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Purpose - This assignment is seeks to identity how the corporate behavior components are defined and how to managed by nowadays corporate.
Methodology - This assignment used internet for searching the journal and material that linked to this topic.
Findings - An ever-increasing number of corporate in this business environment make corporate recognizing the behavior of corporate is essential things to learn. Corporate behavior consist company behavior, management behavior and employee behavior. Company behavior is a form to respond to the corporate social responsibility and as a way to concern public. While management behavior is a management style that using by different corporate to controlling their employees and maintaining organization productivity. By the way, employees' behavior is an attitude toward an organization.
Article type - Literature review
One of the best-known definitions was given by Riel who followed Birkigt and Stadler by defining corporate identity as the self presentation of an organization; it consists of the prompts an organization offers about itself via behavior, communication, and symbolism, which are its forms of expression. It was actual manifestation of the company reality as conveyed through the organization's name, logo, name, and all other tangible pieces of evidence created by which means it identify itself.
The defining of the concept has extended later to comprise all the characteristics that gives the organization its specificity, stability, and adherent (Larcon and Reitter, 1979). Even though, the concept has extended to include more than the visual representation, visual signals still are assigned a great value in terms of communicating the corporate values and public rather than being a means of raise up the corporate visibility .Balmer persuades that the visual identity can play an important character in communicating strategic plan and thus can be powerful. Corporate identity is the reality and uniqueness of an organization, which is integrally related to its external and internal image and reputation through corporate communication (Gray and Balmer, 1998).
Albert and Whet ten's (1985) have defined identity as the organization character that is central, persisting, and precise. Olin's (1995) has identified that corporate identity is "the distinct management of all the methods in which the organization presents itself through experiences and perceptions to all consumer". Therefore, corporate identity is not concerned only with customers but also handles perceptions and identification of corporation to all party that involved.
Corporate behavior is an organization behavior when consider as a single body. The arrangements for organization ownership and control have influenced the behavior of an organization.
Professor Melewar has defined corporate behavior as an organization which consists of company behavior, management behavior and employee behavior.
Nippon Keidanren, who is the Japan business federation, believe that in a currently economy and society in which individuals and corporations are free to demonstrate their creativity with high ethical standards. They also always strived to maintain harmonious employee relations and to contribute to the development of local communities; to actively engage in philanthropy and social responsibility.
Top management in a corporate are expected to give concerns including human rights, poverty and work on emerging issues such as personal data protection in the information society and workforce diversity in a low-birthrate, aging society. Corporations are needed to respond to their social significance and value, replying social needs and communicating with stakeholder.
As Mc Williams and Siegel, 2000 note that investment in corporate social responsibility promote was differentiation contributing to a socially responsible corporate image and identity. The image of a corporate is present in a reputation of the company beside the productivity and services. The reputation of a corporate will consider to be its distinctive social position based on values and which is obtain only by keep going value-creating activities in all the operational fields of a corporate.
Company behavior may aims at influencing the top management or background to protect the company's values (Jaatinen, 1998). This behavior of a company is clearly determined by its position in society and eyes of public or by relations establish with politicians, which mean an alliance for the company for a given duration of time or in respect of one particular issue.
3.1 Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate social responsibility also defined as corporate conscience, social performance, citizenship, or sustainable responsible business in step of forming company regulation. Corporate social responsibility policy works as a built-in and self-regulating mechanism whereby business monitors and makes sure its active compliance with the spirit of the company law, ethical standards and international norms.
The goal of corporate social responsibility is to hold responsibility for the company's behavior and encourage a positive impact through company activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, governments, and all other party are involved.
Furthermore, corporate social responsibility focused businesses would proactively enhance the public interest by inspiring community growth and development, and voluntarily eliminating practices that damage the public sphere, regardless of legality corporate social responsibility is concerned with the relationship between the corporate society, and focuses particularly good corporate citizenship. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development has defines it like this:
"Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to demean ethically and provide to economic development while developing the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large."
Some models of corporate social responsibility emphasize the primacy of a corporation's economic responsibility to survive by making a profit. These models suggest other responsibilities came after: to remain by societal expectations and ethical principles, to meet legal standards and to oblige in discretionary charitable actions (Carroll, 1979).
3.2 Corporate Social Responsibility (study case)
Philip Morris provides a good example of the former of corporate social responsibility. The company's advertisement campaign touting its charitable activities met with skepticism from the public, many whom viewed these actions as an attempt by Philip Morris to eliminating its negative image as a big tobacco company rather than as a manifestation of true concern for the community.
Despite continued spending on promoting its philanthropic activities, the company still ranked 56 out of 60 in the Harris Interactive Reputation Institute 2006 RQ Gold Survey. (Annual RQ, 2004)
Making employee involved in corporate social responsibility strategy can boost up employee goodwill and morale. Strong evidence exists that the general public now views genuinely responsible behavior as starting inside the four walls of an organization.
A corporate who cares about social responsibility will consider by public as a caring company that treat employees as good as possible and supply social needs without any complaining. Employees who under this work environment are willingness to go extra mile for the sake of corporation's mission.
3.3 Organization behavior
In nowadays society, there are many organizations which serve many essential needs and are a required part of the society. Individuals, the community and other organizations are generally influenced by the decisions and behavior of management in organizations. Thus, it is very compulsory to defining the persuasive influences which they exercise over the behavior of people and to understand how organizations work.
According to the Financial Times Mastering Management Series, organizational behavior is one of the most complicate and perhaps least understood academic elements of modern general management, but since it concerns the behavior of people within organization and it is also one of the most central, concern with individual and group patterns of behavior makes it an important element in dealing with the complex behavioral issues due to modern business world.
Management behavior is an academic discipline concluded with explaining, understanding, defining, and influencing human behavior in an organizational environment. The manager will try to help assimilate employees into the organization and support employees flourish an appropriate set of behaviors to work within the organization (Kahn & Katz, 1966). Management behavior has developed from early classical management theories into a complicated school of thought, and it keeps on to change in response to the energetic environment and proliferating corporate cultures in today's corporate.
Understanding one individual's behavior especially employee is a hard job. In a corporate, there are different types of employees and multiple connections among those individuals, is even more complicated than we think. In the fact of this overwhelming complexity, management behavior must be conduct well in each of the organization.
Therefore, the work of managements can get done through the behavior of employees, individually or collectively, on their own or in cooperating with technology. Thus, central to the management task is the management of organizational behavior. There must be have ability to understand the styles of behavior in different levels of an organization, and try to foresee what behavior responses will be secured by different managerial actions, and finally to use understanding and prediction to achieve control and goals.
In the past several decades, management experts have undergone a revolution in how human resources ideals have been put into action in nowadays' organizations and what their attitudes go toward it. We would like to believe that by treating employees well with enriched jobs, and by fulfilling their needs for safety and security, esteem and self-actualization, the corporate can generate a climate in which worker satisfaction and productivity will rise.
However, different styles of management were needed for each specific situations and as a leader should know how and when to display a particular approach. The management behavior has much connection with corporate identity. Publics will know the corporate identity from the management that using in an organization.
Similarly to other people, manager has viewed by them as being authoritarian or permissive, stating that the manager is either highly concerned for people or concerned for production (Fiedler, 1967). On the other hand, Blake and Mouton (1964), argue that the concerned for people or concerned for production are not bipolar, and the effective manager is one who is able to reconcile these seemingly inconsistent roles.
4.1 Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid in 1964 and now called Leadership Grid as a tool for training managers in different leadership styles that would rise up the corporate and employees' efficiency. Blake and Mouton formed a grid that stresses interrelationship between production and people. Both were gauged from low to high and numbered from 1 to 9. (Katherine Miller, 2006)
Therefore, Blake and Mouton distinguished five prototypical management styles based on the manager levels of concern:
Impoverished management ( 1,1 )
The Impoverished management is also known as the laissez-faire leadership .This is characterized by a very low concern for people and low concern for production. This kind of manager cares little for either the goals of organization or the people in it and puts forth a minimal effort towards managerial duties. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. This manager can be representing by a non-interventionist philosophy. (Katherine Miller, 2006)
Red din (1967) found that this manager can be effective in a very limited setting. By the way, this is an effective style to use when:
Employees are highly skilled, expert, and educated.
Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used
Employees are trustworthy and experienced.
Country Club Management (1,9)
This management style is characterized by a high concern for people and low concern for production. Manager will concentrate efforts on the establishment of a pleasant workplace with high morale and comfortable human relations by thoughtful attention.
Employee will work without any burdensome and happy with current work tempo. Public will recognize this corporate as a company who care about employee and lets employee go first in any situation.
But this type of management is not suit to use when there is a large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve. (Katherine Miller, 2006)
Middle -of-the-Road Management (5,5)
This type management describes a manager who attempts to balance concern of people and production without going too far for either goal. Manager believes adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. (Katherine Miller, 2006)
Authority-obedience management (9,1)
This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible, including people, in order to maximize efficiency and attain goals. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. It assumed that employees need to be controlled and force to get them to work (Taylor, 1911).The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. There would be a little concern for employee needs (Katherine Miller, 2006).
Team management (9,9)
This type of manager believes that the best way to achieve organizational goals is through the independence action of committed, skilled, and satisfied individuals. The team management is also called the democratic leadership as it integrating employees to be a part of in decision making process.
The manager keeps employees by informed everything that will currently affect their work and shares the decision making and problem solving responsibilities. This style management requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers all information from staff members before making a final decision. Thus, manager will try to maximize both employee needs and productivity goals. (Katherine Miller, 2006)
It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving problems.
From this type management can create high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. Many employees like the trust that they receive and respond with unite team spirit and high morale. Typically it has develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance and allows employees to fix the goals.
Therefore, it is showed to public a good impression no matter in handle an employee issue and productivity or corporate. This corporate is able to perform as responsibility and carrying organization.
4.2 Most basic management styles are:
Manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. Employees must follow the rules without receiving any explanations. Autocratic leaders rely on threats and punishment to influence the employee.
The manager manages the company according to procedure, regulations and policy that has been set. Employees need to define by themselves the set of standards or procedures. Safety or securities training the employees are being conducted.
The manager provides no direction to employee, while employees must determine goal and make decision on their own.
It also called as participative style as it encourages employees to be part of the decision making process. The manager will share opinion and problem solving responsibility.
As a conclusion, negative behavior within a leadership capacity is a direct link to a decline in productivity. Don't be a part of the problem, but be a part of the solution. The negative attitudes of top management towards the direction of change in some situation will be transferred to the employees and due to this production of an organizational will generally influenced.
Therefore, as part of the management team, manager must able to identify and define specific behavior of each individual in an organizational. They should have responsibility to develop, maintain, build, and modify employees with emphasis being on keep going process improvement which includes continually monitoring organizational productivity. It is vitally important during the hardship that maintains a positive attitude, continue to provide workforces with encouragement and incentives, and to keep productivity in satisfy level.
The employees are seemed like a brand of the corporate. They play an important role in an organization. Employees are key stakeholder of the corporate brand. They both insider (part and member of the corporate brand) and also an outsider (clients and community members).
In an organizational literature, employee behavior is always related to the internal aspect of an organization. This aspect concentrates on the prospect that employees identify with their organization, the more likely they are to have a positive behavior towards it. In addition, identification leads to employees receiving the values of the organization and aligning their behavior according to those values. Many studies on corporate identity, brand management, human resource management and service management highlight that employees behalf and deliver the corporate brand values when interacting with the constituencies.
Due to Davies et al, the identity perceived by the customer-facing employees could be anticipated to co evolve with the image perceived by the customer, especially in the service sector. Therefore, identity is contributes in shaping of perceptions and the performance of organizational members.
The employees contribute in building and maintaining the brand and also provide the interface between the internal identity and the external expression of identity. The perceptions and actions of the organization's members will determine identity of corporate. So, employees must have a commitment to the brand and able to live with the brand values.
Therefore, organizations need their employees can express these values through their daily behavior in working environment. Moreover, the structure and culture of the corporate should support the employees in performing this behavior for that is adherent with the values of the corporate, goods and service brands.
Ways to manage employee behavior
The best way to manage employment behavior is to motivate them. The great way to manage employee behavior is understand and encouraging them, rewarding them, introducing them to corporate objectives, vision and mission, and inspiring them.
Increasingly competitive in today business world means a highly motivated work force is compulsory for any organization that seeking to achieve the goals. Therefore, to manage employee behavior, it is required to know how to motivate employees so that can obtain full support from them.
Apart from that, it is very important to understand and recognize about the needs of the employees and fulfilled their needs. Their needs are like self actualization, esteem needs, social needs and safety needs and many more. Several motivation theories work on the assumption that given the chance and the right stimuli, people work well and positively.
Individuals do not just need money and rewards, but also respect and interaction. When designing jobs, working conditions and organizational structures, bear in mind the full range of needs. This helps in managing employee behavior.
Balancing group needs is also an integral part of employee behavior management. Individuals acting as a part of a group have needs that differ from those of the group. However, it is important for individuals to feel they belong. It is important to find a way to balance the needs of the group with those individuals.
As for motivation, how much a person enjoys achievement is all about recognition, the ability to achieve, in turn rests on having an enjoyable job and responsibility. The greater the responsibility, the more the individual can feel the satisfaction of advancement.
It is important to understand the negative signs in the work place amongst employees. Demonization may not always be signposted, but always look out for defensive, protective actions such as folding arms and clenching fists while seated in the work place. It is important that you notice negative appearances.
There are many ways that one can measure the morale of the employees and it is important to do so from time to time to keep a check on the management of employee behavior. This can be done through attitude questionnaires, opinion polls, unstructured interviews and focus groups.
These are some of the factors that make a difference in the environment of a work place because the employees are the main people who run the daily show and it is important to keep them going.
Employee extra-role behavior
Brown and Woodland (1999) mentioned that trust and discretionary extra-role behavior are dependent on the expected benefits and costs of sharing their skills and knowledge.
According to Coyle-Shapiro (2002) contextual factors affect employees' willingness to share their creative ideas and engage in discretionary extra-role behavior.