Human Resource Management is the most important division of any kind of organization, whether it is business sector or non business sector. To run the organizations activities smoothly, it is essential to adopt some policies which will lead the organization to success. Employee Recruitment and Selection is one of the most important part and policies of HRM. Recruitment is the process of identifying the needs of the organization to employee someone. Selection is the process of choosing suitable candidate from applicants to fill the post. This recruitment and selection factors facilitates the growth of the organization. Wrong employee Recruitment and Selection will lead to increase the labour turnover and cost of the company. More over it will decrease the morality of the present employee of the company. As a result the employee will face difficulty to concentrate with the rest workforce and unable to give their best. Then the employee's weakness becomes as evidence and they starts leaving the company by voluntarily or by force. So the company start suffering to meet its goal. At the very beginning of the Recruitment and Selection the management must have to full-fill the needs, skills and abilities required for that specific role.
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According to Armstrong.M, 2010, "Recruitment is the process of finding and engaging the people the organization needs and Selection is an aspect of recruitment concerned with deciding which applicants or candidates should be appointed to jobs".
It is most important that the Recruitment and subsequent Select procedure of new employee is planned properly. The process of movement people into, within and out of the organization is called human resource planning. For any kind of organization, employment planning is the part of strategy of the company. The company success depends on where there is right procedure of employee Recruitment and Selection. Because, employees are compared with the fuel of the organization which keeps it running.
Human Resource planning is the most essential for the best use of human resource and gets the right number of employees to meet the goal of the organization. The main objectives of this plan are to avoid the excessive employee turnover and high absence of employee which will improve the productivity and market share of the company. So, HR planning are involves with the developing, controlling and forecasting of employees by which an organization can confirm that it has the right number and kind of employee into the right place, doing the right job for which they are most useful in terms of economy.
So many things which need to be considering before confirm Recruitment and Selection. Some of them are mentioned below:
Importance of recruitment and Selection:
The essential part of effective Recruitment and Selection is the plan and preparation. What are the plan and preparation? It is to know the job well, to know the duty and responsibility of the employee, to know the minimum academic requirements and skills and so on. If those areas are not considered before recruitment and selection, it could turn out very costly. Because, to employing someone the cost of the company become at least twice when they will rearrange the interview for recruitment and the consumption cost of time as well. So it is most important to follow the right procedure for recruitment and selection which will enhance the productivity of the company. According to Petts, 1997, "having the right staff can improve and sustain organizational performance"
The employers must have to confirm that there is no unlawful discrimination happened in the recruitment and selection process in the grounds of race, age, sex, disability, religion or belief. An equal right is the important parts of the process of the recruitment and selection. It is also important for the company to ensure that the applicant's quality match with the requirements of the organization. It is easy to discriminate in the recruitment and selection process through personal responses to a definite class of people. But, ultimately all institutions try their best to recruit the best people for the job to achieve their goal. Any kind of irregularities in term of discrimination may prevent the company's goal. (Website-2)
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It is very important for the both job seeker and the organization to confirm that the right job goes to the right person. Any one involving with the wrong job may be just as fate for the employee and as well for the organization. Recruitment and Selection, therefore, involves the organization and the applicant trying to invent the extent to which there individual interests are likely to be served by the appointment. Thus it is turn as a two-sided process. Candidate need to be a clear concept about the job they are applying for. So, they can take decision before applying whether they really need the job and if they could do it effectively. Applicant should also be given the opportunity to consider that what type of organization they could select to join and whether it is suitable for them or not. We can assess the job suitability into two approaches. First one is person - job fit and the other one is person - organization fit. They are based on many assumptions about people and what determines their behaviour at work. (Website-3).
Basically, the traditional approach of Recruitment and Selection is based on the outlook that the company must specify its terms and conditions of the job as clearly as possible, then look for candidate whose personal characteristics fit with those requirement. It is clear that all individual candidates has their own particular behaviour and it is strongly recommended that the selection methods should be concerned about the measurement and assessing of these particular factors of each candidate and compare them with the job requirements.
For different reason the person-job fit approach has been criticised. In specific, the amount and people of change in the company means that the jobs for which individual are appointed often change. Subsequently, companies may be interested in current job, and candidates have the characteristic to influence the company's activities beyond the limitation of their own job. Progressively, it is observed as important to confirm that there is also a fit within the candidate and the company. (Robert. G 2005)
Another approach is person-organization fit, where stresses that are people behaviour and activities are seriously influenced by the environment of the company in which they find themselves. It means that if an employee is successful in a position in one organization does not always turn out to be successful in that specific job in the other organization. In order to justify the suitability of a job candidate, the authority should investigate the reason why a candidate has done better in their current position and consider whether same terms and condition apply in the new position. The believers of the person-organization fit approach also consider in recruitment that the applicant is how suited for the organization- its pace, approach and style of change and casual ways of performing. Manger need to consider that if any employee has the technical skills to perform in the job and able to fit with the culture of the company. Disadvantage of this approach is that there is a risk of ignoring the perfect candidate with the right qualification only because their `face does not fit`. This approach advice major needs to expound the context of the job to the candidate, including the problems and stresses associated with it. On the other way it is realised that `overselling` on the job can result for individuals to leave after a certain period of time. This could be costly for the organization in terms of repeat recruitment and selection process.
It is important to have the clear concepts regarding the particular skills and characteristic it demands in order to find the fit person in the job. It can be carried out in a different stage, as shown in figure 1.
Figure 1: Stage of job and person analysis.
After job analysis the management of the organization need to decide whether the vacant post should be filled or not. The vacant position could be filled by transferring staff from one department to another department for temporarily, reallocation of work or internal promotion. Any kind of vacancy gives chance to the management to consider for the skills to the organization to secure its future success.
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It is an in-depth systematic examination of work. In two ways the authority can examine the activities of the employee, which is direct observation and checklist approach. Direct observation could be helpful when it is repetitive manual job. It gives opportunity to discuss with the current employee, supervisor or line manager for successful information. Checklist approach can assist the management to analysis the employees responsibilities, sorts of working relationship, job requirements, working conditions and range of work.
It is clear that the organizational demand can be as important as the specific ones for the job itself. The organization looking for those employees who has got the creativity, ability to work in pressure or different circumstance and flexibility to work in small or large group. In person-organization fit it is important to think the technical aspects of job and culture aspects of the organization. (Website-3)
Job description is most important for both the organization and the candidate. It is usually consists of job title, the location of the job, duration, key purpose of the job, the main duties that the job entitles and the role it plays for the success of the company. According to Bartton, J and Gold, J 2001, "It explains the use of the applicant in the organization and what they are required to do".
When the job, organizational analysis and job description have been completed, the next step is to specify the person to fill the post. It is need to emphasise as much as possible to the knowledge, skills, attribute, qualifications, experience and personal characteristic which are required and needed for the job. The authority need to specify the minimum requirements and experience to perform the job. It is also important to think about the context of the job and the panoramic organizational requirements to specify any elements of person-organization fit (Source- website).
Recruitment from internal candidate:
Internal recruitment is the most popular practise of choosing candidate within the current organization. It is the process of filling job position within the organization-where the current employee is selected rather than employing some one from outside. The HR division must have to follow a specific rules and regulation for this recruitment. Otherwise, it will lead to let down the authority and employees in the organization. It is need to be considering the success of the company by confirming the internal recruited employee's performance. Company recruits people from internal source, because it saves the advertisement and training cost. Organization follows the different advertisement policy for the vacant post. Such as staff notice boards, internets, in-house magazines/ newsletters, staff meeting and so on.
Internal recruitment is not only reducing the cost of advertisement and training; rather it gives greater opportunity to the current employee to enhance their career. It is very good practice to keeping the present staff, otherwise who might leave the company for better opportunity. It is the way to depend easily to the employee because the current employees are familiar with the organization. Company prepare internal recruitment, because sometime outside recruitment does not fit with the environment, mission and vision of the organization. (Source-web 4).
The major problem of internal recruitment is the limitation of prospective applicants reduced. Outside recruitment might provide the better skilled and wider experienced people than the internal recruitment. It's creates conflict among the staff, because they does not like their colleague promotion though it's happened, then the new position might be more challenging for the newly recruited employer. It creates another position vacant which has to be filled. Considering the different cost and time some organization recruit employee from internal source. It is less important to them that whether they have the necessary skilled required for the job or not. The organization that can afford the cost of whole process and need the skills and expertise they recruit employee from outside. (Desseler. G 2003).
However, when the management of the organization consider the application from internal employee they must have to ensure that they are taking the same treatment or following the same procedure as other candidate.
Sainsbury's recruitment procedures begin when a vacancy has been approved by the Human Resource director. For new vacancy, job guidance and employee specification is produced by the departmental manager. Then for this vacancy the departmental manager and the HR manager fixed the proper procedure of recruitment.
Due to the cost-effectiveness and practical situation of the organization management consider appointing some people directly into the vacant post from the employee who are facing redundancy or who are working as a par timer and temporarily. In this way organization can save time, advertisement cost and training cost as well. This appointment process is called internal recruitment. Along with this recruitment organization are appointing some experienced and highly skilled people from outside which is called external recruitment.
In a specific company no employee will work for long time unless there is practice of promotion systems. Promotion is one kind of reward to employee which encourages them to work hard as well to stay long time in same company. This procedure can enhance the company activities to success. But in some cases there is disadvantage of inside recruitment when unsuccessful candidate are appointed.
Recruitment from outside source:
External recruitment is to filling the vacancies of the company from outside of business. There are so many reasons for external recruitment which are high staff turnover, for fairly recruitment, skilled and expertise required in business, expand of business etc.
There are many source of external recruitment which is as follows:
Government training schemes
For external recruitment advertising is the most common and easy systems. These advertise done in local or national newspaper, internet, magazine, notice board, recruitment fairs, etc. on the advertisement organization should mention in details the terms and condition of the job, location, designation, remuneration, job description, how to apply either CV or application form etc.
Recruitment agencies are the specialist and reliable source for external recruitment. They provide a list of candidate to the different organization mentioning in details of the candidates quality, experiences, temporary or interim etc. These systems reduce the organizations administrative burden for recruitment.
Recruitment consultancies provide the `upmarket` employee who is normally works in management level or in specialised position. These consultancies firm make a short list and send it to some priority industries who are especially asked for the people on this level. Basically the cost of this type recruitment is high.
Government Training Schemes:
In many countries Government provide fund for different type of training. After this training the different companies get to know the employee and their performance before recruit them for the long-term. These schemes provide a few numbers of employees to the different business.
Job centre is one kind of agency which is run by the Government. Different local company companies give their advertisement for semi-skilled, clerical and manual employee. This service is free for the company.
Personal recommendation is the most common and easy source of recruitment. It is the recommendation of colleague who knows someone. These processes of recruitment reduce the advertisement cost but it is necessary to follow the all assessment criteria.
The main advantage of external recruitment is that the new employees bring the new ideas for the business which can share among all the staff. Not only that the organization have wide chance to choice the skilled people for the vacant post.
There are some disadvantages of external recruitment which are lengthy process, expensive as advertisement and interview required, selection procedure might be less effective to bring out the best employee. (Source-web-4)
At Sainsbury's, the branch manager are authorised by the head office recruitment team to recruit the Customer Service Assistant (CSA), line manger and supervisor. The Sainsbury's corporate recruitment board recruit the all other vacancies such as supporting team, trading and marketing position and managerial position. For this recruitment they use different media and agencies. Sometime the recruitment authority or board use the head-hunter approach to fill the specialist and technical role.
Every organization is looking for good employees for their success. It is very difficult to scrutinize the skilled and talent employee for the company. When a vacancy form in a company the authority solicit resume for that position. It is the first step of employee selection. Then they follow the different steps and procedure to find out the perfect candidate for that position which is discussed below:
Picture: 2, Employee selection procedure
10.1 Short listing- Application:
When an organization gives advertisement for a vacant position, they received a huge number of applications. Out of all application they categorised some which meet the criteria of the job. This is mainly done by the selection with the CV or application form.
Phone interview is the preliminary test of candidate. The authority takes the telephonic interview to check the suitability of the candidate for the post. This process can ensure to the authority to invite the candidate for the next process.
10.3 Written test:
Most of the company takes written exam of the candidate to justify their competence for the post. This kind of exam based on candidate's academic background, skills, experience, technical side etc. It is the most reliable methods of nominating employee.
Torrington et. al. (2002) describe that an interview is a "controlled conversation with a purpose". Face to face interview is the universal methods of selection. It is allowing the authority to get the best feel for an applicant whether they fit or not. This kind of interview provides additional insight of candidate as to professionalism, expertise and skills. It is also provides nuance importance to make the final decision of the recruitment board. (Source-web 5)