In an organisation motivation have had a high significant of human resources management. It is said that one of a manager's roles is to motivate employees at work place. Work motivation maybe defined as "conditions which influence the arousal, direction and maintenance of behaviours relevant in work settings" (McCormick,1980) A good example of this is if David wants a higher salary, he will have to work harder to earn more. So a higher salary is a goal which motivates David to perform. However, different people vibrate at different pace, so it is necessary for the managers to learn the use of motivation. There are a number of motivation theories and articles which are wrote by experts. For instance there are Maslow's theory of need, Vroom's expectancy and "being a motivating manager" of Ken Shah. Thus, a manager who can use the knowledge of motivation will be able to work effectively to enhance employee's better performance and give the most benefit to an organisation. This essay will describe two important theories and then focus on what kind of managers is to most likely to be successful in motivating employees. Moreover, there a five stages of how to deal with problems at work and suggestion of how to find a tjq22010-08-26T14:52:00
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Don't underline - make it biggerWithin an organisation motivation has been used to drive people to work in varietal ways. To be able to use them correctly, the managers have to understand the purpose of each one. Here are theories which are used widely in successful organisations. At the end of this section it will be a case study which illustrates how they can be used.
Maslow's Hierarchy of need: It is said that the first classified need is invented by Abraham Maslow in 1940. He created structure of needs into a pyramid and suggested that each level is related. The first level of needs is Physiological needs. This is a basic need such as food, sleep and clothing. All human being need to satisfy this level to be able to survive. Once the first level has satisfied the next level will appear. It is a level of Safety needs. People need to feel secure; they also want freedom and protection. If both previous levels have satisfied the Social Needs become important. An acceptance or respects from others are important at this level including a feeling of belonging. People want to build a good relationship at this stage. Fourth level is Self-esteem needs. This may include approval, recognition and achievement. This can mean that feeling confidence is vital at this level. The last and top level is Self-actualization. It can be understood as self-fulfilment and not many people can access to this stage. (Makin,1989)
Although, Maslow said that in general people contain these needs in order but there are a number of exceptions. For instance, some people may careless to be loved from others, some might have two level of need in the same time and some might stay on only the basic needs level. (Maslow,1987)
Vroom's expectancy theory: Unlike Maslow's theory Vroom is focusing on what are the things that employees expected rather than needs. Vroom has divided his theory into three important words.
1. Valence: It depends on individual person about how they value a reward. For example if David works only for money and a company offers him a holiday, he would not be interested in as much as money.
2. Instrumentality: This is a way of employees to identify what are the actions which lead to the outcome or reward that they expected.
3. Expectancy: This is about employees valuing them-selves that if they keep working will they be able to achieve the goal. (Leopold,2002)
Maybe you don't eed the numbersAfter having through the knowledge of different theories, RBS is maybe a good case study which uses the theories in organisation.
The Royal Bank of Scotland Group (RBS) is an organisation which uses both theories to satisfy their employee's needs. These are some of the things that RBS offers to them.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Providing a reasonable salary to answer their basic needs.
Every employee gets recognise for a successful work.
Offering opportunities through promotion and training to a higher position.
A bonus 10% of their salary will be given to everyone when the company can profit to the target.
Because of the company concentrate on how to make every employee feeling happy at work so in 2004 RBS won the prise "The Most Effective Use of Flexibility in the Workplace" and the overall staffs have a higher performance. (www.thetimes100.co.uk)
Types of managerstjq22010-08-26T14:52:00
In McClelland "Power is the great motivation" (2003), A manager is undeniable importance. It is said that a manager is some one who can motivate employees to work rather than someone who can succeed alone. Managerial motivation groups can divide into three types. The first group is affiliative managers; this is a kind of people who need to be liked from others without concentrating on how to get works done. Second group is motivated managers, people in this group think opposite way with the first group. They would spend time thinking how to get all works done without caring what subordinates think about them. The last group is institutional managers. This group seem to be in the middle. They are interested in achievement of organisation while recognise that all the success come from every employees. The comparison between affiliative managers and motivated managers, the formers would allow people ask for day off or holiday just because they are willing for a good relationship, whereas, the latter will do the opposite because the benefit of organisation always comes first. Thus, it seems likely that institutional managers are the most effective people because they encourage subordinates to have responsibility and be honest in their careers while recognise that all achievement can be done by every subordinates.
a good manager is one who, among other things, helps subordinates feel strong and responsible, rewards them properly for good performance, and sees that things are organized so that subordinates feel they know what they should be doing. (McClelland 2003)
If a manager can answer all the above, their employees and the whole company should be able to achieve their goals.
How does a manager manage people by using motivation?tjq22010-08-26T14:52:00
There are possible two ways to motivate employees, one is positive motivation and the other one is negative motivation. Positive motivation is to offer something which makes the employees feel positive. For example there are money, accommodation and commission. Negative motivation is ways to make employees feel that they are forced to work. For example there are punishment, fear of failure and threaten. Most of the time organisation chose to use positive motivation more than negative, that because positive one seem to motivate employees in the long term whereas negative can be used only in some specific situations. In comparison negative motivation would make employees have negative reaction more.
Being a motivating manager
These are some of positive motivation which can be described in 6 ways.
Treat staff well: A managers should be able to control the staffs at work, assign them their jobs. In the mean time, try to stay friend with them and asking them about their lives to build a good relationship.
Think like a winner: Even a manager has to face with all problems but it is necessary for them to think that these difficult tasks will go through.
Recognise the difference: Different people will have different needs, something that motivate one maybe unpractical motivation others.
Set realistic goals: To avoid a feeling of non-achievement. It is a manager task to set a target which seems reasonable.
Prevent Demotivation: Some situations negative motivation is necessary but on the other hand punishment can create resentfully of staffs feeling.
Non-financial rewards: Money is not the only way to motivate employees sometimes a thank you note or a complimentary letter can be helpful. (Shah,2010)
Rework this information - lose the numbersAfter going through these six ways, it can be seen that a motivating manager is someone who can use the knowledge of motivation to motivate employees.
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Possible problems and solutionstjq22010-08-26T14:52:00
The answers of question what make people unhappy at work might be because of a querulous manager, stable salary or too many rules. These are the possible reasons which can turn to be problems at work. The managers have to try as much as they can to understand and find solutions. These are five stages of how to solve problems in work place.
Stage 1: It is about monitoring the employee and find out what is the problem. This must be done without prejudice.
Stage 2: Ask the employee what are their solutions. The manager has to be carful at this stage because the employee might be defensive by denying the problem. However, if the employee did not know this problem before they might do something to solve the problem.
Stage 3: This is call analysis stage. Every problem has a trigger and a payoff. A good example of this is if David is not satisfied with his salary (trigger), he will go on strike (pay off).
Stage 4: Once analyse the problem, at this stage the manager has to find a solution. After considering a solution the manager has to imagine what the negative effects that would happen are.
Stage 5: This is to keep monitoring the problem because the solution maybe not solves the problem. If there is still a problem then go back to stage 4 again.
Don't like the numbersIn additional, if employees have already performed very well, a good manager should highlight their good work to maintain the positive feeling and show that the company recognises. On the other hand, if there is something that needs to be improved, suggestion what need to be done to them will enhance the employee's performance. (Blair,2010)
New Section tjq22010-08-26T14:52:00
In conclusion, all organisations will be able to gain the most effective from the use of motivation as long as a manager realises that every employee are different and because of that the problems and solutions individual might be different. Almost everyone contains the levels of needs and they have expectations in their lives. So having through the knowledge of Maslow and Vroom will help a manager understand human behaviours. Especially, the institutional managers, who are equal the importance of both employees and organisation. Once the manager has to solve a problem they will them easily indentify and find a best solution to suggest to their employees.tjq22010-08-26T14:52:00
Conclusion is a bit short. Answer your question again after summarising the main points
Where is your bibliography?tjq22010-08-26T14:52:00