In the past two decades the organizational culture and the organizational effectiveness in higher educational institutions have been examined by such researchers as Cameron and Quinn (2006). They developed an organizational culture framework whose theoretical model was "competing values framework". This framework is useful in making an organizational culture profile. Generally speaking, the culture profile of an organization includes four kinds, namely, clan, hierarchy, adhocracy and market. The clan culture focuses on the events happening inside the organization with a sense of flexibility; it pays attention to people and customers. The second type i.e. hierarchy, concerns with the internal maintenance with special attention to control and stability. The focus of adhocracy culture is on the external shapes with a high degree of concentration on individuality and flexibility. The last one is the market culture. It is an organization that concentrates on the external positioning; control and stability are of significant values.
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Cameron and Quinn (2006) defined the competing values framework in terms of six organizational culture dimensions such as dominant characteristics, organizational glue, management employees, organizational leadership, strategic emphases, and criteria of success. Based on these six dimensions, the organizational culture assessment instrument (OCAI) is employed to evaluate the organization culture profile which is based on interpretations, core values, assumptions and approaches which introduce the organizations. In this research, the OCAI is used to measure the organizational culture of Islamic Azad University.
1.7.1 Organizational culture
In this research, the culture of an organization is represented by the notions which are of value such as the language and symbols, the dominant leadership styles, the definition of success and the procedures and routines that make an organization outstanding (Cameron and Quinn, 2006).
1.7.2 Organizational effectiveness
Slack (1970) defined organizational effectiveness as the capability of an organization in reaching its goals and the individual goals are achieved while the overall goals of the organization is going to be achieved. A unit which is individually ineffective in terms of cooperation with the rest of the organization is doomed to failure (Gigliotti, 1987).
1.7.3 Organizational innovativeness
According to West and Farr (1990) the organizational innovativeness is the deliberate introduction and application of procedures, products, processes and ideas inside a group or organization to the intended unit of adoption which is supposed to be significantly beneficial for the person or the group or any other bigger organizations. Based on the nature of this research, the organizational innovativeness is the number of innovations that is adopted by an organization within a time period (Gopalakrishnan and Damanpour, 2000). The studies that make use of a single innovation neglect to consider that organizations particularly the large ones use many innovations in a certain time period ( Damanpour, 1991).
Furthermore, according to Cameron's (1981) research there are four main fields of organizational effectiveness which are compatible with the effectiveness dimensions:
The first one is called the academic field which is concerned with the students' academic progress, professional development and the efficiency of the faculty as well as the potential to obtain resources. The second field is known as the moral field. This deals with the student's educational satisfaction, the organizational health and the faculty and administrator employment satisfaction. The third one is the external adaptation which deals with the student's career progress and system openness and community interaction. And finally the outside program file discusses the single dimension and student's personal development.Later, Cameron incorporated the student's personal progress dimension into the academic field and deleted the last field.( Anderson, 2000). According to Cameron's research, the organizational effectiveness has a multi-field; that is to say, the system resource model is very tightly related to the external adaptation field in the higher educational institutions. There seems to be some similarity i.e. the process approach is like the moral field and the goal model is similar to the academic field (Karagoz and Oz, 2008). As Cameron (1981) concluded due to their structures, the four effectiveness approaches are not suitable in such organizations as higher institutions.
The review of the literature presented indicate that the quantitative studies have been carried out for the measurement of the relationship between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness, for the detection of progress of the organizational achievement at various levels and finally for the identification of the obstacles which lie for this objective. In this research, although the multiple conceptualizations of the organizational culture are commonly used in the literature, the competing values framework which is very common in assessing culture concerning organizational performance will be used, too so that the dimensionality of the organizational effectiveness can be better understood ( Gregory, et al 2009). In Cameron and Quinn's (2006) views, organizational culture is the most common way of thinking that people adopt; it transfers a sense of self-being to the employees; supplies written or verbal clues as to how to cope in the organization and it increases the stability of the social system that they experience. The culture of an organization is represented by the notions which are of significant value such as the language and symbols, the dominant leadership styles, the definition of success and the procedures and routines that make an organization outstanding (Cameron and Quinn,2006 p.16-17).
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This model describes four types of culture. They are clan, adhocracy, hierarchy and market cultures. The clan culture focuses on the events happening inside the organization with a sense of flexibility; it pays attention to people and customers. The second type i.e. hierarchy deals with the internal maintenance with special attention to control and stability. The focus of adhocracy culture is on the external shapes with a high degree of concentration on individuality and flexibility. The last one is the market culture. It is an organization that concentrates on the external positioning and control and stability are of significant value (Cameron and Quinn, 2006).
The literature review reveals that it seems organizations all over the world are a combination of these four organizational culture types, but what is different is that according to the characteristics of the national cultures, each type receives significantly different degrees of importance (Deshpande and Farley, 2003). Furthermore, there is justification why this model can be applicable in the contexts of higher education. (Ferreira and Hill, 2007).
In the literature there are four kinds of culture which are connected to the organizational effectiveness (Smart, 2003 and Kwan, 2002). The organizational effectiveness normally deals with the problems of an organization's capability in acquiring resources and achieving the goals desired. An organizational effectiveness implicitly assumes that the organizational effectiveness can also be applied to search and find out the aspects of that culture make clear the cultural constructs that have a role in both the related and current theories If it is taken for granted that the concept of effectiveness emphasizes the impacts which were produced in the complex context where the organization exists and has interactions, the organization can reconstruct its theories of action by making the four competing values in balance (Mcluhan, 2006).
The organizational effectiveness in Cameron's model is higher in importance than other models common in the literature; that is due to its comprehensiveness since it encompasses both the internal and external adaptations. Furthermore, it has passed through different tests in terms of validity and reliability (Kwan, 2002). Consequently, the nine dimensions of Cameron's model are adopted because they can be good bases for the application of the organizational effectiveness in the Islamic Azad University. Cameron (1978) has listed the nine dimensions: 1) student educational satisfaction, 2) student academic development, 3) student professional development, 4) student personal development, 5) faculty and administrator employment satisfaction, 6) professional development and quality of the faculty, 7) system openness community interaction, 8)ability to acquire resources and 9)organizational health.
Based on the notes in the literature review and considering the importance of innovation in organizations, it is surprisingly revealed that very little empirical work has been done in the area of organizational culture and innovation (Mclean, 2005), and particularly in the domain of higher education supposing that such institutions are sources of both supply and demand for innovation (Obenchain, 2002). The organizational culture researchers believe that it is useful to isolate the content of the organizational culture in order to understand the organizational action (Cameron and Queen,1999). Besides, the organizational innovation can be better understood and the organizational culture and innovativeness are connected to each other in terms of concepts (Obenchain, 2002).
The organizational innovativeness can be studied via different methods. The main style in the type approach is to categorize innovations along the common dimensions. In this approach the most urgent objective is to understand the innovation effectiveness and the differences in adoption patterns. The organizational innovations have different typologies one of which is the technical type versus the administrative type (Damanpour and Evan, 1984 and Damanpour, 1991). The technical innovations are the innovations which directly deal with the primary work activity of the organization and consists of new elements in the processes related to production, new services and new products Moreover, the administrative innovations deal with the relationship between the people who interact to get the work done.(Damanpour and Evan, 1984). The purpose of this study is to find a relation between the two types of organizational innovativeness (which are called technical innovation and administrative innovation) and the four types of competing values framework. It is expected this study can contribute to a better comprehension of the role of the organizational culture in the development and increase of innovation application in Islamic Azad University so that the organizational effectiveness will be improved.
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A second aim of this research is to determine the relationship between the organizational culture and organizational effectiveness. According to the literature review, there are quite a few studies on the effect of innovativeness on the organizational performance (Subramanian and Nilakanta, 1996). Although some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between innovativeness and performance, mostly in terms of financial performance, very few of them have utilized perceptual measures as an instrument for the assessment of the organization's overall effectiveness. The organizational innovativeness is a vital issue in organizations because it can affect the performance of the organization in three aspects. Firstly, it can increase efficiency. As the innovative organizations are ready to consider and accept new knowledge, processes and technologies, this kind of ability can help the members of the organizations find new ways of production so as to improve quality and quantity. Secondly, innovativeness increases flexibility. Since the innovation organizations are looking for creative ideas, they can easily respond to the demands of the external environment. Thirdly, innovativeness boosts adaptability. This feature helps the organizations to get involved in innovations and use them (Lin, 2006). Although the relation between these two variables has slightly attracted researchers, there are no empirical studies on this issue in higher educational environments. As a result, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the organizational innovativeness and organizational effectiveness in Islamic Azad University via innovation typology approach and Cameron's organizational effectiveness model. The literature review displays a relationship between the organizational culture and organizational effectiveness and the organizational culture and organizational innovativeness. It also shows an association between the organizational innovativeness and organizational effectiveness. Hence the questions are: what is the relationship between all three variables in this research? Does organizational innovativeness mediate the relationship between two other variables? No studies have however investigated these two issues. The current study will examine them as two other research objectives.
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