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ii) Change in Information System due to changes in the world -wide market structures. (i) Coca-Cola is one of the leading manufacturers of carbonated drinks all over the world. Over the past decades, Coca-Cola remained on top of the industry. The company was able to withstand the World War II, and even took it as a business opportunity rather than a liability. It was able to surpass the Asian Financial Crisis and even gained better access in markets that it was not able to fully enter. Coca-Cola exhibited the efficient change management as part of the strategic management process. Change management is the process in which it manages the change in the side of people.
There individual change management and organizational change management are the theories of change management. Aside form the theories there are also four strategies of change management which are the Empirical-rational, normative-reductive, power-coercive and environmental-adaptive.
Over the past years people, systems and the environment have evolved. Change is the only thing that is constant in this ever changing world. From the physical attributes of individuals, up to the environment, change is very evident. Just like the environment and people, businesses also undergoes changes, it can be either massive or minimal. Often times, changes occur in the management of the corporation, in order to keep up with the competition.
According to MacCalman and Paton (2000) the people who went home winners and on top have the common characteristics of effectively handling the changes in the situation. Changes in management is a process that any organisation must undergo, a business will not be complete if it never experienced change.
Organisations that resist changes will inevitably face wider exposure to risks and losses. There are a number of situations in which change is necessary within the organisation such as technological advancement that is being utilised by different companies in order to cope up with the competition.
Aside from what was mentioned earlier, there are still many issues and concerns that are necessary for change in the organisation, however the most substantial thing is that organisations acknowledge that changes happen constantly for different reasons and the management must address these changes as soon as possible to prevent great losses. In relation to the discussion of management issues, this paper will be discussing the business strategies of Coca-Cola Company in accordance to change process.
Coca-Cola Corporation Management Strategies
Coca-Cola was established on May 8, 1886 by Dr. John Stith Pemberton, a local pharmacist in Atlanta, Georgia. It was first sold in Jacob's pharmacy for five cents per glass. Initially Coca-cola was sold as a drug, Pemberton during that time considers Coca-cola as a cure for diseases such as dyspepsia, morphine addiction, headache and impotence (North America Operating System, 2008).
In the year 1985, due to the aggressive campaign of its rival Pepsi, the Coca-Cola Company reformulated the popular carbonated drinks to suit the preference of the consumers which is sweeter soda. However, the New Coke became a commercial failure which leads to the adverse reaction of the public. Protests from different sectors of the society emerged. Due to these events the company return the original formula and named it Coca-Cola Classic. Despite returning the original formula, the company still received accusations from different groups. In the year 2005 the company launched and announced their upcoming products which are the Diet Coke and Coca-Cola Zero (The Coca-Cola company case n.d.).
Coca-cola Company is clearly one of the most popular companies in the world. Aside from the fact that it is also one of the oldest corporations that was able to withstand World War II and other changes in the economy over the past years. The fact still remains that it is one of the most famous brands of Cola in the world (The Coca-Cola company case n.d.).
The Coca-Cola Company was able to resist the hindrances that occurred; the company was able to utilised change management as efficiently as possible to withstand the obstacles.
As mentioned earlier, changes in management is caused by three different factors which are the external environment, internal changes and the proactive reaction to possible threats and difficulties.
External Environment Evaluation-
Over the past decades, the Coca-Cola Company has faced a number of changes in the external environment that have transformed the management of the company. One of the best examples is during the World War II. The company was able to maintain the status of the company, at the same time, was able to enter new markets despite the environment. Instead of lying-low because of the war, the company became more aggressive through providing free drinks for the GIs during the World War II.
Through this the corporation was able to hit two birds at one stone. First, because the carbonated drinks sent by the company, it became a patriotic symbol by the United States soldiers in which led to consumer loyalty. Second, the company was able to take advantage of the situation and established the product in newly-occupied countries by the Ally forces and because of that the company established plants in various locations worldwide paving the way for its post-war expansion.
Another aspect in the external environment is the change of taste and expectations of the consumers. During the mid-1980s wherein the Americans favoured the sweet taste of the rival product, the company created its counterpart but became a commercial failure; however instead of backing down, Coca-Cola changed its management strategy and returned the old formula, and just renamed it as Coca-Cola Classic. And with the rise of obesity in the United States and consumers became health conscious the company released new versions of Coke in order to address the needs of these type of consumers, such products include Diet Coke and Coca-Cola Zero.
In addition, according to Bool (2008) companies such as Coca-Cola are compulsory to transform due to trends that have a huge impact on their business, and one of these trends is the health and fitness. A number of people are noe investing more in their health, and in order to keep up with the trend, Coca-Cola introduced their new product which is a calorie burning soft drink, the Enviga. Moreover, Coca-Cola is collaborating with the Swiss company Nestle. Coca-Cola is dealing with innovation and change. During the Asian Financial Crisis, Coca- Cola was also triggered to change its course of management in that particular region. The responses and reactions of Coca-Cola with the external environment are its internal changes.
As mentioned earlier, Asia experienced its financial crisis in 1997. According to Barton, Newell and Wilson (2002) as the financial crisis swept the Asian region, the chief executive officer, Douglas Daft responded to this by mobilising his executives to workshops about how Coca-Cola would seize new growth opportunities. Barton et al, stated that Coca-Cola gave emphasis on acquisition opportunities, Coca-Cola bought acquired bottling business in South Korea which gave more access in retail stores in South Korea, as well as, better entry in China, Japan and Malaysia. Coca-Cola disregarded its country-defined market perspective and focused on regional strategic view and acquired local brands of tea and coffee.
In the case of health trends and changing taste of the consumers, Coca-Cola responded to this through innovation and change. Innovation is accomplished through development of new products such as the Enviga, Diet Coke, Coca-Cola Zero, and other variants of Coke. The change is incited by the trend in health and fitness and consumer tastes which had an impact on the business of Coca-Cola. During World War II, the response of Coca-Cola to the situation is to provide free drinks to the GIs in order to access new markets in which the company was able to do.
Companies whether it is small or large are already acting in advance in order to combat the possible risks that may arise in the future. According to Neville (2005) in the wake of 911, the insurance market have changed, big companies reconsider the possible risks and how are they going to use insurance, in Coca-Cola after the prices increased the company look past the typical path of buying insurance directly but instead Coca-Cola considered wholesale insurance through captives.
In the year 2000, The Business Wire, reported that Coca-Cola changed its senior management team and organisational structure for the purpose of facing the opportunities, threats and challenges as the company enters the new phase of management. Moreover, Coca-Cola North America is decentralising its organisation, as well as, pushing accountability and authority into the field of the organisation.
The change in the senior management is one change management step that Coca-Cola have undergone in order to increase the efficiency of the company. The appointed individuals are seasoned beverage bottling executives; therefore Coca-Cola sees consistent increase in the revenues of the company. The change in the senior management has been effective because the sales of Coca-Cola in North America have been consistent.
In addition, according to North America Operating System. (2008), the company undertook a significant change in which an organisational structure was developed to respond to the needs of consumers through incorporating the North American bottle and can, fountain and juices in a single unit of operation. Through this change it enhanced the way beverage choices are created, and it unifies the system of the supply chain, procurement and distribution in which it increased the efficiency of services to consumers.
Individual Change Management-
According to Hiatt and Creasey (2002) individual change management is the process in which the company provides tools and training to its employees to be able to handle their personal transition through change. The ADKAR Model, according to Hiatt and Creasey is a model that can be use as an individual change management. The ADKAR model shows five stages an individual undergoes during the process of change (Hiatt and Creasey 2002):
Awareness of the need to change- in Coca-Cola employees, stakeholders and even consumers are informed in the changes, especially in the management, just like in the case of appointing Shaun B. Higgins as the new president of the Coca-Cola Company in 2005.
Desire to participate and support the change- the employees in Coca-Cola especially the ones in the management positions participate in the changes that the company must undergo, like in the case of changing the packaging of Coca-Cola.
Knowledge about how to change- the senior managers of Coca- Cola have adequate knowledge regarding the changes that must take place within the company, an example is in the case of Daft in which he had knowledge on changes that must be done in order to counter the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997.
Ability to implement new skills- Coca-Cola has a long history of changes, some are failures, but most of the time it is effective, therefore the company has the ability to put into action the changes that the company have developed, take the case of Daft, together with his team, they were able to implement the changes, not just in one country but a whole region successfully.
Reinforcement to keep the change in place- Coca-Cola is an established company and has already made a mark not just in the lives of Americans but most people in this world. The successful implementations of the changes in the company are due to the strict reinforcement of changes in the company.
Organisational Change Management-
This theory presents a general procedure for managing the change in the side of the people at an organisational level (Kotter, 1996). According to Hiatt and Creasey, the organisational change management is consists of three phases, which are, preparing for change, managing change and reinforcing change.
The theory of organisational change management was effectively utilised by Coca-Cola. Different managers in various parts of the world have used organisational change management in order to address the issues that the Coca-Cola faced. From the case study (The Coca-Cola company case n.d.) these people are:
One of the most notable CEOs of Coca-Cola Company is Mr. Gouzueta, he was the chief executive officer of Coca-Cola for seventeen years. He was able to determine the problem against other manufacturer of carbonated drinks. Mr. Gouizetta played a huge role in measuring the operation of Coca-Cola and developed strategies that aided the Coca-Cola to defeat competition. In addition, Mr. Gouizetta played important roles in planning and leading the tasks in achieving the goals and objectives. In addition, Mr. Gouizetta also appointed Mr. Ivester whom transformed the weakness of Coca-Cola into opportunities and strengths .
Change management is a process in which all companies undergo. This is an important procedure because it enables the organisation to make decisions that will be advantageous and beneficial to the company. In addition, organisations that are open to change are generally more successful compare to companies that resist it. In a globalise market, new technologies and procedure are emerging rapidly, in order to keep up with this progress a company must be willing to adapt to management changes.
The international, as well as, the local market has a very stiff competition, therefore in order to be on top change management must be utilised by companies. Coca-Cola is one of the best examples of companies that utilised change management efficiently and have yielded positive results. The evidence is the dominance of Coca-Cola in the soft drink industry not just in the United States but all over the world.
Answer (ii) -
Sweeping political, economic, social, and technological transformations are creating a fundamentally new era of business characterize by unprecedented complexity and rapid change. Countless firms are struggling to stay afloat in this dynamic and intensely competitive environment, but the accepted ways of doing business are proving inadequate. At the same time, advances in information technology, coupled with emerging insights on organizations and the learning process, are greatly enhancing the ability of people to communicate and coordinate with one another both within and among organizations.
Building a New WorldÂ
Few people foresaw the vast changes that would be brought by the invention of the steam engine and the host of other mechanical devices that were the technological driving force behind the Industrial Revolution. Yet these advances completely transformed the nature of work as many of the old ways of organizing and managing business died away and new concepts emerged. The network of crafts and small cottage industries that had dominated the production of goods for centuries gave way to large centralized factories, and the concept of mass production not only opened the door to new opportunities and unprecedented growth, but also reshaped the way we live, work, and play.Â
The 21st Century has brought on a new era, driven this time not by the technologies of production and transportation, but by the technologies of information, communication, and coordination. These technologies, guided by the organizational needs and human values that are important to us, are completely transforming the nature of work throughout the world.Â
Just as at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, our society is at a crossroads. The choices we make in the next decade will play a major role in determining the broad shape of the world in which our children will live and work. We must take steps now to develop the understanding and insight that will help us make these choices wisely.Â
In such a volatile environment, the future belongs not to those who are buffeted by change, cautiously adapting to it as needed, but to those with the foresight to recognize the potential offered by the very changes that others find so unsettling. Our aspirations were ambitious: to bring together the expertise and resources of the MIT Sloan School of Management and a select group of visionary business leaders and others to invent the organizations of the 21st century.Â
A New Era of BusinessÂ
Today's business climate is undergoing a profound and far-reaching transformation. In the last few years, we have seen a revolution in the worldwide political landscape, the rise of intense international competition, faster product development cycles, and explosive growth in the service sector. As we enter the next century, all signs indicate that both the complexity and the pace of change in the global economy are increasing.Â
Already, these sweeping changes have produced startling setbacks for what have been some of the world's most successful companies. Countless firms are struggling to adapt to new pressures or even to survive -- by downsizing, redesigning their business processes, and rethinking their strategic focus. Some of these efforts succeed -- at least for a while, and many fail.Â
Against this backdrop of political, economic, and social turmoil, an extraordinary array of information technologies is providing not only powerful new tools for dealing with these changes, but also a promising framework for creating entirely new opportunities. Advances in computers, software, telecommunications, networking, and electronic media are vastly increasing the quantity, quality, and accessibility of all forms of information. At the same time, insights into the structure and dynamics of organizations and the process of learning, coupled with expectations of a more demanding and educated workforce, are challenging our conceptions of the nature of relationships in the workplace. Taken together, these developments are transforming the capabilities for communication and coordination among managers, workers, customers, and suppliers -- nearly everyone involved in the conception, production, delivery, and use of products and services worldwide.Â
The unprecedented complexity and uncertainty that characterizes today's business environment, coupled with the rapid-fire developments in information technology and organizational dynamics, pose a host of urgent questions for today's business leaders. Many senior executives are already grappling with such pressing issues as the following:Â
Learning to Adapt - How can an organization effectively deal with constant and multidimensional change? How can it boost its capacity for learning and adaptability?Â
Structure - How should a company be organized for maximum responsiveness to continuous and often unpredictable changes in the marketplace? How should it relate to its network of customers and suppliers?Â
Skills - What leadership qualities are needed to guide tomorrow's organizations? What skills will be crucial to success at all levels of an organization operating in such a dynamic environment?Â
Management Styles - What happens when "command and control" styles of management collide with ongoing efforts to empower workers? When more workers have greater access to more information, how should business decisions be made?Â
Impact of Information Technology - What will happen to industry structures when "electronic markets" and "information highways" make it possible for buyers and sellers of any size to find each other easily anywhere in the world without human intermediaries?Â
New Ways of Working - With greatly increased capabilities for communication and coordination, how will individuals work together? How will their work be evaluated? Will there be less need for large offices and factories? Will more people become "telecommuters?"Â