Hr department can help cope with environmental change

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HR is a contraction for human resources, that part inside a company which deal with the human aspect/requirements of workers. Many companies have an HR section, which may offer a wide variety of services to its staffs. Some who work in HR are measured fraction of the section, but a lot of people externally of such a section may have incredible to do with not just the fiscal aspect of occupation, but as well "the individual constituent" of employing staffs. (http://www.consumerpsychologist.com)

Environment:

The term environment refers to institution or forces that are out side the organization and potentially affect the organizations performance. Just take the universe, subtract from it the subset that represent the organization and the reminder is the environment. (www.tjx.com)

There are two type of environment:

Specific environment.

General environment.

Specific environment includes :( Out side of the organization)

It consists of all the exterior institution and forces that have a real or possible concern or force on the organization's capability to attain its objectives: (http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/)

A) Competitors

Competitors are the other organization witch operates in the similar ground. They divide the similar buyer group of the organization. They can create a result on the institute.

 

B) Technological

Technology is a wide idea. After the trade uprising technology become an significant issue for organization. Technology brings the efficiency to the industry. In contemporary technology is use as well for organization to carry the better managerial setting.

C) Political

It can make the nastiest or the most excellent outcome to an institute. The political situation or the arrangement of a nation can create the organizations future. Enhanced policies make superior trade surroundings for any institute.

D) Legal

Legislation is another fact for institutes and present resources, as well as the staff have to perform under the lawful issue. No one can go away from the regulation of a nation. Witch ever an institute dose they contain to extent by the legal factor.

General environment includes: (Within the organization)

A) Current employees

B) Management

C) Trade unions

D) Share holders

Current employees: this refers to the integer of workers that and firm have. Staff or the functioning populace is the main possessions of an institute. Inside other tender these staff can create a big variation for an institute.

Management: A manager is somebody expert in expressive how to examine and get better the aptitude of an institute to continue to exist and grow in a composite and shifting world. This means so as to manager have a set of gear that facilitate them to take hold of the difficulty of the organization situation.

Trade unions: Trade Unions can create a force to the institute. They can insist for there privileges. Some organization countenance vast troubles because of fair blush trade unions.

Share holders: They are the owners of an organization. A shareholder or is a person or corporation as well as a corporation that lawfully own one or more share of stock in a combined stock business. A company's shareholders together possess that business. They invest there recourses to an institute in array to get profit. (http://www.msue.msu.edu )

Literature Review:

HR department of a company can help to cope with the regarding environmental change by the following way:

Forces of Changes

A wide variety of forces, however, may bring about more dramatic changes that touch the entire core of an organization. Many of these have become much more common as the economy, competition, and pace of technological change have become more volatile. Examples include hostile takeovers, of firms, leveraged buyouts and subsequent organi­zational restructuring, reengineering of organizations, acts of public terrorism, and nat­ural disasters like oil spills and gas leaks. Crises like these, whether positive or nega­tive demand that managers help guide employees through the emotional shock that accompanies them, thereby bringing the organization to a new equilibrium. ! (http://www.scribd.com)

Responses to Change

Work change is further complicated by the fact that it does not .produce a direct adjustment, unlike the adjustment of air molecules in the balloon. Instead, it operates through each employee's attitudes to produce a response that is conditioned by feelings toward the change. This relationship was illustrated in a series of classical experiments-the Hawthorne studies, conducted by F. J. Roethlisberger and his associates. In one instance lighting was improved regularly according to the simplistic theory that better lighting would lead to greater productivity. As was expected, productivity did increase. Then lighting was decreased to illustrate the reverse effect-reduced productivity. Instead, productivity increased further. Lighting was again decreased

How Individual Attitudes Affect Response to Change:

Obviously better light­ing was not by itself causing greater output. There was no direct connection between the change and the response. Some other intervening variable, later diagnosed as employee attitudes, had crept in to upset the expected pattern. Roethlisberger later explained the new pattern in the following way: Each change is interpreted by indi­viduals according to their attitudes.

Group Response to Change

People interpret change individually and have their & have probable response to it However, they often show their attachment to the group by joining with other group members in some uniform response to the change, as shown in the "actual response".

This uniformity makes possible such seem­ingly illogical actions as walkouts when obviously only a few people actually want to walk out. Other employees who are unhappy seize upon the walkout as a chance to show their dissatisfaction and to confirm their affiliation with the group by joining with it in social action. Basically, the group responds with the feeling. (http://www.adcracker.com)

Homeostasis:

In trying to maintain equilibrium, a group is often inclined to engage in backsliding to return to its perceived best way of life whenever any change occurs. Each pressure, therefore, elicits a counter pressure within the group. The net result is a self-correcting mechanism by which energies are called up to restore bal­ance whenever change threatens. This self-correcting characteristic of organizations is called homeostasis; that is, people act to establish a steady state of need fulfill­ment and to protect themselves from disturbance of that balance. They want to main­tain their previous sense of competence.

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

Resistance to change consists of any employee behaviors designed to discredit, or prevent the implementation of a work change. Employees resist change because it threatens their needs for security, social interaction, status, competence, or self-esteems Nature and Effects 'he perceived threat stemming from a change may be real or imagined, intended or unintended, direct or indirect, large or small. Regardless of the nature of the change, some employees will try to protect themselves from its effects. Their actions may range from complaints, foot-dragging, and passive resistance to absenteeism, sabo­tage, and work slowdowns.

All types of employees tend to resist change because of the psychic costs that accompany it. Managers as well as workers resist it. Change can be resisted just as stubbornly by a white-collar worker as by a blue-collar worker, it does not respect either type of dress or job.

A though people tend to resist change, this tendency is offset by their desire for new experiences and for the regards that come with change. Certainly, not ail changes are resisted; some are actively sought by employees. Other changes are so trivial and routine that resistance, if any, is too weak to be evident. One lesson for management is that a change is likely to be either a success or a problem, depending on how skill­fully it is managed to minimize resistance.

Reasons for Resistance

Employees may resist changes for three broad reasons. First, they may not feel com­fortable with the nature of the change itself. If may violate their moral belief system, they may believe the decision is technically incorrect, or they may simply be reluc­tant to exchange the comfort of certainty and familiarity for uncertainty. People may resist change because of their fear of the unknown, threats to their job security, or the lack of a demonstrated problem. A second reason for resistance stems from the method by which change is introduced.8 People may resent having been ill-informed or they may reject an insensitive and authoritarian approach that did not involve them in the change process.

Types of Resistance

There are three different types of resistance to change, as shown in Figure 14-2. These types work in combination to produce each employee's total attitude toward a change. The three types may be expressed by three different uses of the word "logical."

Logical Resistance

This is based on disagreement with .the facts, rational reason­ing, logic, and science. Logical resistance arises from the actual time and effort required to adjust to change, including new job duties that must be learned. These are true costs borne by the employees. Even though a change may be favorable for employees in the long run, these short-run costs must first be paid.

Psychological Resistance

This is typically based on emotions, sentiments, and attitudes. Psychological resistance is internally logical from the perspective of the employees' attitudes and feelings about change. Employees may fear the unknown, mistrust management's leadership, or feel that their security and self-esteem are threat­ened. Even though management may believe there is no justification for these feel­ings, they are very real to employees, and managers must deal with them.

Sociological Resistance

Sociological resistance also is logical, when it is seen as a product of a challenge to group interests, norms, and values. Since social values are powerful forces in the environment, they must be carefully considered. There are polit­ical coalitions, labor union values, and even different community values. .On a small-group level there are work friendships and status relationships that may be disrupted by changes. Employees will ask such questions as, "Is the change consistent with group .values?" "Does it maintain teamwork?" Since employees have these kinds of questions on their minds, managers must try to make these conditions as favorable as possible if they intend to deal successfully with sociological resistance

Implications of Resistance Clearly, all three types of resistance must be antici­pated and treated effectively if employees are to accept change cooperatively. If administrators work with only the technical, logical dimension of change, they have failed in their human responsibilities. It can be seen that psychological resistance and sociological resistance are not illogical or irrational; rather, they are logical accord­ing to different sets of values. Recognizing the impact of psychological and social factors is critically important to the success of proposed change. (www.learnmanagement.net)

IMPLEMENTING CHANGE SUCCESSFULLY

Some changes originate within the organization, but many come from the external environment. Government passes laws, and the organization must comply. New developments in technology arise, and products must incorporate the changes. Competitors introduce new services, and the firm must respond. Then there are pressures from customers, labor unions, communities, and others who initiate changes. Although stable environments mean legs change, dynamic environments are now the norm, and they require more change. (Currim and Schneider, 1991)

Three Stages in Change

Behavioral awareness in managing change is aided by viewing change as a three-step process:

• Unfreezing

• Changing

• Refreezing

Unfreezing:

Means that old ideas and practices need to be cast aside so that new ones can be learned. Often this step of getting rid of old practices is just as difficult as learning the new ones. It is an easy step to overlook while concentrating on the proposed change itself, but failure to cast aside old ideas is what often leads to resis­tance to change. Just as a farmer must clear a field before planting new seeds, so must a manager help employees clear their minds of old roles and old purposes. Only then will they be able to embrace new ideas.

Changing:

Is the step in which the new ideas and practices are learned. This process involves helping an employee think, reason, and perform in new ways. It can be a time of-confusion, disorientation, overload, and despair. Fortunately, the changing step. Usually is also mixed with hope, discovery, and excitement.

Refreezing:

Means that what has been learned is integrated into actual practice. In addition to being intellectually accepted, the new practices become emotionally embraced and incorporated into the employee's routine behavior. Merely knowing a new procedure is not enough to ensure its use. As a farmer once said when confronted by an agricultural extension agent with suggestions for crop improvement, "I'm not farming half as well as I already know how." Successful on-the-job practice, then, must be the ultimate goal of the refreezing step.

Methodology of the Study:

Different types of environmental changes can occur in the organization in many ways. The human resource department can cope and handle those chances. The environmental changes are:

Specific environment includes :( Out side of the organization)

It consists of all the exterior institution and forces that have a real or possible concern or force on the organization's capability to attain its objectives: 

A) Competitors

Competitors are the other organization witch operates in the similar ground. They divide the similar buyer group of the organization. They can create a result on the institute.

They can influence an organization in the following way:

A. Change the price suddenly

B. Can challenge a company innovating a new product

C. Can change the supply chain

D. Offering more service outlets

 

B) Technological

Technology is a wide idea. After the trade uprising technology become a significant issue for organization. Technology brings the efficiency to the industry. In contemporary technology is use as well for organization to carry the better managerial setting.

It can influence an organization in the following way:

A. Other company can innovate new technology

B. Invention of new technology

C) Political

It can make the nastiest or the most excellent outcome to an institute. The political situation or the arrangement of a nation can create the organizations future. Enhanced policies make superior trade surroundings for any institute.

It can influence an organization in the following way:

A. Social interest group can be suddenly strongly active

B. Awareness of the customers can grow up very suddenly

C. Customer's right

D) Legal

Legislation is another fact for institutes and present resources, as well as the staff have to perform under the lawful issue. No one can go away from the regulation of a nation. Witch ever an institute dose they contain to extent by the legal factor.

It can influence an organization in the following way:

A. New laws can be introduced for the business firms

B. Legislation regarding business can be applied

C. New labor law can be passed

D. New wage scale could be passed

Current employees: this refers to the integer of workers that and firm have. Staff or the functioning populace is the main possessions of an institute. Inside other tender these staff can create a big variation for an institute.

It can influence an organization in the following way:

A. The work force can be de-motivated.

B. They can go for higher benefits which might impossible for the company.

C. For legal situation they can go for a strike.

Management: A manager is somebody expert in expressive how to examine and get better the aptitude of an institute to continue to exist and grow in a composite and shifting world. This means so as to manager have a set of gear that facilitate them to take hold of the difficulty of the organization situation.

It can influence an organization in the following way:

A. They can change the goal and mission of their company.

B. They can introduce new way of technology of system which can be thrown away by the staffs.

Trade unions: Trade Unions can create a force to the institute. They can insist for there privileges. Some organization countenance vast troubles because of fair blush trade unions.

It can influence an organization in the following way:

A. Suddenly the can demand for the change to the current management.

B. They just want to sell their shares to the market then the company get in to in the question will they quit the business?

Share holders: They are the owners of an organization. A shareholder or is a person or corporation as well as a corporation that lawfully own one or more share of stock in a combined stock business. A company's shareholders together possess that business. They invest there recourses to an institute in array to get profit.

Responsibility for organization alteration:

The worker does not have a liability to handle change - the human resources liability is no additional than to do their greatest job, which is dissimilar for every being and depends on a broad diversity of factor like health, prime of life, constancy, skill, character, inspiration, etc. Responsibility for administration transform is with executive and of the institute they must direct the change in a way that staff can handle with it.

Management preparation, understanding and facilitative ability are main concerned areas manager are vital to the change procedure, they must make possible and assist, not simply express and apply strategy from on top of, which does not work.

Change must involve the people - change must not be imposed upon the people.

Change management philosophy:

At all period engage and have the same view carry from people inside organization system = surroundings, process, mores, associations, behaviors, etc., whether individual or organizational.

Be aware of where the institute is at the instant. Appreciate where you desire to be, at what time, why, and what the actions determination is for have got there. Plan expansion towards over in suitable attainable quantifiable stage. Correspond, occupy, allow and make easy participation from group, as in the early hours and explicitly and as fully as is feasible.

John P Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change

1. Increase urgency.

2. Build the guiding team.

3. Get the vision right.

4. Communicate for buy-in. 

5. Communications.

6. Empower.

7. Create short-term wins.

8. Make change stick.

Business development driven change

Business development potentially includes everything involved with the quality of the business or the organization. Business development planning first requires establishing Formulating a business enlargement policy, which would include some or all of the next method of advancement taken by the human Resource department of a company:

1. Sales development

2. New product development

3. New market development

4. Business organization, shape, structure and processes development.

5. Tools, equipment, plant, logistics and supply-chain development

6. People, management and communications development

7. Strategic partnerships and distribution routes development

8. International development

9. Acquisitions and disposals

This are the major factors which affect the external and internel environment and there is part which starts for the human resource department starts to cope with the new change are introduced to an organization.

Findings of the Study:

Change management needs equally a human being and an executive point of view:

Individual change management

Organizational change management

Understanding how one person 

makes a change successfully

Understanding what tools we have to help

individuals make changes successfully

Organization don't change, persons do. No affair how big of a scheme you are taking on, the achievement of that plan eventually lies with each worker doing their work in a different way, multiply diagonally all of the workers impacted by the change. Efficient vary organization require a considerate for and admiration of how one someone make a change productively. With no a person viewpoint, we are absent with behavior but no thought of the objective or result that we are trying to attain.

Whereas alter happen one self at a time, there are process and gears that can be used to make easy this transform. Tools like statement and preparation are frequently the only behavior while no prepared approach is functional. When there is a directorial change administration viewpoint, a procedure emerge for how to level change management actions and how to use the total set of tools obtainable for scheme leaders and company managers.

Because it outlines the goal or outcome of triumphant change, effective tool for are:

1. Planning change

2. Management activities

3. Diagnosing gaps

4. Developing corrective actions

5. Supporting managers and supervisors

Preparing for change:

The first phase in tactic is intended at receiving ready. It answers the query: 'how much change management is needed for this specific project'.

Managing change:

The second phase is paying attention on create the strategy that are incorporated into the plan

Reinforcing change

Evenly significant but most often unnoticed, the third stage is help assignment team generate exact action strategy for ensure that the change is constant.

 

Managers Role Managing Change:

Proactive Role:

HR department introduces changes to make the organization better fit with the environment and demands. Here the HR's role is to anticipate events, initiate change, take control of organizational destiny.

Reactive Role:

HR restores and maintains the group equilibrium and helps employees to make necessary adjustments. Here the HR role is to respond to events, adapting changes, moderate the concequeicences of change.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE STEPS TAKEN BY HR DEPATRMANT TO HANDEL/COPE WITH THW CAHNGES:

Advantages:

Individual Reaction:

Some individuals embrace the change regarding the change within the organization.

Some members of the group in the organization will accept it positively.

Some employees will embrace the change which is introduced in the organization.

Disadvantages:

People tend to resist change when it is perceived as threatening to their needs, security, relationship, status, competence or self esteem. Resistance can cause variety of behavior that will have direct impact on performance. Such as:

Slowdown

Absenteeism

Complaints

Sabotage, etc.

There are three major resistances during the change coping with the changing period when a HR department tries to teach the staffs or workers in the organization:

Rational resistance is biased on facts, reasoning and logic, it may arise from actual time and effort required to adjust to the change.

Emotional resistance is based on sentiments and attitudes; it arises from the fear of unknown. Feeling of insecurity.

Social resistant is based on social values, norms, and interests groups tend to hold in work situation. It arises from the community feelings and status relationship in work group.

Recommendations:

Building Support for Change

If we assume that management is following the model of the change process then forces of support need to be built before, during, and after a change. A wide variety of positive activities to build support are described below. Others, such as manipulation and coercion, typically antagonize employees and sabotage the long-term success of the change program.

Use of Group Forces

Effective change focuses not only on the individuals but also on the group itself. The group is an instrument for bringing strong pressure on its mem­bers to change. Since behavior is firmly grounded in the groups to which a person belongs, any changes in group forces will encourage changes in the individual behavior. The idea is to help the group join with management to encourage desired change.

Providing a Rationale for Change

Capable leadership reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. The effective leader presents change on the basis of is impersonal requirements of the situation, rather than on personal grounds. It is generally better to provide objective (performance-related) reasons for the change. If they re compelling and substantial, they should be given.

Participation

A fundamental way to build support for change is through partici­pation, which is discussed in Chapter 8. it encourages employees to discuss, to com­municate, to make suggestions, and to become interested in change. Participation encourages commitment rather than mere compliance with change. Commitment implies motivation to support a change and to work to ensure that the change is effective.

Shared Rewards

Another way to build employee support for change is to be sure, that there are enough rewards for employees in the change situation. It is only natu­ral for employees to ask, "What's in this for me?" If they see that a change brings those losses and no gains, they can hardly be enthusiastic about it.

Employee Security

Along with shared rewards, existing employee benefits need to be protected. Security during a change is essential. Many employers guarantee workers protection from reduced earnings when new technology and methods are introduced. Others offer retraining and delay installation of labor-saving equipment until normal labor turnover can absorb displaced workers.

Communication and Education

Communication is essential in gaining sup­port for change. Even though a change will affect only one or two in a work group of ten persons, all of them need to be informed about the change in order to feel secure and to maintain group cooperation.

Stimulating Employee Readiness

Closely related to communication is the idea of helping employees become aware of the need for a change. This approach builds on the premise that change is more likely to be accepted if the people affected by it recognize a need for it before it occurs. This awareness may happen naturally, as when a crisis occurs, or it can be induced by management through sharing operating infor­mation with employees.

Working With the Total System

Resistance to change can be reduced by a broader understanding of employee attitudes and natural reactions to change. Man agreement's role is to help employees recognize the need for each change and to invite them to participate in it and gain from it.18 It is also essential for managers to take a broader, systems-oriented perspective on change to identify the complex relation ships involved. Organization development can be a useful method for achieving this objective.

Conclusion:

We all experience change continuously throughout in every stages of our lives. Change begins from the first day of our lives and stays with us till death. We adapt and adjust changes and also initiate and support changes. Likewise organizations too experience changes. The choice os not about whether or not to have the change but when and how to have the changes to make the organization more effective in reaching it's goal.

Change is many alteration occurring in the work environment that affect the ways in which employees must act. These changes may be planned or unplanned, catastrophic or evolutionary, positive or negative, strong or weak, slow or rapid, stimulated internally or externally. Regardless to its nature, time, origin, pace, or strength. Change can have profound effects on their recipients.

The whole organization is affected by change in many of it. Organization tends to establish a state of equilibrium where where employees are adjusted. When change comes along, organization requires its employees to make new adjustment to seek new equilibrium. When employees are unable to make adequate adjustments, the the challenges for the human resource department and the employees, but imposed to change can be more difficult to manage, than changes desired by the employees.

15 Examples Including the HR Related Activities:

1. Annapurna:

Building Support for Change

Annapurna HR management is following the model of the change process then forces of support need to be built before, during, and after a change.

http://www.annapurna-hr.com/environment

2. National health service(NHS) UK:

Use of Group Forces

HR management is following the model of Effective change focuses not only on the individuals but also on the group itself. The group is an instrument for bringing strong pressure on its mem­bers to change.

http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/nhs/nursing_recruitment.htm

3. Tesco:

Participation

HR management is following the model of fundamental way to build support for change is through partici­pation, which is discussed in Chapter 8. it encourages employees to discuss, to com­municate, to make suggestions, and to become interested in change.

4. Royal United Hospital Bath NHS Trust

Working With the Total System

HR management is following the model of resistance to change can be reduced by a broader understanding of employee attitudes and natural reactions to change. Man agreement's role is to help employees recognize the need for each change and to invite them to participate in it and gain from it.

5. Starbucks

Communication and Education

HR management is following the model of Communication is essential in gaining sup­port for change. Even though a change will affect only one or two in a work group of ten persons, all of them need to be informed about the change in order to feel secure and to maintain group cooperation.

6. Coke India

Shared Rewards

HR management is following the model of Another way to build employee support for change is to be sure, that there are enough rewards for employees in the change situation

7. ASDA

Working With the Total System

HR management is following the model of Resistance to change can be reduced by a broader understanding of employee attitudes and natural reactions to change

8. George

Employee Security

HR management is following the model of Along with shared rewards, existing employee benefits need to be protected. Security during a change is essential.

9. Loyds TSB

Shared Rewards

HR management is following the model of Another way to build employee support for change is to be sure, that there are enough rewards for employees in the change situation.

10. John Lewis

Building Support for Change

HR management is following the model of If we assume that management is following the model of the change process then forces of support need to be built before, during, and after a change.

11. B & Q

Working With the Total System

HR management is following the model of Resistance to change can be reduced by a broader understanding of employee attitudes and natural reactions to change.

12. Currys

Communication and Education

HR management is following the model of Communication is essential in gaining sup­port for change.

13. Ford

Stimulating Employee Readiness

HR management is following the model of Closely related to communication is the idea of helping employees become aware of the need for a change. This approach builds on the premise that change is more likely to be accepted if the people affected by it recognize a need for it before it occurs.

14. Nike

Use of Group Forces

HR management is following the model of Effective change focuses not only on the individuals but also on the group itself. The group is an instrument for bringing strong pressure on its mem­bers to change.

15. Our Business

HR management is following the model of It's the leading home improvement and garden centre retailer in Europe and the third largest in the world.

Employee Security

Along with shared rewards, existing employee benefits need to be protected. Security during a change is essential.

Reference:

http://www.consumerpsychologist.com

http://www.msue.msu.edu

http://www.adcracker.com

www.learnmanagement.net

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