Today in the rapidly changing corporate arena one of the frequently spoken subject is becoming the recruitment and selection of human resources and many expensive reference materials can be commonly seen in bookstores, libraries and via online sources. But what exactly is recruitment and selection, why it is important? What role does recruitment and selection in managing human resources? These are some of the common questions to be answered.
This individual assignment has been structured in such a way to clearly understand the recruitment and selection of human resources. Considering the depth of the subject of human resource management this report has been divided in to three sections.
I would like to bring in to the kind attention of the reader that, this individual report covering a broader topic of Recruitment and Selection in context of Human Resource Management has been successfully completed after gaining a substantial understanding from the various reliable sources which are appropriately referenced.
2.0 An Introduction to Human Resource Management
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With the world of business becoming more and more complicated, it is essential that more efficient organization of its features is large or small. That's where human resources come into play. Human resource management is very critical for any business to survive in the world of high tech, fast pace today. This not only allows an organization to manage employees, but also ensures that the work is done effectively so that the individual objectives of employees and the corporate objectives of the management are met.
Ivancevich (1998, p.04) has defined the process of human resource management as all processes and functions that are performed in an organization that facilitates the most efficient use of human resources to meet the goals of both the organization and individuals. On the other hand, Mathis & Jackson (2003, p. 04) has defined human resources management as the conceptions of formal systems of an organization to ensure the effectiveness of the efficient use of human talent to accomplish organizational goals.
Based on the above facts it is very apparent that, human resources management is one the most important business function that is focused on the role of personnel needs and responsibilities of an organization, due to the fact that hence, employees are considered as the greatest asset of a business, organization tend to spend massive amounts of time and effort evaluating their systems of human resource management in order to gain optimum level of performance from their employees for the betterment of the organization in order to achieve its corporate objectives.
3.0 Recruitment and Selection
Human resources management involves the development of a perfect blend between the traditional and administrative functions and well-being of all employees in an organization. This set of functions offered to promote thought, stimulate debate, diagnose the organizational environment and develop a strategy for rational management of human resources for the organization. Before an organization can fill its job vacancies, it has to analyze and locate people who not only qualified for the position, but also needs a job. Although recruitment has always held an important place in organizations, the growing demand for highly qualified personnel has meant that effective recruitment practices are becoming an important source of competitive advantage.
3.1 Defining Recruitment
Linda (2001, p.151) has defined recruitment as the process of finding individuals to carry out the tasks that need to be done within the organization. Meanwhile Fisher, Schoenfeldt and Shaw (1997, p.223) has defined recruitment as the process by which organizations locate and attract individuals to fill job vacancies. Most of the organizations have a continuing need to recruit new employees to replace those who leave or are promoted.
Recruitment and human resources planning goes together with selection process by which organizations evaluate the suitability of candidates for various vacancies. Without an accurate planning process, an organization may recruit the wrong number or type of employees.
Fisher, Schoenfeldt and Shaw (1997, p. 223) have suggested that organizations not only can generate internal candidates among its existing employees who aspires promotions and/or transfers, but also from outside can generate candidates via vacancy announcements, campus recruitment, unsolicited applicants, field trips, professional organizations and executive search firms. But at this point careful consideration should be given to the advantages and disadvantages of both forms of information from internal and external recruitment.
3.2 Defining Selection
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Meanwhile according to Ivancevich (1998, p.227) defines selection process by which an organization chooses from a list of candidates to the person or people who best meet the selection criteria for the position available, given the current environmental conditions. Meanwhile Fisher, Schoenfeldt and Shaw (1997, p.269) has defined selection as the process of measurement, decision making and evaluation. They also have mentioned that the goal of human resource selection system is to bring into an organization individuals who will perform well on the job in order to achieve the individual and corporate objectives. The selection process can be simplified as follows:
Decision Making (Combining information about a person to make hiring decision)
(Ensuring selection tests are reliable)
(Making sure that hiring decisions increase the efficiency and profitability)
3.3 The stages of recruitment and selection process
The recruitment and selection experience can also impact on the likelihood that a candidate will accept a job offer and on their subsequent commitment to remaining with the organization. Following are the critical stages of recruitment and selection process:
3.3.1 Drawing up a job description
The job description is the starting point in the recruitment process and should provide details of the overall purpose of the job, the principal accountabilities, the background and experience required, the competencies needed and the operational requirements of the job such as hours worked, shift systems, job flexibilityâ€¦ etc. in addition all staff involved in the recruitment process should have received equal opportunities training and also be receiving it at regular intervals throughout their employment.
3.3.2 Advertising the position
Once a job description has been created the next step is normally to create a job advertisement. Great care needs to be taken with the wording of the advertisement as inappropriate wording can give rise to the risk of discrimination claims or be used as evidence of a discriminatory culture. Once the advertisement has been drawn up, consideration needs to be given as to where the advert will be placed. It is generally considered best equal opportunities practice to advertise all vacancies externally and, if doing this, thought needs to be given as to which publications and mediums to use to reach the widest range of applicants. The advertisement should also state that the organization is an equal opportunities employer.
3.3.3 Selection and interview of the candidates
Employers should draw up selection criteria based on the job description. The criteria should be clear, precise and objective and applied consistently to all candidates who have applied for the position.
3.3.4 Offer and appointment
The successful candidate should be offered the position, subject to any conditions that the employer deems necessary, for example, receipt of satisfactory references or proof of relevant qualifications. The offer should be made in writing and it should ask the candidate to confirm their acceptance in writing. Once the offer of employment has been accepted, employers should ensure that they take up the candidate's references.
3.4 Effective steps in recruitment
Three steps to develop an effective recruitment process are:
Step 1: Ensure an up-to-date job description which contains information related to:
Specific tasks and activities required for a job
The knowledge, skills and abilities required for effective performance by the job incumbent.
Step 2: Develop an effective recruitment strategy which considers:
Appropriate sources of recruitment (i.e., advertisements, personal referrals, employment agencies, direct applications)
Appropriate recruiters (e.g., supervisor or co-worker).
Step 3: Evaluate the recruitment strategy to determine its efficiency. For example:
Conduct a cost-benefit analysis in terms of the number of applicants referred, interviewed, selected, and hired
Compare the effectiveness of applicants hired from various sources.
3.5 Overview of selection techniques
Evidence-based best practice for three of the most commonly used selection techniques is outlined below.
1. Curriculum vitas / resumes and written applications
A curriculum vitae (CV) / résumé provide valuable information relating to a person's professional qualifications and experience. All information in the CV should be verified where appropriate (e.g. asking applicants to explain gaps in employment history). Requesting job applicants to address specific selection criteria (i.e., essential and desirable) can improve the efficiency of reviewing CVs.
2. Conducting interviews
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Structured interviews are recommended. A structured interview involves asking each candidate the same set of questions and assessing their responses on the basis of pre-determined criteria. Questions and assessment criteria should be based on accurate, updated job descriptions. It is also helpful to develop criteria to categorize responses (e.g. as excellent, good, average and unsatisfactory).
3. Reference Checks
Referees are useful for identifying past employment problems and clarifying the accuracy of information presented in an interview or curriculum vitae.
3.6 Legal requirements involved in recruitment and selection
During the recruitment and selection process, every employer should understand that it is a criminal offence to knowingly employ an individual who does not have the right to work in the particular. Employers will have a defense to this offence where, before employment starts, they check that an employee has a number of documents evidencing their right to work. In addition organizations should clearly understand that it is unlawful to discriminate against a person, either directly or indirectly in employment on the grounds of colour, race, gender, marital status, creed, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, ethnic or national origins, or disability, in case if any organization violates such legal requirements during recruitment and selection a higher proportionate of penalty could be imposed by the human rights commission of the respective country.
I would like wrap-up this report which is purposefully done to understand the concept of recruitment and selection of human resources. As a conclusion, with my utmost level of confidence, I want to mention here that I strongly feel that the reader would be able grasp the concept of recruitment and selection of human resources.
I strongly believe that the information that I have provided in this assignment will definitely satisfy the assessment evaluation criteria. Also I wish to mention that, at the best of my knowledge, I've acknowledged all the sources which I did refer to complete this Individual assignment.
Last but not the least I wish to convey my heartfelt gratitude towards my tutor, my parents, my colleagues and all other well-wishers who immensely supported me throughout my studies in order to successfully complete this assignment.