Human Resource Management And Development Methods

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Human Resource Management (HRM) is the important part of an organisation. It helps in recruitment process, and direct employees working in the organisation towards their goals. (Heathfield) Human Resource Management has different activities to perform in the key business areas. To recruit any employee Human Resource Management find, what skills an employee has and what skills are required in particular field. It also ensures about the performance of employees and check how they handle issues in critical situations. The activities of HRM also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. (McNamara)

In some organisations human resources management provide training to workers, so that they can work effectively and improve the business condition. HRM also motivate employees to work for organisation. Some time companies need extra workers to reduce their work load then it hires people on temporary contract. The HRM provides all necessary safeguard for the safety of employees to assure they are working in safe environment. There are different processing models available those express the working methodologies of human resource management. The models are divided into four categories: Normative, Descriptive-behavioural, Descriptive-functional, and Critical. (hrmguide.co.uk, 2010)

Most of the organisations combine business strategies and HRM policies to change the organisational culture. (Gill, 1999)

In this assignment as an assistant manager I do advise to my manager when he has some concerns about managing resources of organisations. It includes how personal management developed into human resources management, roles of HRM manager, importance of human resource management, evaluation method, etc. All these are key points of HRM covered under this research work.

Task-1:

a) You explain how 'personnel management' has.........

Personnel Management and Human Resource management (HRM) are referred to same processes. HRM is emerged during the 1970s, but finally accepted in 1989. Both terms, referred to the same thing; the personnel who works for a company, that represent company's human resources.

The working procedure of personnel management done in latter period is now deployed by Human Resource Management. Many companies are trying to transform their work-power into a source of completive advantage. Up-to 1970s the task like 'finding and controlling people' was handled by Personnel Management which include most of the administrative function. The concept of Human Resource Management developed with strategic thinking to employ people for working in organisations. The reason behind this i.e. HRM has power to perform different operations in organisations. HR mangers have many concerns regarding their workers. These concerns include how to manage layoffs, health and safety concern, employee's loyalty, and how to create trained and highly motivated team that can deliver high quality productivity.

Organisations face following challenges when Personnel management changes into Human Resource Management:

Environmental Challenges: it includes Fast change process, Diverse Work force, globalised procedure, advanced technology, legislation, shortage of skills.

Organizational Challenges: these are like cost to control tasks, how to improve quality, distinctive capability.

Individual Challenges: like qualification, living standard, demands, work time, brain drain.

The HRM gained much importance and transformed into personnel management functionality intent in the welfare of managing committee. It compares individual goals with organisational objectives to award employees working in the company. Now days HRM is known as personal management, it treats system to manage people within the organization. There are many organizations transform personnel to completive advantages. (zainbooks.com, 2010)

Next you make an assessment of..............

Human Resource Manager's Role:

The role of the HR manager must parallel the needs of his or her changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptable, resilient, quick to change direction, and customer-cantered.

The responsibilities of HR manager are depending on the size of organization. Basically HR manager deals in the area of recruitment and training, hiring temporary employees, communication process, evaluation of performance, building teams and relations, etc. (Heathfield, 2000)

Human Resource Management (bized.co.uk)

Human Resource Manager's Tasks:

Writing description about job.

Interview employees in selection process.

Consult with management for staff salary.

Staff and unions about pay and conditions

Discuss problems of employees with management.

Design training programs.

Keep records up-to date.

Payroll management.(Tangata and Tangata, 2010)

Human Resource Manager's Activities:

HR manager must have deep knowledge about business and should have ability to plan and implement policies and strategies for business. Hold right staff at right place. And continually monitor all process running in the organization. The activities of HR manager vary according to organisations, but generally it includes:

Consulting line manager to design and implement policies.

Providing equality in culture of each department.

Coordinate different areas like race relation, religion, age factor, gender, and disability factors.

Recruitment of staff.

Interviews and questionnaires for selection process.

Designing policies to improve working conditions.

Advising for stipend.

Directing staff towards their goal.

Motivating employees for work.

Reviewing common laws about business.

Plan for training. (Thompson, 2008)

c) Finally, you consider two..............

The Human Resource Management developed with strategic plans with the best knowledge about business and the nature of employees working in the organisation. The HRM basically has two models:

Control-Based Model

Compliance Model

These models help organisations to work and control the functionality of human resource management. The description of these models is depicted as a table below:

Policy Area

Control-Based HRM

Commitment-based HRM

Job design principles

sub-division of work; specific job responsibility - with accountability ; planning separate from implementation

broader jobs; combined planning and implementation; teams

Management Organisation

top-down control and coordination; hierarchy; status symbols

flat structure; shared goals for coordination and control; status minimized

Compensation

fair day's pay for a fair day's work; job evaluation and appraisal; individual incentives

reinforcing group achievements; pay geared to skill and other contribution criteria; profit sharing

Employee Voice

Unionised (damage control, bargaining); Non unionised (attitude surveys)

mutual mechanisms for communications and participation; mechanisms for giving employee voice on issues

Labour Management Relations

Adversarial

mutuality; joint problem-solving and planning

Management Philosophy

the boss dictates; management obligated to stakeholders

fulfilment of employee's needs is a goal rather than an end

Human Resource Management Models (Lundy, 1994)

There are some other models of HR like Essential, Reactive, Tactical, Proactive, and Strategic model. These models help to link organisations with business. (Preston and Thorne, 2010)

Task-2:

Outline the reasons why...............

Human Resources planning are most important department in an organisation. It is the only department that affects every single employee from top to bottom, and is responsible for managing what is almost always the single greatest expenditure for a company & employee costs. Human Resource management Planning is a process that has to be commenced form somewhere and completed for a purpose. It involves gathering information that would enable managers and supervisors make sound decisions. The information obtained is also utilized to make better actions for achieving the objectives of the Organisation.

HR Planning involves gathering of information, making objectives, and making decisions to enable the organization achieve its objectives. Surprisingly, this aspect of HR is one of the most neglected in the HR field. When HR Planning is applied properly in the field of HR Management, it would assist to address the following questions:

How many staff does the Organization have?

What type of employees as far as skills and abilities does the Company have?

How should the Organization best utilize the available resources?

How can the Company keep its employees?

Human Resources Practitioners who prepare the HR Planning programme would assist the Organization to manage its staff strategically. The programme assists to direct the actions of HR department. HR Planning forms an important part of Management information system. There are certain steps followed in HR planning like implementing plan, inventory, auditing, and resource plan. (Burton, 2010)

What structured process of.......................

The human resources management design a recruitment plan for organisation to recruit employees in the company. The recruitment process consists of activities by an HR Management to identify the knowledge and working capability of employees. This process includes three phases:

Applicant generation

Maintaining applicant status

Applicant job choice. (Hanna, 2008)

Therefore, it is important to take care of these phases when developing a plan for recruitment:

Before recruitment procedure starts, the recruitment positions must be selected with description about jobs. During this process it is much better idea for approximating how many applicants are likely to apply for the selected job. Then work power and estimated time for recruitment are defined.

Applicant Generation:

After the planning phase recruitment process for specified position is started. When management start receiving application, then recruiters give brief introduction to each applicant. They introduce them about the organisation, job description, and the whole application process.

Maintaining Applicant Status:

The second phase of the recruitment process focuses only on the applicant's interest in the job and in business tasks. HR management judge the reaction of employee for achieving job opportunity. There are basically two steps; first part includes initial screening and second part is interviews and recruitment.

Influencing Job Choice:

This is the final stage of recruitment, in this stage offers are accepted or rejected. (Hanna, 2008)

Evaluation of the selection.......................

The most of the business organisations the operating manager and HR specialists has major role in the selection process. They made most of the decisions in the recruitment process. To have an effective decision making process higher management and other higher authorities are grouped. Because they believe two or more persons together can fabricate innovative ideas. In this selection process operating manager plays vital role, whereas HR specialists evaluate their decisions.

Therefore organisations consider evaluation and selection process as an integral part of the management function. The table below describe the roles of operating managers and HR managers in the evaluation and selection process.

Operational and HR management roles

Criteria for evaluation and selection of employees:

The selection and evaluation criteria for recruiting employees must consider:

- Qualification

- Skills and experience

- Personality traits

- Physical characteristics

When the selection process is running these above stated points should be in mind of selector to judge the effective performance of applicant. To predict a successful selection process there are basically two characteristics: these are reliability on applicant and the validity of his performance in business. These two characteristics will leads to successful selection. (ACCEL-TEAM, 2010)

d) Finally, you consider value of.......................

INTERVIEWS

Interview is a discussion where information and ideas are exchanged. The most important part of selection process is interview. This is the major section of any recruitment in which interviewer ask frequent questions about some particular topic related to business or some time just general view of interviewee about the humanity, nature, culture, and many other things. For a business looking to fill an open job position, an employee might interview potential candidates to gain a better understanding of their backgrounds, qualifications and skills. It helps organisations to select best person for their company. (businessdictionary.com)

There are basically following techniques to interview an interviewee in selection process:

Phrasing Interview questions: in this technique interviewer ask questions by in moulded way to confuse interviewee. Here, the patience and presence of mind is checked. This shows how interviewee will react in emergency and critical situations.

Listening to Responses: the interviewer listen carefully what interviewee says and ask questions relevant to the answer he gave.

Showing Empathy: in this technique interviewer give reactions like interviewee is seems helpless and he going to fail him for his interview to judge his reaction and behaviour.(Nestor-Harper and SPHR, 2010)

RECRUITMENT AT DIFFERENT LEVEL:

There many departments in one organisation. In each department employees from top management to lower management are recruited. The recruitment process is made to recruit every employee in the organisation. The senior personnel, supervisor, and line manager all are recruited through recruitment process.

Recruitment of senior personnel: to recruit any senior employee like president, stakeholder, director in the committee is defined and responsibilities of each team member are explained. They ask questions about work load, and how he can handle critical situation of business, etc.

Recruitment of supervisors: in this process manager's check for technical and educational knowledge of interviewee.

Recruitment of line manager: the senior management recruit line managers. It is the part of HR management. The team of HR people ask questions about HR management to recruit line manager in the organisation.

Task-3:

Performance appraisals and reward management.

Performance appraisal

Performance appraisals are an important part of Human Resources Management. It is used to assess the systematic and impartial performance of employees in the business. Performance appraisal is a pattern of reviewing the employee's performance in the company in a given period of time. The main objective of performance appraisal is to judge the performance of individual employees working in the organisation and provide the tem best knowledge and understanding about their work. (Flippo, 2010)

The performance appraisal process is divided into three stages i.e. planning, managing, and appraising. The first stage includes communication between management and employees about their work plan. In second stage performances are monitored throughout the life cycle. The last stage appraises the performance and gives important decisions regarding training and possible changes in business.

Methods of performance appraisal

The performance appraisal methods are of two types:

Traditional method: it further classified as straight ranking, paired comparison, scale rating, free response, easy appraisal, field review, checklist, graphical rating scale, and forced distribution.( appraisals.naukrihub.com, 2007a)

Modern method: this method also classified into Management by objective, 360 degree appraisal, assessment centre, behaviourally anchored rating scale, human resource accounting method.( appraisals.naukrihub.com, 2007b)

Reward management

The managements need to give attention towards the employees working in the company and to give bonus to best workers. It encourages employees to work harder to get benefits as monetary value or rewarded by getting higher position.

There are basically two categories of award:

Monetary: if employees paid cash amounts, cheque, direct deposit, money order, saving bonds, etc are monetary awards.

Non-monetary: these can be trophies, desk items, trips, meals, cloths, electronics items, sports equipment, etc.(university-essay, 2010)

The structure of reward strategy includes definition of guiding principles, statement of intention, rationale, and plan. Different strategies and policies are available like attraction policy, retention policy, talent management policy to evaluate employees working capacity and quality of work done. (Armstrong, et.al, 2007) The relevant policies can be selected in organisation to assess employees.

Comparing the exit procedures........................

An exit procedure is a set of procedures that follow policies developed to enable an individual to leave an organisation after a retirement, termination of employment, or job move.(Kiff,2010)The exit procedures are process which stop working carrier of particular employee in their organisations. The exit procedures by human resource management are categorised like- termination of employees, retirement, and resign. For more information please see appendix-I.

Different organisations using exit procedures

The organisations follow different exit procedure depending upon why the employee is terminated from organisation. For example if "xyz" organisation terminate an employee it's not a joyous experience, it is the part of improving business security. It takes care of employee and organisational values. (Stewart, 2010) the termination uses Checklist which has detailed information about exit process, but its contents depend employee is resigning or company expel him.

The other company suppose "abc" if any employee retired or resigned from his post, organisations gives short notice to employee to return , clear hard drive, clean network devices, and notice to return MIS document and disks. And they give PCT forms to fill, which includes all information about employee's job, personal detail, termination dates, etc.

Plus and minus points of exit procedure

The advantages of checklist during termination include two sections i.e. department responsibilities and employees responsibilities. It include detail of employees like name, designation of employee, payment of employee, date and time of exit, terms & conditions to save information of organisation as cleaning hard drive, etc. But its minus point is it does not include the reasoning letter. Therefore organisations use Exit interview procedure to calculate why he is terminated from the job.

On the other hand; retirement give chance to other employees to get promotions. And motivate workers to work hard. But resign by employee's shows lack of employment in the organisation and it also affects the reputation of organisation.

Comparing exit procedures to best practise and bench marking:

The exit procedures used by both organisations are reviewed for the safety of rights of employees and company. Exit procedures used are thoroughly revised to understand the execution of each procedure in use.

If any employee retired from company he must get all the benefits defined in their contract.

The termination of employee follows the rules to punish and cancel the contract.

The resign procedure will figure out where management lies in providing facilities to their staff.

Considering the selection...................

The organisations have greater need to deploy redundancy criteria to establish good working staff for a business organisation. The Redundancy selection criteria must be objective, non-discriminatory and applied consistently. The employees are redundant on the basis of their knowledge, experience, and working capacity. (Business-link, 2010) The number of employees is considered and redundant step by step by moving towards final stage.

The different selection criteria for redundancy

Qualification, skills and aptitude: these three helps employee to sustain in the selection process. Without skills and qualification an employee could not be qualified for job selection.

Work performance: you must have supporting objectives to improve business.

Adaptability: business processes and assets are continuously changed in accordance to changing technology. You should have capability to work under different environments.

Attendance: regularity is the important part of selection criteria.(Redundancyhelp.co.uk, 2010)

How these criteria fit to organisation:

The key points given are selection criteria discussed above are generally fit to every organisation because qualification according to job is must to get any job. If any employee has specific skill then it put light on him among several other employees. Performance in business, adaptability, and regulation are significant roles that an employee required to have to save their self to be redundant.

The mentioned selection criteria also fit to organisation if employees:

stop carrying on business for the purpose of which that employee is employed by you; or

stop carrying on business at a place where the employee is employed; or

requirement to carry out the type of work carried out by the employee either ceases or diminishes; or

requirement to carry out the type of work carried on by that employee at the place where he is employed either ceases or diminishes(Ellis, et.al, 2008)

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the role of assistant manager is very important in the organisation. He guide and give his important ideas to general manager to from different tasks in the organisation. The HR management also has vital role to play for recruitment, training, payment, hiring employees, etc for the continuity of the business. To make a good business team different selection criteria are used which helps to deploy best employee in the company to have a good business values in the market.

RECOMMENDATION

I would like to recommend organisations to deploying HRM methodologies. These are quite helpful in business empowerment and handle all other issues related to employees.

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