In the modern society, a big company or a small one needs to have a clean organization structure because people in an organization have dissent personalities, which are complex of emotional and psychological human behaviors, which can characterize an individual in an unique way which depends on their actions by Carl Gustav Jung (1934), and different jobs responsibilities which need to be distributed among them. Meanwhile, the organization must ensure the most contribution which is made by the members. This essay will not only consider key principles of three organizational behaviour topics which are about motivation, group and team working and organizational culture, but also discuss the theory s implications for and applications to special organizational examples. These three themes are significantly relational among them and help to improve the organizational efficiency. This essay has been divided into three sections. Firstly, motivation, the drive of an organization will be discussed. Secondly, group and team working, which greatly increase the success ratio, will be explained. Thirdly, it will describe organizational culture which is important to determine how well an organization operates.
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Motivation is one of the most important factors to lead people to obtain goals. Motivation equals to drive. (John Bratton, p250) Motivation is admittedly definite as an internal state of being or condition to energize behaviour, offering a direction. (Tutor2u, n.d.). Furthermore, According to Med66 (2008), it is also a desire or requirement which directs and activates people s behaviour to orient towards a goal. Moreover, another definition stated my Yeyuxx (2010), it is the influence of the
Another definition of motivation described by Yeyuxx (2010) states that it is the influence of the needs and desires on the intensity of behaviour and direction it will follow. There is one more expert who defined motivation as the arousal, direction, as well as persistence of one s behaviour. However, the fact remains that is rather difficult to clearly define motivation, as various experts in the field have come to their varying conclusions through the years. (Sjfzxm, 2009)
There are no doubts that motivation is one of the most important factors influencing people s performance. If the managers do not encourage their staff, even the best employees will perform moderately. It is wrong to believe that employee motivation depends on his personality traits. A huge influence has companies salary promotion system, interpersonal relations and managers behaviour. Basically, in order to keep employees motivated there are seven strategies which were described by Wenzhou Vocational & Technical Collage (2009) that can be adopted, which are:
? Providing positive reinforcements for the tasks accomplished and setting higher goals to be achieved;
? Setting down certain effective rules and regulations to be followed in the office;
? Seeing that fair rules are set in the office;
? Looking into employee needs and seeing that they are comfortable in their work environment;
? There should be work related goals set from time to time;
? There should be regular appraisals and platforms where employees can share their on the job experiences;
? There should be consistent and constant on the job rewarding and incentives.
Motivation is the most important factor which helps people get started. If they are not motivated towards the work, they will be unwilling to starting a task or work, and without starting, the task cannot be completed. It makes taking the first step a whole lot easier.
There are a number of different views as to what motivates workers. Unfortunately, these theories do not reach all the same conclusions. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 C 1917) put forward the idea that workers are motivated mainly by pay. His Theory of Scientific Management argued the following: workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control. Therefore, managers should break down production into a series of small tasks. Appropriate training and tools should be given to employees to work as efficiently as possible on one set task. Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay. As a result, workers are encouraged to work hard and maximise their productivity. Taylor s methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased productivity levels and lower unit costs. The most notably advocate was Henry Ford who used them to design the first ever production line, making Ford cars. This was the start of the era of mass production. However, workers soon came to dislike Taylor s approach as they were only given boring, repetitive tasks to carry out and were being treated little better than human machines. This led to an increase in strikes and other forms of industrial action by unsatisfied workers.
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Another well known theory is known as Abraham Maslow (1908 C 1970) along with Frederick Herzberg (1923). They introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950 s, which focused on the psychological needs of employees. Maslow put forward a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work. The hierarchy s levels from lowest to highest are: physiological needs, like hunger, thirst, safety needs C security and protection, social needs C love, relationships, esteem needs C recognition, status in the society and finally self actualisation - the desire for self-fulfilment, growth-motivated rather than deficiency-motivated. The entire individual s needs are structured into hierarchy, in which workers need to fulfil the lower level to have the opportunity to go to the next one, more important than the level before. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of Maslow s hierarchy of needs is important in the field of international business. Evaluating the different needs, values, drives and priorities of people from different countries - individualistic or collectivist - is incredibly valuable in cross-cultural communications, and especially within the workplace.
Some critics have provided that there is a lack of hierarchical structure of needs as it is suggested by Maslow. (Slideshare, 2008) They claimed that some people may have deprived of a lower level needs but strive for self actualization. And sometimes people cannot be aware of their own needs. Though Maslow's hierarchy makes sense intuitively, little evidence supports its strict hierarchy. Actually, recent research challenges the order that the needs are imposed by Maslow's pyramid. As an example, in some cultures, social needs are placed more fundamentally than any others. (Envisionsoftware, 2007) Additionally, little evidence suggests that people satisfy exclusively one motivating need at a time, other than situations where needs conflict (Arnolds and Boshoff, 2002).
Frederick Herzberg (1923) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder known as motivators and there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee known as hygiene factors. (Accel-Team, 2010) Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself. For instance, how interesting the work is and how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion. Herzberg also believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. (Jookan, 2010) If the motivation-hygiene theory holds, management not only must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction, but also must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. Herzberg's theory has been broadly read and despite its weaknesses its enduring value is that it recognizes that true motivation comes from within a person.
Critics of Herzberg's theory argued that the two-factor result is observed because it is natural for people to take credit for satisfaction and to blame dissatisfaction on external factors. Furthermore, job satisfaction does unnecessarily imply a high level of motivation or productivity (Frenc, 2008).
Motivation stays with people, from the beginning to the very end of the task or work. If a person is asked to complete a particular task, he will have to do it, even if he is not motivated. Either way he will end up doing it. But if he motivated towards the work, it becomes much more fun and he will not only achieve more than what is needed, but also gain experience and knowledge along with it. No matter how long or tiring the task it, it will definitely be a whole lot easier if members are properly motivated towards doing it, and people will also enjoy.
China Economic Net (2004) defined teamwork as a group of individuals passionately committed to their end goal. When groups have common goals, teamwork is essential to success. For example, teamwork among students and provide them with group projects so that they can learn teamwork skills. Moreover, individuals to function effectively on various teams and most organizations convene teams to tackle problems or projects. Therefore, it is important to learn teamwork skills, even if members prefer to work independently.
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Team working is often identified with working in a group. However, it is not enough to have a formal working groups for a modern organization wishing to implement team work C in order to manage and maximize the potential of the group, should promote cooperation between different individuals. The groups are understood as a human community whose members are connected with a common feature of overall activity and interests for one organization (M. Dromantas, 2007). The team should be called as groups of people working together and all people have common purpose to realize all teams and each member s individual needs (M. Dromantas, 2007).All teams are groups but not all groups are teams (Kasiulis, Barvydiene, 2004). Many studies conducted in various organizations have shown that team work and group work have quite a lot differences (Lussier, Achua, 2001). The differences arise then we talk about effective teams. But often the team or a group terms are used as synonyms. In this case, the teams are understood as a working groups in which each team member tries to maximize the success of a collaboration not only with other team members but also with the manager (Harvey & Drolet, 2004).
Probably the most famous teamwork theory is Bruce Tuckman's (1965) "team stages model". First developed in 1965, Tuckman's model is widely known as a basis for effective team building and leadership, and is one of the theories we have used to inform our STAR team performance model (Strengths, Teamwork, Alignment, Results model, which brings together teamwork theories with some of the main principles of the happy manager). Tuckman suggests that teams grow through clearly defined stages, from their creation as groups of individuals, to cohesive, task focused teams. Tuckman describes working with a team of social psychologists, on behalf of the U.S. navy. The team were studying small group behaviour, from several perspectives. (The-happy-manger, 2010) In doing so, Tuckman reviewed 50 articles on group development and noticed that there were two features common to these small groups: the interpersonal or group structure, and the task activity. From this he identified that groups evolved into teams via four common stages (forming, storming, norming and performing). (Scribd, 2010) The use of Tuckman s model is that it helps us to understand that teams develop. It also helps to consider how people may encounter problems at different stages of their development. Despite of limitations, all team working models can be useful in helping managers to understand and manage all circumstances.
However, research on groups development have drawn criticism. For example, Tuckman s model was developed from work with therapy, laboratory or training groups, not real teams in real contexts . Group development models that predict linear phases have particularly need criticized (Kline, 1999). Kline points out: imagine the fallowing situation. The cockpit crew of a 747 boards the plane twenty minutes before take-off. Passengers are seated in seat 177B, and as the airplane rushes down runway nine, they hope like hell that this team is past the storming stage or group development. Kline argues that there is something about aircrew that enables them to fly the aircraft safely, even when they have just met each one another. Although these researches suggest that not every group go through all development stage, Tuckman s model is very useful for understanding group dynamics.
For example, team working is very strong in such a huge corporation like Honda Motor Co. Inc. (2010). This company is committed to maintaining a diverse workforce. Their aim is to attract, employ and retain a talented, diverse pool of associates from communities through all over the world. Some of their employees say: Working with a company that encourages their employees to be creative and approachable is a great attribute for me. I enjoy a work environment that is fast-paced, positive and whose employees can smile even on a bad day. But best of all, members are excited by their work. They enjoy it, be passionate about it and be proud of it. That really says a lot about the family orientated division I work for. C J.C. "I must admit that my experiences as a Honda Associate have been far more rewarding than any I have had during my entire employment history. The notion of "Respect for the Individual" was something I had inexperienced before and heightened my desire to join the Honda family. Since then I have seen this in action through the support of senior management and the ongoing communication I have enjoyed across divisions and affiliate companies. says C.F. These good responses of the employees mean that this company have very good team working management and motivation to their workers. They gave their staff best working opportunities, freedom and independence to workers and the most important good feedback on worker s performance.
The nature of working groups was explored through the concepts of size, norms and group learning. (Dummies, 2010) The definitions of work teams are not so different from the definition of work groups. However, the conscious use of the word team is not simply a question of semantics. Whether employees are organized into a work group or a work team , the effectiveness of the work configuration will be the outcome of complex group s behaviours and processes.
When we are planning to develop a new strategy for organizations, it is necessary to determine the environmental impact of new technologies, worker s needs, desires and knowledge of existing organizational culture. In order to realize the strategy successfully, the people must to know in which direction they want to divert the organization, to understand what it takes to operate the organization effectively and develop it in that direction. Only the organizational culture helps us to create a management system, which includes interaction with other persons and machineries, leadership and control, sketch out strategies and tactics, and programme, timetable and needful controls to manage an organization, to satisfy both managers and employees needs. (Marios Alexandrou, 2010)
Organization C a group of individuals seeking common goals. Therefore, organizational effectiveness, the ability to successfully develop and operate depends from the people working there.(Bent, 2010) It is very important that the organizations members have the common understanding of what is happening in the organization, what they seek for and what means they use to achieve their goals. Thriving organization relies on a powerful force C values and belief system or in simple words organizational culture. Each organization is characterized by a distinctive culture, which leads to the positive effect on employees. According to J. Kinard (1988) organizational culture is affected by external and internal forces. Exterior C the political, social, economical and technological, interior C the organization s resources and management value orientations. Organizational culture is something that is transmitted to new employees as the correct way to perceive, think and act in relation to challenges and opportunities facing the organization Cray (1998). According to E.Schein (1990), organizational culture is necessary in order to solve these problems of organization: mission and strategy, objectives, measures, assessments, adjustment, common language and conceptual categories, group boundaries and acceptance, friendship, rewards and punishments.
Environmental impact on organizational culture is undeniable. J Collins and J. Porras (1994) do some research to determine what strategy use the strongest world s corporations like Wal-Mart, Toyota Motors, AXA , China National Petroleum and Microsoft. Many companies are adapting to changing environment, and modify some elements of the strategy and culture, while market leaders keep their ideology. Each company s operating efficiency is based on strict, but specific norms. R. Ackoff (1981) suggests that the organization is a system composed of fallowing elements: behaviour of each element on the entire system o f human behaviour, the influence of elements as a whole is independent and lastly all elements are linked in that they cannot occur entirely independent group. Thus, the organizational culture is affected by all those listed factors. From each member of organization depends on how culture emerges and the managers are responsible for developing organizational culture and those values and priorities which are important to them.
It is noted that the organizational culture has a positive effect on efficiency. It is also an important balance between management and dynamics of the organization, because it is always more than one method of control. The relationship between the managers and the staff is efficiently strong. S. P. Robbins (1991) proposes to analyze an organizational culture, based on dozen of characteristics that are most valued in the organizations. When all characteristics are analyzed we can see what things are very important for members of the organization, which organization s systems are functioning effectively and harmoniously and where they need to work on. It is difficult to change the organizational culture. Many leaders underestimate how long it takes to achieve real and lasting changes in organizational culture. Some authors have questions whether the culture of the whole can be changed. If it is possible, it requires a lot of time, persistence and patience. Finally, cultural changes mean a new behaviours and new values. Culture change C it is not only complicated but also it took a lot of time (Cornwall, Perlman 1990).
Changing the organizational culture, the problems are likely to be sufficiently high as the organizational culture changes include all parts of organization. The biggest opposition may lead to the same organization who does not know if they change the benefits. The people are used to a steady relationship, values and communication network (Simanskiene, 1998). And any changes in the organizational culture frightens them, they feel unsecure, because there is variety of problems. S. Sink (1985) argues that every organization faces unique challenges and the analysts have to analyze the general principles in specific situations in the company. In order to change organizational culture effectively it requires the inclusion of all employees, emphasize the expected results of promoting workers identification with the organization, reward people who are stuck by the guidelines provided and monitor all the feedback because it is the necessary to manage the changes.
The most skeptical detractors argue that organizational culture as a whole cannot be created by the managers; organizational culture is embedded in informal interactions and norms. For example, Schein found that a strategy for cultural change that focused on the bottom line and expected engineers to sell their services to clients caused many to resist and threaten resignation. (Hdinc, 2008) Therefore, the critical school tends to be highly skeptical about claims of managing organizational cultures, regarding the claims as naive and unethical. Moreover, a strong corporate culture does very little efforts to alter the nature of the employment relationship in any meaningful way. The concern with the culture may obscure enduring conflict. After all, it would be naive to believe that a single culture exists in all organizations, or that cultural engineering will reflect the interests of all stakeholders within an organization. Furthermore, it is perfectly reasonable to suggest that complex organizations might have many cultures, and that such sub-cultures might overlap and contradict each other.
In conclusion, this essay is trying to evaluate the importance to understand the key principle of motivation, group and team working in the organization and organizational culture itself. The essay helps to understand the strengths and weaknesses of different motivational theories in the field of international business. Also it gives an overview of companies structure and culture, which can be influence on team performance. Another important thing was distinguished differences between group and team working, which can improve the company s performance in certain ways. Besides that, the successful work environment could combine many features especially in contemporary world, just need to know how to encourage and to know how to motivate employees in order to improve benefit to companies.