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Human Resource Management

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The Task

1.

Organizational structure states the activities of the company such as coordination, task allocation, and supervision to achieve the organizational goals and objective.[1] A German sociologist named Max Weber proposed a theory called bureaucracy. This theory is perceived to be impersonal, strong, and self-disseminating. Rendering to him, this is a formal system of an organisation and administration to assure effectiveness and efficiency in the company. Max Weber proposed this theory as a bureaucratic approach. The theory accent on the hierarchy, impersonal, comprehensive rules, and dissection of labor. It also considers the organisation as a part of wide-ranging society. Weber based the theory on the principles of structure, democracy, job specialization, authority hierarchy, predictability and stability, impersonality, formal selection, career orientation and formal rules and regulation. In structure, there is communication wherein this is more formal and time consuming. Example of this, if the manager want to talk to the employee, instead of just informing the employee by talking to him/her personally the manager will email a formal letter that informing the employee that he/she want to talk or the management will call for a meeting. This is also present in a small business where there is closer supervision with the employee this is simply because they have a limited number of employees. Under structure there is also delegation where the manager assigns a responsibility or authority to another person or to the employee. The bigger the organisation the bigger the structure. So structure depends on the extent of the organisation. Job specialization is based on the capability and function or specialization of the staff. It is divided to a simple, fixed and routine classification. The company equally applied the rules and regulations, there is no involvement of the superior/manager to the employees/staff, personal attachment is prohibited and it falls under impersonality. Favouritism is also forbidden in this principle, there is equal treatment for the entire employee. Under career orientation, career setting for the employee is an opportunity and highly offered. There is a protection for the employee against dismissal or lay-off. In this principle the manager are professional officials rather than company owner. They are like just an ordinary employee who manages the company.

Authority hierarchy, this principle means that the top one is the one who made the decision (high level of control). The manager or supervisor controls the lower position. Example of this, in a healthcare facility the team leader control the subordinates or the healthcare assistant, the chief nurse control the nurse. In an organisation there is a formal rules and regulation where the employees, managers must depend heavily. These rules of law indicate to impersonality in interactive relations. All organisation select their employees according to their qualifications and competence which they demonstrate it thru education, training and examination, this is the principle of formal selection. This theory of Weber indicates that the manager or the owner is the one who have the power to motivate, manipulate and control the employee. This theory is present in a small business wherein they can easily control the employee and supervise. [2]

2.

The person who is attaching to the behaviour and the behaviour of humans in the organisation refers to the Organizational Culture. It also affects the people and groups interaction with each other within the organisation. Culture consists of system, language, organizational vision, values habits and beliefs. This is also one way of telling the employee how they will observe, think and feel for other person. An Irish author/philosopher who was born 1932 generate a model in organizational culture, he is Charles Handy. He is specialising organisational behaviour and management. [3] He is also known as the God of Management. Organisational culture affect every aspect of work life, it start from how the employee greets her/his colleagues up to how the major policy decision are made. The culture determines how an individual behave in an organisation. He corresponds to the four cultures and he linked it to the four Greek gods. The four cultures are: The power culture, he labelled it as a web or club culture.

This reflects to a family owned business that can be large or small. The centre is the parents or the owner who really owned the company, it radiates out the centre and that is the siblings or other in the family. In this case the decision will come out from the manager but some of the family member will also make decision because they want to have the power. The employee will be confused who will follow or who will be given priority. All want to have the power and promotion.4 These are some of the characteristics of power culture. It focussed on the return, governed by trust for success, political, it can easily adapt to changes, can moved quickly, fast decision making, have the capacity to take risk and mostly face to face communication. The person culture, these symbolize cluster. This culture is characterized as the employee or staffs feel more important rather than the company. They feel that the company needs them that it cannot perform well if they don’t exist in the company. In addition to this, the employee comes to the organisation just for money and never attaches themselves to it or to the work. It is all about the money and they don’t love their work. And the individual are more concerned about their own-self rather than the company or organisation. They don’t care whatever happens to the company as long as the company is paying them. The task culture, this represents lattice work or net. It measure how the employee/ staff performed to a certain task. How they accomplish their work in a most ground-breaking way. It involved extensive research and activities to develop their knowledge. They usually change their task in order to meet their goal and objectives. The employee who is expert to the task is more important in this culture. The culture is representing a net because of the different departments, function and specialties whereby the company can predict and familiarize to change fast. These are the common characteristic, flexible, most of the time teamwork, can solve problem absolutely, like challenging task and moat of the time ask questions, high value on feedbacks, they share their power and knowledge, and they make a good relationship to their co-workers to make the work done. And the last culture is the role culture. The responsibility given to the employee is based on their specialization. That is the reason why Handy design it like a Greek temple. The top or the apex of the temple is the manager who made the decision and the pillars or the post reflects as the functional units or different departments in an organisation. The highlight of these culture deceits in the specialization of the employee within the pillar or post. The manager is just the one who makes the decision but the departments are the one who implement the decision. He stated that the job description is the most important rather than the skills and abilities of the employee.

Whatever the job description it is the only work that the employee should do, it is not advisesable that he/she exceed to the work description. [4]The typical features are depend on the system and order, communicate formally, not comfortable for changes, cannot adapt easily, very specific with standards, resilient structure, have confidence in secure control, sometimes slow and administrative in decision making, and design work so it is stable.[5]


[1] Wikipedia.(2014).Organizational structure. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_structure

[2] Max Weber principle of bureaucratic theory.(2013). Retrieved from http://notes.tyrocity.com/max-weber-principle-of-bureaucratic-theory/

[3] Wikipedia.(2014). Chares Handy. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Handy

[4] Sherwin, L.(2014). Managing Change Toolkit.Retrieved from http://www.lindsay-sherwin.co.uk/guide_managing_change/html_overview/05_culture_handy.htm

[5] Ready to Manage.(2013). Retrieved from http://blog.readytomanage.com/organizational-culture-diagram/


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