe, act, and appreciate the necessity of someone to play the role of change agent. But who should play the role? Existing managers, new managers, or individuals hired specifically for that purpose? Depending up on the situation. The point is that the role of the change agent is necessary for organizational development to occur. (WIKIPEDIA.2010)
ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT PLANNING:
Be clear about what you are trying to accomplish.
Evaluators need good diagnostic skills to work on this task prior to any discussion of assessment.
Link theory of the intervention to outcomes. Evaluators need help define theories of change that underlie their operations.
Setting the stage properly.
It is important to clarify why the evaluation is being done at a particular point of time and how that information will be used.
Pay attention to stakeholders. It is important that key stakeholders are involved in the process - to determine the important questions that need to be addressed and how success will be measured.
Integrate evaluation into the program. The stakeholders need to build in at the outset the expectation that evaluation should be done and also the resources to do it well.
Integrate evaluation into daily work. Evaluation activities can be integrated into routine work such as assessing needs at staff level.
Identify just a few things to evaluate. Pick the fewest indicators that provide the most information about program assumptions, resources, activities and outcomes.
Coordinate evaluation reports with internal decision-making. Findings need to be presented on a timely basis to inform learning and action and throughout a program's life, not just at the end.
Use evaluation as a process not simply as a report. Stakeholders and staff get more out of the evaluation process than its final report. Gail Sacconey et al (2005)
Profitability, productivity, morale and quality of work life are of concern to most organizations because they impact achievement of organization goals. There is an increasing trend to maximize an organization's investment in its employees. Jobs that previously required physical dexterity now require more mental effort. Organizations need to "work smarter" and apply creative ideas.
The work force has also changed. Employees expect more from a day's work than simply a day's pay. They want challenge, recognition, a sense of accomplishment, worthwhile tasks and meaningful relationships with their managers and co-workers. When these needs are not met, performance declines.
The effective organization must be able to meet today's and tomorrow's challenges. Adaptability and responsiveness are essential to survive and thrive.
Human Resource processes and Organization Development interventions have involved which are aligned with both planned and emergent strategy and provide clear, tangible and quantifiable value.
Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization.
Organization Development (OD) is the practice of helping organizations solve problems and reach their goals. A key emphasis in OD is assisting clients not just in meeting their goal but with learning new problem-solving skills they can use in the future