HRM TQM Model Analysis of Pakistans Education Sector

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In this study the emphasis will be on the relationship between TQM and HRM in the education institutions working in Pakistan. HRM is basically applied as a part of overall organizational management which ultimately end up with better performance (financial and Non-financial) of the organization, HRM is basically intended to make sure the stakeholder's satisfaction (preferably customers and shareholders) while improving the human resource's skill and performances. This development will be done through developing good and synergetic teams, training of employees, career development of employees and improving the quality of working life of employees.

Defining HRM

Human resource management consist of two words Human resource and Management. Human resource is considered to be on of the most precious resource used in a business organization. In the past workers were treated as a third class citizens by the employers and owners. Owner stressed the employee and treat badly if they are not so productive. But in the last few decades it was realized that human beings are the precious resource. They have to be treated in a good manner. So a new field came into existence and a new subject added into the social science studies named as Human Resource Management. Now in its extension world in talking about Strategic Human Resource Management.

HRM is the strategic and coherent approach to management of an organization's most valued assets. All the people working in organization in a way to create synergy in order to achieve organizational goals and objectives were very important resource. So it is very important to manage this resource. So we may said that HRM is a process of managing people in organization it includes employing people, developing their capacities, utilizing, maintain and compensating their services in true with the job and organization requirement.

Bu it is very difficult to manage people having different attitude and background. Theoretically discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees are individuals with varying goals and needs in life. The field of personality management or human resource management takes a positive view of workers, assuming that virtually everyone contribute to the productivity of enterprises and the main obstacles to their endeavors are lack of knowledge, insufficient training and failures of process.

So someone very wisely summaries that HRM is a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. HRM promote a comprehensively good communication between employers (managers) and employees. It forces the managers to express organizational goal and objectives specifically and precisely so that workers can understand and follow them as well as it is the responsibility of managers to provide all the resources needed to accomplish all tasks assigned to them. HRM is also considered to be a key for risk reduction.

Strategic Human Resource Management

For last few decades, empirical work has paid lot of attention to the organizational practice of Human Resources Management. Empirical findings are trying to focus on developing a linkage between HR practices and organizational performance, employee commitment, lower level of absenteeism, turnover, skill development, productivity and enhancing quality of efficiency. This area of work is sometimes referred to as "Strategic HRM" or "SHRM". There are three main areas, those were of prime focus.

Best Practice

Best Fit

Resource Based View (RBV)

Best Practice

Best practice is also referred as high commitment. Best practices means the adoption of certain best practices in HRM will result in better organizational performance. According to Pfeffer, there are seven best practices for achieving competitive advantages through people, he termed it as 'Building profits by putting people first'. These practices includes the following

Providing employment security

Selective hiring

Extensive training

Sharing information

Self-managed teams

High pay based on company performance

The reduction of status differentials.

These are basic areas which must be considered by the managers. Now one might get best result by applying few of them and other might needs all of them to be implemented in work setting. It is very difficult to order them as per their importance. Their importance vary from situation to situation.

Best Fit

It is also known as contingency approach to HRM, argues that HRM improves performance where there is a close vertical fit between the HRM practices and the company's strategy. This link ensures close coherence between the HR people processes and policies and the external market or business strategy. There are a range of theories about the nature of this vertical integration. For example,

'lifecycle' models argue that HR policies and practices can be mapped onto the stage of an organization's development or lifecycle.

Competitive advantage models take porter's (1985) ideas about strategic choice and map a range of HR practices onto the organization's choice of competitive strategy.

Configurational models, provide a more sophisticated approach which advocates a close examination of the organization's strategy in order to determine the appropriate HR policies and practices. Whereas, this approach assumes that the strategy of the organization can be identified - many organizations exist in a state of flux and development.

Resource Based View (RBV)

RBV argues by some to be at the foundation of modern HRM, focuses on the internal resources of the organization and how they contribute to competitive advantage. The uniqueness of these resources is preferred to homogeneity and HRM has a central role in developing human resources that are valuable, rare, and difficult to copy or substitute and that are effectively organized.

In short, theoretically the goal of HRM is to help an organization to meet strategic goals by attracting and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively. According to Mlller (1989), HRM seeks to ensure a fit between the management of an organization's employees and the overall strategic direction of the company.

Functions of HRM

The HRM function includes a variety of activities and key among them is deciding what staffing needs to have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to dill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part - or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have - and are aware of - personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies in the next step will be known as HRD (Human Resource Development), Human Resource Management is the part of the Human resource Development. HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, including e.g, career development, training, organization development etc.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

TQM comprises a group of ideas and techniques for enhancing competitive performance by improving the quality of products and processes. Although TQM has been disseminated throughout Japan, North America and Europe, we are particularly interested in its profound impact on U.S. businesses since the early 1980s. the techniques and philosophy of quality management can be traced to W.A.Shewhatt's Economic Control of Quality of Manufacturing products, published in 1932, but rapid dissemination of quality management in the United States did not become a phenomenon until the 1980s. W.Edwaards Deming's come up with an idea that "If Japan Can…. Why Can't We?" triggered a surge of interest in the quality management methods that had originated in the United States but that Japanese companies had applied and developed in the preceding twenty-five years.

Introduction to TQM

TQM includes extensive and fundamental change throughout the corporation. It seems to be very difficult to change or transform system, but the impact of TQM implementation will go beyond management practices. Almost all theories related to TQM embraces the purpose of corporation, the role of work and human nature. Along with this TQM also carries implications for the principles and theories of management. However conflicts were there between TQM and top management. Directed plans are more than a class of incompatible management practices. They also reflect deep-seated incompatibility between the theoretical principles implicit within these practices.

TQM's origins and pattern of diffusion are quite different from those of other management and organizational innovations that have swept through the business world during the postwar period, innovations such as management by objectives, time-based management, and the strategic management of core competences. Four distinctive features of TQM are;

Intellectual Origins

Most contributions to modern management theory and technique originated in the social sciences. Microeconomics is the basis for most financial management techniques (e.g, discounted cash flow analysis, security valuation and accounting principles); psychology has guided the development of marketing techniques and decision support systems; and sociology provides the conceptual basis for much of organization design. The theoretical basis of TQM, however, is statistics. At the core of TQM is statistical process control (SPC), which is based on sampling and variance analysis.

Sources of Innovation

The R&D centers for most modern management ideas and techiques have been the leading business schools and management consulting companies. In contrast, the pioneers of TQM - Deming, Shewart, Joseph Juran and A.V Feigenbaun - worked primarily within industry and government rather than in universities. Their backgrounds were mainly either to business schools or to consulting companies. Consequently, business schools have not been in the vanguard of the quality movement, and business school faculty have been students of TQM rather than the teachers. In fact, Motorola and Milliken opened their quality training programs to university professors in 1991.

National Origins.

TQM's development pattern is also a typical. Most concepts and techniques in financial management, marketing, strategic management and organizational design have emerged in the United States and subsequently diffused internationally. TQM, by contrast, represents one of the first truly global management techniques. It began in the United States, was developed mostly in Japan and during the 1980s, developed further as it diffused throughout North America and Europe. TQM thus integrates American technical and analytic skills, Japanese implementation and organizational expertise and European and Asian traditions of craftsmanship and integrity.

Dissemination Process.

The dissemination of most modern management innovations has been hierarchical typically, the pioneers are leading industrial corporations such as General Electric, IBM and General Motors. Within companies, dissemination has been a top-down process from chief executives officers to divisional heads and down through the managerial ranks. The quality movement, by contrast, has been a populist one. Smaller companies were the original leaders in TQM. Nashua Corporation was the first U.S. company to employ Deming as a consultant. Other pioneers were Milliken, Florida Power and Light, Allen-Bradely, First National Bank of Chicago and Marriott. The Growth Opportunity Alliance of Lawrences, Massachusetts, a consortium of more than fifty mostly small companies, was an early convert. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award winners have included Globe Metallurgical and Wallace Company. In addition, the CEO has not always been the prime driver for implementing TQM within companies. Departmental and divisional mangers have often been the initiators. At ford, William Scollard, general manager of the auto assembly division, brought Deming to the attention of Ford president, Donald Petersen.


The basic purpose of performance appraisal and HRM is performance enhancement and for achieving better quality output with which we can get better competitive position, better market share, better profitability and more satisfied stakeholders, but TQM and quality HRM both focus on a concept of continuous improvement both of the field believe that this betterment and improvement is not a one-time task rather it's a continuous process and a continuous and consistent effort must be put for better and better and ultimately a best position and outcome. HRM is commonly practiced as a part of the overall organizational quality planning and implicitly intended for internal customer satisfaction, across organizational team working, training and career development and quality of working life, furthermore the articulate purpose of performance management in TQM and HRM is for systems enhancement. So the experts prefer on developing a quality system rather just one time improving performance and this quality system will be achieved by improving system performance as well as performance of people. So we may said that both were the tool for performance appraisal and performance improvement.

In today's competitive environment everyone is fighting for tis market share and few market leaders are focusing on the cut-throat competition, so that they survive and other died. In such a scenario the major focus on the quality improvement and in the move of quality, upgrading technical system is very important. Normally the quality up gradation leads towards the improvement of process, product, technology and system as a whole but in all such scenario the manager often forget a very important part that is human element (employee input), because all such improvements were simply impossible without the intervention of humans.

So it is not wrong if we said that primarily the quality of a product is determined by two factors; Technology and employee input.

Total Quality: Opportunity (or threat) for HR management

With the organizational development and technological improvement the importance of human resource become more vital and prominent and this field (HR) is now nourishing at a good pace. Quality can be the "business issue" that truly brings senior management and HR executives together to shift towards strategic HRM rather just HRM. HR can play a vital role in the quality improvement by affecting the first line management and bottom lien of the organizational hierarchy. HR can put a visible (considerable) effect on the organizational performance like other operational and non-operational activities of business, such as production, sales, accounting, advertisement, financial management and others. In short HR is going to contribute directly towards organization's performance.

Lack of HR system and Quality Improvement

Quality improvement effort usually is assigned to a newly formed unit. There are many reasons for this

There still are senior managers who do not understand "holistic quality improvement" well enough to appreciate the critical role of human resources issues in improving quality.

Most HR functions are so specialized and cut-off from the rest of the organization that department members lack the breadth of perspective necessary fro total quality. Instead finding this an opportunity in the current state of competition they treat it as a threat to their well defined, well guarded domain of action.

Sometimes HR departments are autocratic in style and because of hierarchical operation with strict responsibility and authority it is quite difficult to have effective quality improvement.

HR executives themselves have low esteems and their low self-esteems cause either No or a very little contribution towards total quality improvement. There are people in HR, itself, who feel threatened by being asked to assume a leadership position on an important business issue, higher management make it personal issues to be monitored by HR department and they feel that they would feel that they are powerless, second class citizens, so finally human resources issues are too important to be left to human resources department.

So the HR-awareness program is needed in the organization but in such programs, organization needs

To be redesigned to fit what is known about quality management

To institute human resources management practices that support the entire organization being effective in its TQM effort.

Research Problem

Service-oriented organizations, which have a greater degree of employee-customer interaction, should concentrate more on the qualitative and softer aspects of working culture, customer care and personal interaction.

This study will be conducted to identify "Do TQM has a specific relationship with HRM in education sector of Pakistan?"

Objectives of the Study

This study uses a quantitative approach founded an concrete empirical analysis to achieve its objectives.

Identify the related areas necessary for implementation of TQM in education sector.

Identify different factors affecting the TQM implementation in Pakistan (employee barriers, employee commitment, employee involvement and people management)

Try to device a quality working climate that will explains the conditions for an overall quality HR-TQM concept.

This research will identify such a determinants that will enhance quality HRM activities to enhance performance excellence.

Try to findout the relationship between quality working climate and organizational performance. Also try to quantify the relationship.

Data, plan of collecting the Data & Data Analysis

This study is based on primary data. The main source of data will be the questionnaire. In this study, population under consideration will be the private education institutes working in Pakistan.

All the data would be hunted through questionnaire and the next step would be transforming the data into useful format. It means on which empirical testing or econometric modeling will be applicable. Following is the brief introduction of the variables which might be under consideration.

From the literature review, It is identified that different researchers have taken different variables for their analysis, for example Miller & Cardy (2000) had used staffing, training, performance appraisal, mentoring compensation and social support. Dale & Cooper (1993) relate the quality improvement processes are the role of the senior managers, motivating middle managers, training and education. Team building, employee involvement at work, and handling people resistance in quality change management. Ali, Zairi & Mahat (2006) have taken the employee involvement and commitment element.

Defining Human Resource Management

This guide is based on Human Resource Management in a Business Context, and includes links to extra articles, notes, tips and exercises.

Many people find HRM to be a vague and elusive concept - not least because it seems to have a variety of meanings. Pinning down an acceptable definition can seem like trying to hit a moving target in a fog. This confusion reflects the different interpretations found in articles and books about human resource management. HRM is an elastic term (...). It covers a range of applications that vary from book to book and organization to organization. (...)

In Managing Human Resources: Personnel Management in Transition, Stephen Bach (2005:3) argues that, compared to a decade ago, much of the controversy about the definition of HRM has dissipated. He considers that, in part, this may be due to the use of a broader and more encompassing definition of HRM. However, Bach (p.4) shows that the debate has not vanished by disagreeing with Boxall and Purcell's (2003:1) statement that HRM refers to:

"... all those activities associated with the management of the employment relationship in the firm. The term 'employee relations' will be used as an equivalent term as will the term 'labour management'."

Bach argues that this definition is 'a little too broad', stating that such a broad definition makes it difficult to:

Highlight any distinctive features or values that underpin HRM

Chart changes in the practice of HRM

Understand the controversy surrounding HRM

In Bach's opinion, HRM differs from employee relations in its focus on management practices and tendency to ignore the interests of employees. In fact, he holds quite 'hard' views on the nature of HRM:

HRM is unitarist (employer and employee interests should coincide) with an emphasis on organizational effectiveness

The interests of other stakeholders such as employees are marginalized

There is a predominant interest on the individual firm - specifically, within the firm - focused on individual employee motivation and aspiration

There is a consequent playing down of external and collective (unionization) issues.

Human Resource Management in a Business Context discusses the use and meaning of the term 'human resource management', presents a number of textbook definitions and provide a working definition for the book:

'A philosophy of people management based on the belief that human resources are uniquely important in sustained business success. An organization gains competitive advantage by using its people effectively, drawing on their expertise and ingenuity to meet clearly defined objectives. HRM is aimed at recruiting capable, flexible and committed people, managing and rewarding their performance and developing key competencies.'

Points to consider

*Look at textbook definitions of HRM. You should think about the purposes of the definitions and the different aims of academics and practitioners. Academics are interested in the theoretical basis and intellectual validity of the concept. Practitioners have a job to get on with and are likely to be more interested in a practical description of the management discipline for which they are responsible.

More articles in this section

Introduction to HRM

Managing People

People management

Background and origins of people management

Professional managers

The human factor

Human Relations

Management theory

Development of the personnel specialism

Management thinking

From personnel to human resource management

The new managerialism

Review questions and Case Study

Section Quiz

Defining human resource management

Maps and models of HRM

The Harvard map of human resource management

Hard HRM

Guest's Model of HRM

Alternative HRM Models

The Discourse of HRM

Question: What Is Human Resource Management?


Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.

Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.

Employee Involvement

Regular participation of employees in (1) deciding how their work is done, (2) making suggestions for improvement, (3) goal setting, (4) planning, and (5) monitoring of their performance. Encouragement to employee involvement is based on the thinking that people involved in a process know it best, and on the observation that involved employees are more motivated to improve their performance.

Read more:

Employee commitment.

Ah, another buzz word to incorporate into your lunch-time conversation with business colleagues? Maybe not. If buzz words are simply jargon or empty chatter, then the discussion of competencies is definitely not in those categories.

A solid understanding of work place competencies can actually support your success at work. If you don't understand work place competencies, be prepared to experience some frustration or even performance lags in your work. The concept is that important.

So how do we define competencies? It's actually pretty straight-forward, although not simple. Competencies are the characteristics needed to succeed in a particular job or assignment. Relevant competencies for a job or task are identified by observing incumbent employees who are regarded as excellent performers in the job or task in question.

For example, if the target job is Production Supervisor, then outstanding Production Supervisors are observed. Their characteristics are noted. The kinds of knowledge they possess is noted. A profile is drawn, and the competencies that contribute to that profile are identified. Interview questions are then crafted to determine which candidates demonstrate mastery of the competencies displayed by successful incumbents in similar positions.

There are literally dozens and dozens of work place competencies, as you can imagine. The trick is to define them and then to determine which ones are relevant to the job in question. Let's start with some examples of competencies. You see them every time you look at job ads or postings. Attention to detail, ability to work under pressure, good interpersonal skills, excellent presentation skills, ability to motivate others, and managing conflicting priorities are all examples of competencies. As you may have realized, possession of job competencies can be pretty difficult to evaluate. We will come back to that later.

In addition to competencies like those listed previously, job postings or ads also list skill sets such as knowledge of environmental regulations, ability to type 60 words a minute, certification in a particular skill, or possession of a particular degree. Skill sets are different than competencies. Both are very important. But as you can see, evaluation of whether skill sets are possessed by an employee is pretty objective. Diplomas, certifications, or skills tests are used to demonstrate job skills necessary for the job. Unfortunately, it's not as easy (but not impossible) to evaluate possession of necessary job competencies.

So why should we bother to wrestle with competencies when it's relatively difficult to evaluate them? Think for a minute about employees with whom you may have had trouble in the past. Was the trouble or performance lag in the areas of skill sets? These would be employees who couldn't drive a fork lift, who couldn't spell, who couldn't operate the machinery they need to operate in their jobs. Or, were the short falls with things like getting along with others, finishing tasks on time, or taking initiative? Most job performance problems are related to failure at competency-related performance rather than skill-set related performance. That's why, even though it's not easy, you must concentrate on evaluating competencies.

Introduction -- What Are Competencies? (and jobs, tasks, roles, etc.)

First, let's look at some terms. A job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct. Jobs have titles. A task is a typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce some result, e.g., vacuuming a carpet, writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc. Complex positions in the organization may include a large number of tasks, which are sometimes referred to as functions. Job descriptions are lists of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. Typically, they also include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job, salary range for the position, etc. Job descriptions are usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis looks at the areas of knowledge and skills needed by the job. Note that a role is the set of responsibilities or expected results associated with a job. A job usually includes several roles.

Typically, competencies are general descriptions of the abilities needed to perform a role in the organization. Competencies are described in terms such that they can be measured. It's useful to compare competencies to job descriptions. Job descriptions typically list the tasks or functions and responsibilities for a role, whereas competencies list the abilities needed to conduct those tasks or functions. Consequently, competencies are often used as a basis for training by converting competencies to learning objectives. See examples of competencies below. Compare them to job descriptions. As with job descriptions, there are those who have strong cautions about the use of competencies. See the last article, "Competency-Based Education and Training".

Note that some experts assert that competencies should define the abilities for someone to excel in a certain role, that is, meet high performance standards, whereas other experts assert that competencies should define the abilities to adequately perform the role.