Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the concept where companies operate creating a balance between the business economic growth and upholding social and environmental development of their areas of operation. Some companies go beyond the legal aspect of CSR and create a positive impact on local communities and its environment, National Empowerment Foundation,nd.
Private companies are bound by law to contribute the 2% of their book profit to Corporate Social Responsibility, National Empowerment Foundation, nd
The Government of Mauritius has created this fund for the following objectives according to the National Employment Fund,nd:
Support firms to administer their own agenda, resulting in the triple reporting aspect, that is, the economic, social and environmental development.
Ease the involvement of the companies to sustain existing Approved National Programmes applied by Companies, national agencies or NGOs
support a serviceable society to NGOs working with the approved national development program
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Any profit making company is obliged as per section 50K and 50L of Income Tax Act to pay 2% of their book profit after income tax, to finance CSR activities, Mauritian law
There are companies that are excluded from the contribution of the 2%.
Company holding a Global Business Licence Category 1 under the Financial Services Act.
Incomes of banks derived from transactions with non-residents and corporation holding a Global Business Licence.
An IRS Company
A non-resident society, a trust or a trustee of a unit trust scheme.
Definition of Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate Social responsibility is defined by Mallen Baker
"CSR is about how companies manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society.Â "
The World Business Council for Sustainable Development in its publication "Making Good Business Sense" by Lord Holme and Richard Watts (2000) used the following definition.
"Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large"
The same report by Lord Holme and Richard Watts (2000) gave some evidence of the different perceptions of what this should mean from a number of different societies across the world. Definitions as different as
"CSR is about capacity building for sustainable livelihoods. It respects cultural differences and finds the business opportunities in building the skills of employees, the community and the government"
from Ghana, through to "CSR is about business giving back to society" from the Phillipines.
All sustainable businesses have to look at the quality of the management of people and processes. They have to look at the types of the impact on the society and also the degree of the impact.
Other stakeholders have an eye on the activities of the company in terms of good or bad services and products, the impact of the company business on the environment and on the local communities. They also observe how they treat and develop their workforce .
CSR definition used by Business for Social Responsibility is:
"Operating a business in a manner that meets or exceeds the ethical, legal, commercial and public expectations that society has of business
On the other hand, the European Commission hedges its bets with two definitions wrapped into one:
"A concept whereby companies decide voluntarily to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment. A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis".
In the paper 'Social Responsibility Journal' Wong Lai Cheng and Jamilah Ahmad found in the study that 'within each stakeholders group are consumer demand for "pro-CSR" goods and services; employees a growing CSR force; ripple effect up and downward, across the supply chain; governments require mandatory disclosure, voluntary compliance; partnership and civil society demands, and NGOs increasingly sophisticated, coordinated, challenged and divided. It is important for Multinational Companies, to understand that they have to respond to stakeholders concerns and conforms to the prevailing norms and expectations of social performance given by those stakeholders.
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Volker Turk has worked in a paper e-business and CSR- the business case for the new economy. This paper has been worked out for Germany. E-business and information and communication technologies (ICT) are often perceived as agents to enhance the quality of life, to create a knowledge-based society and contribute to a more sustainable society. Yet scientific evidence verifying these perceptions is so far lacking to a large extent. Given the trend toward inclining business social responsibilities towards corporate social responsibility, the paper explored the environmental and social aspects of prime importance for corporations working in ICT and e-business sector. The identification centered on the question of what are important environmental aspects connected to the sectors and which effects e-business has on companies' social responsibility. Case studies conducted in co-operation with business partners from ICT as well as the e-business sector in the context of pan-European research project called Digital Europe was the main source of identification.
Having identifies the CSR aspects relevant for e-business sector, the paper goes on and looks at how these issues are currently taken up. CSR aspects addresses and approaches taken by leading and important organization were looked and an overview of the sectors performance conducted. Comparing the CSR focus areas identified with the approach and response currently taken, the paper concludes on how business engaged with ICT and e-business activities might proceed towards sustainability. A fundamental finding derived from the research is that e-business is not at all purely virtual but strongly linked to the use of natural resources. Key factors influencing the environmental effects of ICTs and e-application have been identified, among them:
Monitoring the environmental impacts of ICT and e-business.
Greening the hardware.
Shifting to e-services.
Enabling transport efficiencies
Raising awareness and changing habits.
Recognize and extent the (digital) responsibility.
Acknowledge the technologies limitations and risks.
Improve sustainability and accountability along supply-chains.
The investigation was conducted by three partners: Wippertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment (Germany), Forum for the Future (UK) and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (Italy).
There are many definitions of CSR and there is no one standardised way of doing business. The concept of CSR is new in Mauritius and this study has been carried out to find how the CSR in Mauritius works in the way firms have adopted CSR strategies in their business. Also the research shall lead to the benefits derived from CSR to the target group or to the firm offering the CSR. The reasons for the study of the strategies are to know whether firms are willing to incorporate the CSR in the way they are doing business or just doing their financial duty in contributing the 2% o the fund only. The benefits have been studied to find out to what extent CSR is beneficial to the target group and whether the business derives any benefits from CSR.
The aim of the study is examine how far companies have adopted CSR in the business.
The objectives are:
To understand how CSR strategies are implemented by different companies
To analyse the benefits of having CSR strategies
The research questions emanated from the literature review to fulfill the objectives are:
How two companies segment Corporate Social Responsibility based on the approved programs of government?
How CSR strategies are chosen for the companies.
How CSR is influenced by customer and environmental needs.
What are the advantages that companies obtain by the adoptions of CSR strategies?
lntroduction - An overall introduction is required, even if subsequent chapters
have their own introductions. lt should contain the nature and scope of the
problem investigated and the objective(s) and justification of the study' The
introduction is the proper place to define any specialized terms and concepts
used in the thesis, It should also explain how the individual chapters work
together to form a cohesive document.