High Turnover Rate among Nurses in UAE

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This project is a research project talking about the various factors and their implications on the employee turnover among the nurses in UAE. It has been seen that there is a high employee turnover among the nurses in the recent past. This project tries to find out various reasons for this high turnover. In order to do so, there is a primary research conducted in the project in which 100 samples (nurses in UAE) are taken and a questionnaire is given to them. There are six different factors which are considered as the basis of our research. These factors are Organizational culture, UAE culture, Organizational Commitment, Intentions to Quit, Organizational Citizenship behaviour, Job Satisfaction. All of these factors are tested in this research in order to see their relationship with the result. They affect the high rate of employee turnover among nurses in UAE. Various tests like ANOVA, T-Test, Pearson Correlation tests are used for the analysis. Finally, the result finds that there is a high relationship between these factors and employee turnover in the country.

Introduction

High rate of employee turnover is a big problem which is faced by the organizations in UAE in the recent past. In the medical organizations like hospitals these situations are mainly seen in the case of high employee turnover among the nurses. There are several reasons because of which this is happening. Nurses are not satisfied with their jobs and are getting annoyed with the organizational behaviour that they are facing. This result will try to find out what are the reasons because of which the nurses are so much annoyed with the present situation.

Employee turnover is not good at all for the organizational and the reason is that high employee turnover will make them do more and more efforts. They will have to find out more employees for the organization. Training will have to be done again. There are several other situations because of which company does not want employee turnover but still if it is so then why is it not stopping it by providing better opportunities for nurses in UAE? These are some common questions which will be answered in this research.

This is a primary research which will help us to find out the reasons for high employee turnover rate in UAE among its nurses with the help of analysis of Questionnaire.

Background of Problem

There is a high rate of employee turnover among the nurses in UAE. This is one of the most important problems which hospitals of UAE are facing. There are factors involved in this like job satisfaction, bad organizational culture, bad UAE culture, etc.

Literature Review

It has been seen it the past that there have an enormous amount of researches which have been done in the past. This mainly concentrates the fact that there is a high amount of turnover of the nurses in the medical organization. This means that nurses are not ready to stay in the company for more than a considerable amount of period. In the recent past, various studies have kept an over the point that there are nurses in the industry who are having a very high turnover rate in the company. Considering the reasons behind this, organizations are not faulting on their behalf but nurses have the same amount of negligence in this issue. There are several factors on which the previous researches have taken place. This literature review will incorporate the previous researches which have taken place associating with these factors.

Intentions to Quit

Several Researches have done on the issue that there is a high employee turnover among the nurses of the country due to the fact that they have a clear intention to leave the company. There are several reasons associated with leaving the company and one of the most important among them is that they are not equally treated as men workers. This is the major problem which is faced by the nurses in UAE. There are several complaints about this issue. Equality in the office is the major concern among them.

There are several other reasons because of which these nurses have intentions to quit the company. Salary is one of the important issues. Most of the nurses are leaving the company because of the fact that they are not getting proper salary in the company in which they are working and offered a better package in other companies. Therefore, they intend to quit the company.

Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is again one of the most important factors for high rate of employee turnover among the nurses of the company, according to the previous researches done. Organizational culture may refer to the bad situation of the women worker in the hospitals. They are not getting same remunerations as the men. Having the same capability in them, these nurses are not appreciated for the jobs they do. This organizational culture is not only among the nurses in the hospital but this organizational culture is in all the other industries.

Organizational culture is defined as the culture which the employee adopts in himself or herself in order to go for his or her betterment. But a bad organizational culture may have severe or adverse effect on the betterment of the employees.

There are certain dimensions in which employee has to think and organizational culture are the best way to find these dimensions and get to the normal behavior in the company. But in the case when organizational culture in the company is not good then obviously it becomes difficult for the employees to manage the situation and get to the normal behavior in which they should work. This is yet again an important reason because of which there is a high employee turnover from one company to another company.

Culture in United Arab Emirate

Culture is another factor associated with high level of employee turnover among the nurses in UAE. Culture in UAE talks about various sub factors involved in them. One of the most important and the serious sub factor involved is the treatment of women employees in the country as compared to the men employees. There are several ancient rituals which are still prevailing in the country like Burqa system. This is restricting the women employee to work in the same atmosphere in which men are working. This is giving lesser exposure to these women employees (Yousef, 2001).

Another sub factor associated with culture in UAE is that there is a very high level of Emiratization in the county which means that most of the organizations in the country maintain more than 80 percent of the national population in the company. This means that there is very less exposure for the foreign employees in the UAE companies. It is difficult for them to sustain in the company. Hence these nurses are leaving the company at a very fast rate without thinking of the company. If they don’t feel satisfied, they immediately leave the company.

Organizational Commitment

Organizational commitment is another factor important for the company. If any employee is not committed towards the organization then obviously there will be a high rate of employee turnover in the company. This is what happening with the nurses of UAE. These nurses are not treated well in the company and this is the reason that they do not have well organizational commitment. They are not getting same positions as men are getting, they are not getting similar salaries. Hence they do not feel committed towards the organization and tend to leave the organization as soon as possible (Cunningham, 2001).

Organizational commitment is a big aim for any company to maintain. Company needs a huge commitment by its employees in order to go further. High rate of employee turnover will obviously prove bad for the company because it will have to recruit the new employees again and again in order to maintain its productivity and services.

Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

Organizational citizenship behaviour is something in which not much of researches have been done as far as high employee turnover is considered but it is one of the most important reasons because of which there is a high turnover among the nurses in the hospitals of UAE. Emiratization is something which was always an important concept in UAE. And as the time is passing by, level or the percentage of Emiratization with in UAE is increasing (Dermot McCarthy, 2009). This is an important concern for the nurses who are not UAE born. It is becoming difficult for them to stay in the company because already there is not an equal treatment of women and along with this curse they are not the citizen of UAE. It is a kind of double sided problem for these nurses (Cerimagic, 2010).

Organizational citizenship behaviour is leading to high level of employee turnover among the nurses in hospitals in UAE and will remain as one of the important issue for them.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is another important reason because of which there is a high level of employee turnover among the nurses in the hospitals in UAE. There are several reasons which lead to lesser amount of job satisfaction among the nurses. As already discussed above, bad organizational culture make them worry about their jobs. They are not satisfied with their working behaviour in the company and this is the reason they are leaving the company. Package is another reason which is responsible for lesser job satisfaction in the company. These nurses are getting lower salaries as compared to the men and hence they are not satisfied with the job and leaving the companies one after the other. Culture in UAE is such that women are not equally treated as men. This mainly happens in the case when they are working in the UAE home company. This is the reason that they are not satisfied with the job and try to leave the hospital and go into the hospitals which have a foreign working culture so that they are treated equally as men. And also they will get better salaries in these hospitals. Job satisfaction is considered to be one of the most important factors which will lead to betterment of the employees (Monica Gallant, 2008).

Methodology

The analysis of high rate of employee turnover among the nurses in UAE needed a research to do in which various factors were to be integrated with the main result of the research. There are several main steps of the methodology which has been adapted to follow up with the result. Research Methodology is an important part of a research. It tells that how the research will be going to proceed and how the analysis of the result or the data of the result will be done. In this analysis, we are going to follow few steps in research methodology so that we can easily find the way in which the analysis is moving. We will discuss the research methodology in detail. Steps of research methodology are:

Data collection for the research

Use of SPSS for Data Entry

Use of Excel for data Entry

SPSS Tests

Steps discuss every part of research methodology in detail

Data Collection for Research

In order to analyse the high employee turnover rate among the nurses of UAE, we need to perform a research which will exactly tell us that what may be reasons because of which there is high level of employee turnover among these nurses. Hence, a primary research has been organized in which 100 samples are taken. Most of the samples taken are the female nurse worker in the hospitals in UAE because these are the one who are mainly suffered.

It is one of the most fundamental technique that result of any hypothesis may be analysed taking the sample from the population because it is almost impossible to take the entire population in the research. For example, it may be really difficult to fit in all the nurses in UAE in the research, hence a set of 100 nurses are taken and research has been performed.

The questionnaire is divided in to seven sections. Every section except Section A tells a factor which is associated with the result that there are high levels of employee turnover among the nurses in UAE. These sections are as follows:

Section B: It talks about the Intention to Quit factor. There are 14 questions which are asked to the employees who have been taken as samples in the research. These questions totally relate the perception of the employees or the nurses that how much they have intentions to quit their organization or there are several other factors because of which they are leaving the organization. The questionnaire in the Section B will need to be filled by the employees on the scale of 7. This section will mainly find out the intentions of the employees that they want to quit the company or not.

Section C: Section C is the biggest of all the other sections of the research. There are 97 questions associated with this section of the research. Section C talks about organizational culture which is considered to be an important factor for the employees to quit the company. It might be possible that there is a high rate of employee turnover in the company due to the fact that there is a bad organizational culture in the companies of or the hospitals of UAE. In this section, main aim is set up that all the questions will be able to find out the focus that employee should understand the organizational culture and should be able to tell about the exact perception that they have about organization. This section will get to know that what the employees or the nurses think of the organization which will ultimately aim to find out whether organization culture is an important factor to analyze the research or not. Data is entered for clear to unclear on the scale of 7.

Section D: There are 13 questions which are asked in this factor analysis. Section D talks about the perception of the nurses about the culture in UAE. This is an important factor which we are considering here. It is necessary to see whether the UAE culture is responsible for the high employee turnover among the nurses or not. There are many sub factors associated with this research. In this, reasons which relate to the UAE culture are:

Rating 1: Mix Environment of Males and females in the hospitals.

Rating 2: It limits the chances of getting married .

Rating 3: They have low salaries .

Rating 4: There is low social interaction of these nurses with the families, friends and other groups.

Rating 5: There is close contact between nurses and patients.

Rating 6: There is a high exposure of disease.

Rating 7: Nurses needs to stay overnight outside their home.

Rating 8: There is a uniform colour, size and shape.

Rating 9: Nurses are unable to wear abayah.

Rating 10: Long hour duties for the nurses.

Section E: Section E talks about the commitment of these nurses for the organization in which they are working. This research will be focussed on the scale of 7. It will cover all the points which will tell whether high rate of employee turnover in the organizations is due to low commitment of the nurses towards the organisation. There are 38 questions in this section of the questionnaire.

Section F: This section is mainly divided into two sub sections. It as whole, talks about the organizational citizenship behaviour of the nurses in UAE. The two sub sections of organizational citizenship behaviour are:

Section F.1: Helping behaviour of the nurses. This section contains 11 questions talking about the helping nature of the nurses in the organization.

Section F.2: Voice: This section contains 6 questions which will talk about the ability of the nurses to raise their voice in certain issues in the company.

This section entirely observed on the rating of 7 between never and always. It tells that whether this factor is a specified reason for the high rate of employee turnover within the company or not.

Section G: Section G contains 20 questions which are marked on the rating of 7. This section tells whether there is a job satisfaction among the nurses with the organisation in which they are working. This section wants to reveal the fact that job satisfaction is an important factor for high employee turnover in UAE. All the questions are raised so that it may be found that whether the nurses are leaving the organization due to low job satisfaction in the company in which they work. It is absolutely an important factor because every body knows that if there is no job satisfaction in the company, the employee will not going to stay.

Use of SPSS for Data Entry

There will be a separate response sheet that will be prepared in the SPSS for each section. Hence, in total there will be 7 response sheets from Section B to Section G (2 response sheet for Section F).

Marks will be assigned to each question according to whatever the answer given by samples taken. These marks will be in the range of 1 to 7.

In the SPSS files, for each individual response sheet, variables are considered to be the questions corresponding in each of the section.

All of these response sheets are exported to the MS Excel for the further work

Use of Excel for data Entry

When all the response sheets of SPSS are exported into MS Excel, then all the variables taken in the respective response sheet are summed and a total of every response sheet is obtained. For example, a total will be found in the Response sheet of Section A and this total will be named as Intention to Quit.

Similarly, for each response sheets totals are found and these are named as the main factor for high rate of employee turnover among nurses in UAE.

These totals are then entered into a new excel sheet. Now this excel sheet will contain only totals of all each response sheet respective which means that till excel sheet will contain the following factors, namely:

Intentions to Quit

Organizational Culture

UAE culture

Organizational commitment

Organisation citizenship behaviour

Job satisfaction

Now these will be treated as independent variables in the tests. But the problem here is that there is different number of questions in each of the sections which means that we will not be able to compare these independent variables in any case. Hence, all the data of the new excel sheet will be normalized in order to make them levelled.

There will be a final sum of all the independent variables which will be called as a dependent variable and which will be the main aim of this analysis i.e. High Rate of Employee Turnover among Nurses in UAE.

This levelled normalized data will be exported to SPSS for the further tests and final results.

SPSS Tests

There are mainly three types of test required in the analysis of data. These tests are as follows:

Pearson Correlation: Pearson Correlation Test will be done in order to find out that whether there is a correlation among the variables for testing or not. We have decided that these variables are independent but we will prove it here with the help of Pearson Correlation.

T-test: T-Test is mainly used for comparing the means. T-test will give away the result whether the six factors which have taken in the analysis effects the final result or not. In this there will be a null hypothesis which will have to be set and accordingly an alternate hypothesis. We will see with the t-test whether this null hypothesis gets accepted or rejected. According to this, final Analysis will be done.

One way ANOVA test: Analysis of Variance will be done in order to find out the relationship between all the factors which are taken for analysis. This is mainly used in order to compare the means of different factors. In this it will be easier for us to predict which of all the variables taken is the best which is associated with the high employee turnover among nurses in UAE

Generalized Linear Model (uni-variate case): It will give away the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variable. This will be done as a consequence of Pearson correlation. If the variables are found to be independent then we will be able to do this but if in case the variables are dependent to each other then a new type generalized model will have to be taken which will not be linear.

Results

Dependent

High Rate of Employee Turnover among Nurses in UAE

Variate

Intentions to Quit

Organizational Culture

UAE culture

Organizational Behaviour Citizenship

Job Satisfaction

Results for Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Intentions_To_Quit

.49867346939

.152297655593

100

Organizational_Culture

.67170839467

.113142413630

100

Perceptions_About_UAE_culture

.61186813176

.163977343710

100

Commitment_Towards_Organization

.74733082708

.085716309351

100

Organizational_Citizenship_Helping_Behaviour

.83051948036

.121918096548

100

Organizational_Citizenship_Voice_Behaviour

.77214285714

.167480832787

100

Job_Satisfaction

.69814285716

.104912426372

100

Results for Pearson Correlation

Correlations

Intentions_To_Quit

Organizational_Culture

Perceptions_About_UAE_culture

Commitment_Towards_Organization

Organizational_Citizenship_Helping_Behaviour

Organizational_Citizenship_Voice_Behaviour

Job_Satisfaction

Intentions_To_Quit

Pearson Correlation

1

-.219*

.047

-.054

-.135

-.154

-.198*

Sig. (2-tailed)

.028

.642

.597

.181

.126

.049

Organizational_Culture

Pearson Correlation

-.219*

1

.059

.154

.004

.105

.271**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.028

.561

.126

.972

.299

.006

Organizational_Citizenship_Helping_Behaviour

Pearson Correlation

-.135

.004

.269**

.067

1

.641**

.230*

Sig. (2-tailed)

.181

.972

.007

.509

.000

.022

Organizational_Citizenship_Voice_Behaviour

Pearson Correlation

-.154

.105

.060

-.198*

.641**

1

.369**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.126

.299

.556

.048

.000

.000

Job_Satisfaction

Pearson Correlation

-.198*

.271**

.048

.046

.230*

.369**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.049

.006

.639

.650

.022

.000

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Results for T-Test

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Lower

Upper

Intentions_To_Quit

32.743

99

.000

.498673469390

.46845431040

.52889262838

Organizational_Culture

59.368

99

.000

.671708394670

.64925848516

.69415830418

Perceptions_About_UAE_culture

37.314

99

.000

.611868131760

.57933146925

.64440479427

Commitment_Towards_Organization

87.187

99

.000

.747330827080

.73032285168

.76433880248

Organizational_Citizenship_Helping_Behaviour

68.121

99

.000

.830519480360

.80632828497

.85471067575

Organizational_Citizenship_Voice_Behaviour

46.103

99

.000

.772142857140

.73891102639

.80537468789

Job_Satisfaction

66.545

99

.000

.698142857160

.67732595568

.71895975864

Result for One Way ANOVA

ANOVA for Intentions to Quit

Job_Turnover_Intentions

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.165

44

.004

1.161

.297

Within Groups

.177

55

.003

Total

.342

99

ANOVA for Organizational Behaviour

Job_Turnover_Intentions

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.290

78

.004

1.494

.150

Within Groups

.052

21

.002

Total

.342

99

ANOVA for UAE Culture

Job_Turnover_Intentions

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.220

47

.005

1.979

.009

Within Groups

.123

52

.002

Total

.342

99

ANOVA for Organizational Commitment

Job_Turnover_Intentions

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.179

49

.004

1.119

.347

Within Groups

.163

50

.003

Total

.342

99

ANOVA for Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: Helping Behaviour

Job_Turnover_Intentions

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.224

31

.007

4.152

.000

Within Groups

.118

68

.002

Total

.342

99

ANOVA for Organizational Behaviour Citizenship: Voice

Job_Turnover_Intentions

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.231

23

.010

6.819

.000

Within Groups

.112

76

.001

Total

.342

99

ANOVA for Job Satisfaction

Job_Turnover_Intentions

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.232

47

.005

2.339

.002

Within Groups

.110

52

.002

Total

.342

99

Results for Generalized Linear Model

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable:Job_Turnover_Intentions

Source

Type III Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Corrected Model

36.072a

7

5.153

73.640

.000

Intercept

.145

1

.145

2.078

.153

Intentions_To_Quit

3.001

1

3.001

42.885

.000

Organizational_Culture

4.056

1

4.056

57.959

.000

Perceptions_About_UAE_culture

4.723

1

4.723

67.488

.000

Commitment_Towards_Organization

.249

1

.249

3.555

.063

Organizational_Citizenship_Helping_Behaviour

3.118

1

3.118

44.563

.000

Organizational_Citizenship_Voice_Behaviour

2.086

1

2.086

29.814

.000

Job_Satisfaction

1.109

1

1.109

15.852

.000

Error

6.438

92

.070

Total

4845.000

100

Corrected Total

42.510

99

a. R Squared = .849 (Adjusted R Squared = .837)

Discussion and Analysis

Analysis of Description Statistics

We can see from the result of Descriptive Statistics that means of almost all the factors associated with the final result is same. Also the variances of all the factors are almost same expect the factor organizational commitment. This means that it might possible that all of these factors may have similar effect on the final result. Descriptive Statistics is mainly done in order to do the further analysis of the test which has been done on the samples. Number of responses used here are 100 which not considered to be a very big sample; hence we can also say that the mean which are assuming to be same might converge to some other results. Hence with out doing further analysis, it would be impossible to predict the relationship between the final result i.e. high employee turnover among the nurses in UAE and various factors used for the analysis.

Analysis of Pearson Correlation

In the result of the Pearson Correlation, we have found the Pearson Correlation and the test on Pearson Correlation which shows the significance level. In the table hypothesis used is as follows:

H0: There is a correlation between the two variables

H1: There is no correlation between the variable

Now, we can see from the results of the table of Pearson Correlation that there is a specific correlation between the factors Intention to Quit with Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, and Job Satisfaction. This means that they are not independent with each other. From the table, we can see that all the factors are not independent of each other; there is some correlation in all the factors.

With such an observation, it can be said that effect of one variable on the final result may effect the result of other variable on the final result as well. These all variable are interconnected which means that if there is a better organization culture in the company then obvious there will be better job satisfaction for the employees and hence employee turnover will go down. Similarly, there would be relation in the other factors as well. Hence, when there will be a further analysis of t-test and ANOVA, then we would be able to predict that if job satisfaction is affecting the employee turnover in the company then obviously organization behaviour would also do.

Analysis of T-Test

T-test is used in order to see whether the factors are influencing the final result or not. Hence we will set our hypothesis in this case in the following way:

H0: Variable does not affect the high employee turnover among the nurse in UAE

H1: Variable affects the high employee turnover among the nurse in UAE

Hence, from the table of t-test we can see that significance level of all the variables are almost zero which means that our hypothesis gets rejected in every case. This means that there is a relation between the variables and the final result. It finally concludes that the factors which are taken for the analysis, all affect the rate of employee turnover in the hospitals. This we have seen in case of the literature review as well which suggests that there is a relationship between all the variables and the final result.

Analysis of One Way ANOVA

ANOVA is mainly used to compare means. We have designed the different ANOVA tables for all the factors which we have introduced in the analysis. From the table we can see that in all the case the hypothesis is rejected which means that there is a strong relationship between the variables and the employee turnover rate in the organization. With the help of ANOVA we can rate these factors as well. The rating of the factors will be:

Organizational Behaviour

UAE culture

Organizational Commitment

Intension to Quit

Organizational Citizenship

Job Satisfaction

Analysis of Generalized Linear Model

Generalized Linear Model is mainly used in order to find out the relation ship between the variates and the dependent variable. We can see from the table of generalized linear model there is a testing done on the basis of this model. Hypothesis designed for the Generalized Linear Model is as follows:

H0: There is no relation between the variate and the dependent variable

H1: There is a relation between the variate and dependent variable

Here dependent variable is considered to be the rate of employee turnover in the company. We can see from the table that there the hypothesis is accepted in case of all the other factors except for Helping behaviour of the nurse. But one thing to note here is that if we combine the helping behaviour and the voice behaviour of the nurses then hypotheses is rejected. Hence all the above factors are related to the final result.

Conclusion

The above analysis suggests that there is relationship between the factors and the final result which says that following discussions can be done over it:

If there is an intention if the employee to quit the company then there will be an increase in the employee turnover rate among nurses in UAE

If there is bad organizational behaviour in the hospitals, then there will be employee turnover in the company

If there is bad UAE culture with in the organization, then there will high employee turnover rate among nurses in UAE

If the commitment of the nurses towards the company or the organization is low then there will be high employee turnover rate among nurses in UAE

If there is low job satisfaction among the nurses in the hospitals then there will be high employee turnover rate

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