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HRD believes that individuals in an organization have unlimited potential for growth and development and that their potential can be developed and multiplied through appropriate and systematic efforts. Given the opportunities and by providing the right type of climate in an organization, individuals can be helped to give full contribution to their potentials, to achieve the goals of the organization, and thereby ensuring optimization of Human Resources. Therefore, to initiate HRD practices, a firm philosophy with humane and value based approach has to be established. This will result in the establishment of HRD culture in the organization, which further strengthens practices.
Organizational culture includes ethics, values, beliefs, attitudes, norms, ethos, climate, environment, and culture. It can be characterized as consisting of Openness (0), Collaboration(C), Trust (T), Authenticity (A), Pro-action(P), Autonomy(A) Confrontation(C) & Experimentation (E). And it is abbreviated as OCTAPACE.
This study goes on to present the major findings based on descriptive research design
undertaken with the help of structured questionnaire to study the OCTAPACE Culture for employees in HyperCITY , Ludhiana. Data is based on the findings from 70 employees of different designations i.e. managers, team leaders and service associates, from HyperCITY.
This study employees certain statistical tools like ANOVA, Correlation and Mean for assessing whether the hypotheses that had been formed are valid or not. The result of this study suggests that the HyperCITY is having good culture but then it has some values from OCTAPACE culture which are low like Authenticity. The organisation has to work upon these aspects to get high results from the employees and to achieve the organizational goals.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction to HyperCITY
K.Raheja Corp Group is known for its esteemed presence in the Retail business. The group revolutionized the retail scenario in India by launching Shopper's Stop in Andheri. The Group now operates number of Retail stores throughout the country..
HyperCITY, Crossword and Shopper's Stop are a part of K.Raheja Corp Group. HyperCITY was incepted in the year 2005 and it provides a truly international shopping experience.
HyperCITY's vision is to be an integral part of customer lives, by offering them a high quality shopping experience through great products at ever better process.
HyperCITY's business mission is to sustain profitable growth by encouraging customers to discover an authoritative assortment of quality products with exciting promotion in a globally competitive retail environment and create through our company values an environment where our associate grow within the business.
1.1.3 Values of HyperCITY
We all have fundamental right to good leadership at every level.
We respect Family, Team, Self-in that order.
We are all real people with feelings, emotions, and values.
We all have responsibility to innovate.
We demand absolute integrity from each other.
We all take ownership of our individual actions.
We are all empowered to make decision to satisfy our customer.
We work hard. We play hard.
The Products offered at HyperCITY ranges from Food and Grocery to General Merchandise to Fashion.
The Speciality of HyperCITY is that it offers a wide and contemporary range of innovative products, sourced from both local and international markets. It has got Exclusive imported food from Waitrose, UK, In - store Restaurants, Home theatre Demo room, Demo Kitchen and other services for the customers.
HyperCITY is more than just aisles and shelves, it also boasts of some very unique shopping experience, which sets them apart.
1.1.4 HyperCITY Human Resources (HR) Overview
Human Resource team at HyperCITY is knowledgeable, Approachable; provide solutions, an equal Business Partner, Trustworthy, Available and Dependable.
HyperCITY's Human Resource vision is towards creating an engaged workforce through people enabling processes and knowledge sharing practices based upon the HyperCITY value system.
Following are different Departments we have in HR:
Manager- Human Resource
HR- Business Partner- Store operations
Manager- Learning & Development
Manager- Compensation & Benefits
1.1.5 Hierarchy of HyperCITY
Figure 1.1: Hierarchy followed in HyperCITY
1.2 Introduction to Organisational Culture
Organisational culture/ethos is the underlying spirit or character of an organisation and it is made up of its beliefs, customs or practices. The influence of organisations in shaping the attitudes, values, motivation, and performance of people is being increasingly realized. The concept of organisational culture is in common use since the 1980s. Organisational research originally focused strongly on the surveying of corporate climate, but in the 1980s, the organisational climate concept was to a certain extent replaced by the concept of organisational culture. Climate was redefined as the visible expression of organisational values. There is no generally accepted definition of either concept, even though both terms have been in use for more than a decade.
Organisational Culture, or Corporate Culture, comprises the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organisation. From organisational values, there develop organisational norms, the guidelines or expectations that prescribe the appropriate kinds of behaviour by employees in particular situations and control the behaviour of organisational members towards one another."
For designing the Human Resource system, the societal culture is a very important context. Organizations exist in the society; they are part of the society and derive their strength from it. In order to be effective, it is necessary that the organizations are aware of the major cultural characteristics of the society in which they exist. HRD is the most effective instrument for developing a new culture. The organization culture should promote some values, hence they should move towards OCTAPACE culture (Openness, Conformation, Trust, Authenticity, Proaction, Autonomy, Collaboration and in Experimenting) the main HRD aspects which can bring about the cultural change are performance appraisal, mentoring organization development and Rewards & Recognition.
The culture of an organization is an amalgamation of the values and beliefs of the people in an organization. It can be felt in the implicit rules and expectations of behavior in an organization where, even though the rules are not formally written down employees know what is expected of them. it is usually set by management whose decisions on policy usually set up the culture of the organization. The organizational culture usually has values and beliefs that support the organizational goals.
1.2.1 Importance of Studying Organisational Culture
"Organisational culture is the key to organisational excellence and the function of leadership is the creation and management of culture" (Schein 1992). Interpreting and understanding organisational culture is an important activity for managers and consultants because it affects strategic development, productivity and learning at all levels. Cultural assumptions can both enable and constrain what organisations are able to do.
The need to diagnose and manage organisational culture is growing in importance partly because of an increasing need to merge and mold the different organizations' cultures as structural changes have occurred (for instance, when units are consolidated, when downsizing and outsourcing eliminate parts of the organisation, or when the entire organisations merge). The escalating importance of culture is also partly a result of the increasing turbulence, complexity, and unpredictability faced by the organisations in their external environments.
The concept of culture is also important when attempting to manage an organisation-wide change. Practitioners are coming to realize that, despite the best-laid plans, an organisational change must include not only changing structures and processes, but also changing the corporate culture as well.
As the competition, changes, and pressure intensify for organisations, therefore, organisational culture is given more prominence and emphasis. This is because, paradoxically, organisational culture creates both stability and adaptability for organisations. It creates stability by being the glue that holds the organisation through adherence to a clear set of consensual values. Culture also fosters adaptability by providing a clear set of principles to follow when designing strategies to cope with new circumstances. Clarifying the core competences and the strategic intent are prerequisites to organisational adaptability, and both are grounded squarely in the organization's unique culture.
1.3 Introduction to OCTAPACE
OCTAPACE was developed by Professor T V Rao. It stands for Openness, Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity, Proaction, Autonomy, Collaboration and Experimentation. In addition to being an acronym for these values, OCTAPACE is a meaningful term indicating eight (OCTA) steps (pace) to create functional ethos. These values help in fostering a climate of continuous development of employees in an organisation. An optimal level of these values is essential for facilitating HRD. The elements of OCTAPACE are as follows:
It can be defined as spontaneous expression of feeling and thoughts and the sharing of these without defensiveness. Openness is in both directions, receiving and giving. It means receiving without reservation and taking steps to encourage more feedback and suggestion from customers, colleagues and others. It means giving without hesitation, ideas, information, feedback, feelings etc. The willingness to share and clarity of objectives and free interaction among people, there should be more unbiased performance feedback. Indicators of openness in organization will be productive meetings and improved implementation of systems and innovations.
Confrontation can be defined as facing rather than shying away from problems. It also implies deeper analysis of interpersonal; problems. All this involves taking up challenges. The outcome of confrontation will be better clarity, improved problem solving, and willingness to deal with problems and with difficult employees and customers. There will be willingness to teams to discuss and resolve sensitive issues. The indicators, which are also outcomes, can be improved by periodical discussions with clients, bold action and not postponing sticky matters.
Trust is not used in the moral sense. It is reflected in maintaining the confidentiality of information shared by others and in not misusing it. Trust is also reflected as what another person says at face value, and not searching for ulterior motives. The outcome of trust includes higher empathy, timely support, reduced stress, and reduction and simplification of forms and procedures. Such implication is an indicator of trust and of reduced paper work, effective delegation and higher productivity.
It is the congruence between what one feels, says and does. It is reflected in owning up ones mistakes, and in unreserved sharing of feelings. It is closer to openness. The outcome is reduced distortion in communication.
Proaction means taking the initiative, preplanning and taking preventive action and calculating the payoffs of an alternative course before taking action. It involves unusual behaviorist means freeing oneself from and taking action beyond immediate concerns. A person showing proactively functions at all three levels of feeling, thinking and action. At the feeling level, the people transcend his role boundary and sees things from the point of view of the other role sender. This is empathy. He appreciates the others point of view and is able to feel the other person.
It is using and giving freedom to plan and act in one's own sphere. It means respecting and encouraging individual and role autonomy. It develops mutual respect and is likely to result in willingness to take on responsibility, individual. Initiative, better succession planning.
It is giving help to, and asking for help from others. It means working together to solve problems and team spirit. The outcome includes timely help, team work .sharing of experiences, improved communication and improved resource sharing. The indication could be productivity reports, more meetings, involvement staff and higher quality of meetings.
It means using and encouraging innovative approaches to solve problems, using feedback for improving, taking a fresh look at things and encouraging creativity. Creativity is reflected in new suggestion generated by employees, attempts at improving upon previous ways of working, trying out a new idea to which one has exposed, innovating new methods.
1.3.1 OCTAPACE Profile-Tool to Study Organisational Culture
It is a famous questionnaire used to measure the organizational ethos. This questionnaire is proposed by Dr.Â UdaiÂ Pareek. This questionnaire is of great help to me while doing my project on "Study of organizational culture of HyperCITY- OCTAPACE profiling ".
TheÂ OCTAPACEÂ profile is a 40-item instrument that gives the profile of organisation's ethos in eight values. These values are openness, confrontation, trust, authenticity,Â proaction, autonomy, collaboration and experimentation. The instrument contains two parts. In part I, values are stated in items 1 to 24 (three statements of each of the eight values), and the respondent is required to check (on a 4-point scale) how much each item is valued in his organisation. Part 2 contains sixteen statements on beliefs, two each for eight values, and the respondent checks (on a 4-point scale) how widely each of them is shared in the organisation.
In addition to checking the items on the extent of their importance or sharing in the organisation, the respondent can also check how much they should be valued, or how much the beliefs are useful. Thus present as well as desired and ideal profiles can be obtained.
1.3.2 The Instrument
For the purpose of collecting data on the OCTAPACE profile, a two-part questionnaire developed by Pareek (2002) was used. Part 1 contains 24 items representing three statements for each of the eight values of OCTAPACE and the respondent was required to check, on a four-point scale, how much each item is valued in his organization. Part 2 contains 16 items, two each for the eight OCTAPACE values and the respondent checks, on a four-point scale, how widely each of them is shared in the organization.
To make scoring, an answer sheet is provided (OCTAPACE coding sheet). From the key (appended), the items marked with an asterisk are first reversed so that 4 becomes 1, 3 becomes 2, 2 becomes 3 and 1 becomes 4. This makes all items unidirectional. The rows are then added. The eight rows represent the eight aspects (octapace) in the same order. The scores on each aspect range from 5 to 20. In a group, participants can themselves score their completed answer sheets.
Table 1.1: OCTAPACE coding sheet
1.3.3 OCTAPACE Culture
Figure 2: Diagram of OCTAPACE Culture
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE: OCTAPACE PROFILING OF BIMTECH by J. Mathangi & Kanika Chauhan.
The organisation culture of Birla Institute of Management Technology (BIMTECH), Greater Noida is mapped using Pareek's OCTAPACE instrument. OCTAPACE measures the ethos of an organization in eight values: openness, confrontation, trust, authenticity, pro-action, autonomy, collaboration and experimentation. The instrument was administered on a sample of 70 teaching and non-teaching staff members. Extraction of eight independent values established the suitability of Factor analysis. Consistency between individual values and group beliefs was tested using Factor analysis. For Openness, Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity, Pro-action, and Autonomy, Values and Beliefs were loaded on two different dimensions in the rotated component matrix. For Collaboration and Experimentation they were not uniquely loaded on one dimension as these were strongly correlated with other values. Upon removal of these two, the problem parameters were found to be: Value Autonomy and Belief Pro-action. BIMTECH needs to improve these.
Organisational culture: A study of selected organisations in the manufacturing sector in the NCR. by Anu SINGH LATHER, J. P. (2010)
The main objective of this study was to compare the organisational culture of the selected companies in the manufacturing sector and to identify and measure the perceived organisational culture and its various dimensions. 70 responses to a 4 point scale questionnaire based on the OCTAPACE profile developed by Udai Pareek were obtained from 2 organisations in the NCR. The result shows that the executives and non- executives perceive the culture differently. The study helps in identifying the weaker aspects of culture in terms of values and beliefs that prevail in the organisation. Once the diagnosis of the culture is done to identify how much each item is valued, the management gets an opportunity to work upon the identified weaker aspects, on the basis of the degree of correlation between the various elements of the OCTAPACE profile for developing and maintaining a better organisational culture to achieve the desired performance and to sustain competition in the long run.
Profiling the OCTAPACE Culture:An Empirical Study of Banking and IT by Sharma, F. T. (2007)
Organizational culture is hypothesized to play a decisive role in the development of a unique corporate identity. This unique identity provides organizations with the opportunity to attain strategic leadership. Keeping in view the vital role that culture plays in the success of any organization, the present study was undertaken with the objective of comparing the organizational culture of companies in the IT and Banking sectors in India. The study is based on the concept of OCTAPACE culture-an acronym for Openness, Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity, Proaction, Autonomy, Collaboration, and Experimentation. The results suggest that although culturally the two sectors do not significantly differ, significant differences may exist within firms in the IT sector, though firms within the Banking sector do not significantly differ.
Need for Octapace Culture in Tourism Sector: An Instrument for Organizational Dynamics by S. A. Mufeed and S. N. Rafai (2011).
Over the past three decades 'Human Resource' has impinged upon several segments of society and diverse organizations. Past research studies reveal that the congenial OCTAPACE culture is extremely important for promoting the organizational effectiveness and good Governance. In this context, the present paper is an endeavor to identify the major factors responsible for non-promoting of organizational effectiveness among the managerial and non-employees about the prevailing OCTAPACE culture and to know the preventive measures for the same with special reference to Tourism sector. This is where the Human Resource Development gets involved with this industry considered to be the third most important segment of our economy after agriculture and horticulture. No tourism can be rendered efficient so long as the basic facts remains unrecognized that it is principally human which needs to be treated humanely for achieving the basic goals of good Governance. The present papers hypothesize that if organizational OCTAPACE profile is high, it would positively contribute to organizational dynamics and effective governance.
OCTAPACE culture for Marketing personnel in selected IT companies of India by Dr. Sonal Saxena.
This paper goes on to present the major findings based on descriptive research design undertaken with the help of structured questionnaires to study the OCTAPACE Culture for marketing professionals in IT Industry. Data is based on the responses from five top management personnel & 25 marketing personnel from the sample of five IT organizations in the year 2003. This paper employs certain statistical tools for assessing whether the hypotheses that had been formed are valid or not. The results show that the sample organizations differ significantly in their OCTAPACE Culture & are having varying level of OCTAPACE culture.
Octapace profile and Human Resource climate in south Asian public sector undertaking with special reference on KSFE by Famina.A.S.
The research study focus on ascertaining the organization climate of Kerala state financing enterprise (KSFE) and to understand and analyze the various dimensions of OCTAPACE .The data is collected primarily by personal interview and questionnaire of 100 employees in KSFE. The results show that KSFE scored high in openness, confrontation, authenticity and collaboration. The Mean Score analysis shows Proaction, Collaboration and experimentation to be the highest. The factors which scored low are trust and autonomy.
Elements of Developmental Culture in Various Sectors in India.by Abraham, S. (2012)
The organisation culture plays a decisive role in the development of a learning culture in an organisation. As stated earlier, competition has forced organisations to look for newer ways of doing business and better work methods. This has made managements to instill a sense of innovation in their employees through systematic training and development efforts aimed at customer satisfaction. Organisations are constantly challenging themselves to scale newer heights in quality service to its customers. In the process of implementing innovative strategies, managements come across hurdles posed by the existing organisation culture. Modifying the culture to accommodate a good strategy requires the organisations to monitor the components of culture closely and initiate bold steps towards change. Keeping this in mind, this study was undertaken to know the changing profiles of the development culture in a few India organisations.
HRD Culture (octapace) and Job Satisfaction. by AJAY SOLKHE, D. N. (2011).
The present paper attempts to analyse and determine the relationship, further the impact of HRD Climate, OCTAPACE Culture on Job Satisfaction as an organizational Performance measure in the selected public sector enterprise. The study is based on the responses sought from 71 executives from various departments and different hierarchical levels of a public sector undertaking located in North India. The questionnaires relating to the HRD Climate (Rao and Abraham, 1985) and Job Satisfaction (Daftuar, C.N, 1997) was administered to the sample population and the findings indicate that HRD Climate has a definite impact on Job Satisfaction which in turn leads to the increased organizational performance.
ix) Impact of Work Culture (OCTAPACE CULTURE) on Performance. by Saniya Chawla, R. R. (2012)
An organization's culture, which shapes the ways the emotions are experienced and expressed, plays a particularly important part during changes in the culture and other aspects of organizational life. Also, the employees working in the organization main focus on the performance. Now the question arises whether culture and performance management system have any relationship? Does Culture affect the performance management system? Therefore, the present study attempts to study the relationship of organizational culture using OCTAPACE PROFILE on performance management system and to determine the impact of work culture on performance management system in an organization.
An analysis of relationship between the learning organisation and organisation culture by Singh, K. (2010)
To keep pace with the rapid changes in the environment, organizations must keep pace; otherwise they are likely to perish. They have to remain flexible and continually improve to gain competitive advantage and must be able to adapt and strive to take the lead; otherwise their survival will be at stake. To meet the challenges posed by this rapidly changing environment, an organization must create and assimilate new knowledge at an increasing pace, encourage innovation and learn to compete in new ways. The culture of the organization plays a very significant role in keeping the process of learning vibrant in the organization leading it to become a learning organization. The present paper identifies the relationship between the organization culture and the learning organization in Indian business organizations and concludes that the organization culture plays a vital role in the development of a learning organization. It further contends that three major constructs of organization culture, i.e., openness, proaction and experimentation tend to provide the members of an organization with a sense of direction and creative thinking which in turn enhance organizational learning in turbulent environment.
Examining the relationship between Organisational Culture (OCTAPACE culture) and Leadership Styles, by Sanjeev K. Sharma & Aditi Sharma.
In the present study organizational culture has been conceptualized along eight cultural values and beliefs: openness, confrontation, trust, authenticity, proaction, autonomy, collaboration, and experimentation. Leadership styles have been determined in terms of initiation, consideration and charismatic variables. To achieve competitive advantage the industry needs visionary leadership to drive change and performance. Results of the study on textile industry in North India show a positive association between cultural values and charismatic leadership styles. Organizational culture exhibiting characteristics of accountability, collaboration, decentralized leadership; alignment and adaptability hold the key to successful survival.
The impact of OCTAPACE culture on Total productive maintenance by Dr. Babita Agarwal & Prof. Bhavna Chandak.
Organizations have to simultaneously meet various stakeholders' demands related to delivery times, supply chains (horizontal, vertical and cross integration), quality, production processes, equipment, safety, environmental concerns, workforce etc. They must be driven by both effective
And efficient management approaches and strategies to do so. One approach to improving the performance is to develop and implement Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) under OCTAPACE culture.
This paper describes successful TPM implementation in a continuous process firm in India and its effects, particularly on the firm's performance. We describe the TPM concept under the ibid analyze the Indian manufacturing scenario briefly and thereafter chronicle the success of the firm. The paper tests the applicability of theoretical concepts in the Indian context, derives some managerial implications and provides suggestions to firms who are or shall be in the process of implementing such initiatives.
CHAPTER 3: NEED, SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
3.1 Need and Scope of the Study
The organisation culture plays a decisive role in the development of a learning culture in an organisation. As stated earlier, competition has forced organisations to look for newer ways of doing business and better work methods. This has made managements to instill a sense of innovation in their employees through systematic training and development efforts aimed at customer satisfaction.
Organisations are constantly challenging themselves to scale newer heights in quality service to its customers. In the process of implementing innovative strategies, managements come across hurdles posed by the existing organisation culture. Modifying the culture to accommodate a good strategy requires the organisations to monitor the components of culture closely and initiate bold steps towards change. Keeping this in mind, this study was undertaken to know the changing profile of the development culture in HyperCITY, Ludhiana. This study was undertaken in the month of June-July, 2012 in HyperCITY, Ludhiana.
3.2 Objectives of the Study
Map the dimensions of organizational culture in HyperCITY Retail India ltd.
To check whether there is any significant difference between the perceptions of employees towards the various statements of OCTAPACE according to their designations.
CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research is a systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data and finding relevant solution to a specific situation or problem. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The research methodology includes the various aspects of conducting a research. These are as follows:
4.1 Target population:
Employees working at different hierarchical levels in the HyperCITY, Ludhiana are included in target population.
4.2 Sampling technique:
'Convenience sampling' is followed for the data collection purposes. It is a type of non-probability sampling technique. Non-probability sampling focuses on sampling techniques where the units that are investigated are based on the judgment of the researcher. This study includes the population who are employees of HyperCITY. So, this sampling design has been chosen due to convenience and with the purpose of fulfilling the objectives of this proposed study.
4.3 Sample size:
The sample size of 70 respondents is taken to conduct the proposed study to collect the data from them.
4.4 Type of Data:
For this study, researchers have used both the primary and secondary data. Primary data is collected from defined target population with the help of structured questionnaire known as OCTAPACE profile developed by Pareek (2003) and secondary data from different sources like Internet, books, journals and periodicals.
4.5 Time Period of Data:
The data has been collected by the researcher in the month of June and July, 2012.
4.6 Data analysis:
Univariate and bivariate analysis has been used to analyze the data like Mean and Correlation. Also ANOVA has been used to test the hypotheses that whether there is any significant difference between, the level of presence of OCTAPACE aspects, between the Management levels of HyperCITY. Statistical software's like the Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) have been used to analyze the data.
4.7 Limitations of the Study
Difficulty of understanding the statements at the Service associate level because average number of them do not have higher level of qualification.
This study is done on HyperCITY Ludhiana, so the findings cannot be generalized to all the HyperCITYs of the country.
People mind set about the survey was an obstacle in acquiring complete information & positive interaction.
The inter relation of statements created confusion in the minds of employees.
The scope of the study is limited to HyperCITY Ludhiana only.
CHAPTER 5: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Exploring the key dimensions:
The section presents the Univariate description statistics (using Microsoft Excel) for the key discussion of the organisation's Culture/Ethos.
The mean of eight aspects (OCTAPACE), regarding the culture of the HyperCITY, are presented in the Table 2. The means are compared with the given Tentative Norms. With the help of this comparison, the level of presence of eight aspects of OCTAPACE in HyperCITY can be determined. The obtained values are the means calculated by using the OCTAPACE coding sheet Table 1.
Table 5.1: Comparison with Tentative norms
Figure 5.1: Diagrammatic Presentation of Comparison with Tentative Norms
According to Table 2, the pro-action (M = 14.70) is an aspect, which exists in HyperCITY at a higher level than any other aspect and it is also at excellent level as it falls between the two extremes of tentative norms. This means that people in the organisation are always reaching to take the initiative, preplanning and preventive action calculating the pay-offs of an alternative cause before taking an action.
The mean score of the existence of the pro-action is followed by the openness (M =14.53) which is at very good level as it fall between the two extremes of the tentative norms. It indicates that people are free to express their feeling and thought, and share them without defensiveness. The floor space is shared by colleagues at different levels in the organisation.
The mean score is the least for the authenticity (M = 11.26) but if compared to tentative norms it is still good, which shows that there is a high gap between what employees say and what they actually do and they do not own up to their mistakes.
TABLE 5.2: Correlation between the Aspects of OCTAPACE
The Table 3 shows the inter-correlation among the OCTAPACE variables in the HyperCITY.
Experimentation and confrontation (r = 0.496)
There is a positive correlation between two variables. It suggested that people are creative and innovative in their approach towards problems solving. They identify, diagnose and find feasible solution to their problems.
Trust and openness (r = 0.523)
There is a positive correlation between two variables, which suggested that the employees maintain confidentiality of information shared by each other and do not misuse it. They accept what another person says at the face value and do not search for ulterior motives. There is also a spontaneous expression of the feeling and thought and sharing of these without offensiveness.
Trust and collaboration (r = 0.379)
They trust each other and work together (individuals and groups) to solve problems and show the team spirit.
Trust and authenticity (r = 0.082)
This suggested that the congruence between what one feels, says, and does leads to a higher acceptance of what another person says at the face value.
Authenticity and openness (r = -0.195)
There is the congruence between what one feels, says and does. It is reflected in owning up ones mistakes, and in unreserved sharing of feelings. It is closer to openness. The outcome is reduced distortion in communication. But as the study shows -ve correlation between the two aspects it leads to the conclusion that the employees in the organisation are not very open and the level of authencity is low.
Autonomy and confrontation (r = 0.083)
The positive correlation indicates that the employees are free to plan and act in their own area regarding finding the solution to the problems. They can take up challenges on their own.
Pro-action and confrontation (r = 0.466)
The positively correlated variable suggest that people initiate change, experiment, and confront problems in the workforce. They foresee and plan for future.
Openness and collaboration (r = 0.222)
This shows that there is openness in both directions, receiving and giving, which leads to the collaboration in giving help to, and asking for help from the others.
Pro-action and autonomy (r = 0.378)
Since there is a positive correlation between pro-action and autonomy, it suggested that autonomy is likely to result in willingness to take on responsibility, the individual initiative improving the succession planning.
Autonomy and collaboration (r = 0.751)
There is a positive correlation between the variables of autonomy and collaboration, which shows that though people are free to plan and take their own action, they are ready to give help to and to ask for help from the others.
Collaboration and experimentation (r = 0.540)
The positive correlation suggests that people help each other while experimenting to solve problems.
Pro-action and experimentation (r = 0.549)
The positive correlation between the variables pro-action and experimentation suggests that people take initiatives regarding work activities that lead to pro-activity and creative ideas.
Collaboration and confrontation (r = 0.201)
This highlights that people do not avoid problems; instead they identify and diagnose them. In this process of problem solving, they support each other. They help to influence and learn from each other in identifying the problem area, type of alternative, best solution, approach towards the problems, etc.
5.3 One- Way ANOVA:
Hypotheses for ANOVA:
Hypothesis 1/Null Hypotheses, (H0): is no significant difference between, the level of presence of OCTAPACE aspects, between the Management levels of HyperCITY.
Hypothesis 2/Alternate Hypotheses (H1): There is a significant difference between, the level of presence of OCTAPACE aspects, between the Management levels of HyperCITY.
The results of One way ANOVA are presented in Table 4.
Table 5.3: Comparison among the Different Designations in HyperCITY
The results of One-way ANOVA suggest that when the level of the presence, of OCTAPACE Aspects is studied on different levels of HyperCITY, no significant differences was observed because the value of p is greater then 0.05 except for Authenticity where the value of p is less then 0.05.
The Hypotheses taken is :
Hypothesis 1/Null Hypotheses, (H0 There is no significant difference in the level of presence of OCTAPACE aspects between the different Management levels of HyperCITY.
Hypothesis 2/Alternate Hypotheses (H1): There is a significant difference in the level of presence of OCTAPACE aspects between the different Management levels of HyperCITY.
So when the value of p is greater than 0.05, the null hypotheses is accepted.
Openness (0.517 > 0.05)
Null hypotheses is accepted
Confrontation (0.092 > 0.05)
Null hypotheses is accepted
Trust (0.970 > 0.05)
Null hypotheses is accepted
Authenticity (0.013 < 0.05)
Null hypotheses is rejected
Proaction (0.978 > 0.05)
Null hypotheses is accepted
Autonomy (0.350 > 0.05)
Null hypotheses is accepted
Collaboration (0.805 > 0.05)
Null hypotheses is accepted
Experimentation (0.233 > 0.05)
Null hypotheses is accepted
5.4 PostÂ HocÂ Tests
As per the result of ANOVA the null hypotheses was rejected for the aspect of Authenticity i.e. there is a significant difference in the level of presence of Authenticity, between the Management levels of HyperCITY. Therefore Post Hoc test was applied to know the higher level of presence of authenticity in these management levels.
Table 5.4: Presence of Authenticity at different levels
According to the above table, the presence of Authenticity in Managers group is more than the Team-Leaders but less than the Service Associates level.
This can be pesented diagramaticaly as below:
Figure 5.2: Presence of Authenticity at Different Levels
CHAPTER 6: FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
The Pro-action aspect of OCTAPACE which exists in HyperCITY at a Higher level showing that people in the organisation are always reaching to take the initiative, preplanning and preventive action calculating the pay-offs of an alternative cause before taking an action.
The means score of Authenticity is less as compared to all the aspects of OCTAPACE which shows that there is a high gap between what employees say and what they actually do and they do not own up to their mistakes.
The Correlation between various aspects shows that:
The Experimentation and Confrontation are positively Correlated depicting that people are creative and innovative in their approach towards problems solving.
Trust and Openness are positively Correlated manifesting that the employees maintain confidentiality of information shared by each other and do not misuse it.
Trust and Collaboration are positively Correlated showing that employees trust each other and work together (individuals and groups) to solve problems and show the team spirit.
Trust and Authenticity are positively Correlated showing that the congruence between what one feels, says, and does leads to a higher acceptance of what another person says at the face value.
Authenticity and Openness are negatively correlated depicting that the employees in the organisation are not very open and the level of authencity is low.
The positive correlation between Autonomy and Confrontation shows that the employees are free to plan and act in their own area regarding finding the solution to the problems.
The positive correlation between Pro-action and Confrontation shows that people initiate change, experiment, and confront problems in the workforce.
The positive correlation between Openness and Collaboration shows that there is openness in both directions, receiving and giving, which leads to the collaboration in giving help to, and asking for help from the others.
Pro-action and Autonomy are positively Correlated depicting that autonomy is likely to result in willingness to take on responsibility, the individual initiative improving the succession planning.
The positive correlation between Autonomy and Collaboration shows that though people are free to plan and take their own action, they are ready to give help to and to ask for help from the others.
The positive correlation between Collaboration and Experimentation shows that people help each other while experimenting to solve problems.
Pro-action and Experimentation are positively Correlated depicting that people take initiatives regarding work activities that lead to pro-activity and creative ideas.
The positive correlation between Collaboration and Confrontation shows that people do not avoid problems; instead they identify and diagnose them.
There is no difference in the level of presence of Openness, Confrontation, Trust, Pro-action, Autonomy, Collaboration and Experimentation between the various levels of management i.e. Managers, Team-leaders and Service Associates.
There is a difference in the level of presence of Authenticity between the various levels of management i.e. Service Associates are highly Authentic in their work followed by Managers and the least authentic people are Team-leaders.
CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The present study attempted to analyse the organisation culture of HyperCITY. Employees at HyperCITY believe that the work culture of the organization is open where free interaction takes place amongst employees. Employees are not authentic and they don't own up their mistakes. They believe that at the time of crisis people cannot rely on other colleagues. Seniors encourage their employees to think about their development and to take action towards that direction.
Employees in the organisation are always reaching to take the initiative, preplanning and preventive action calculating the pay-offs of an alternative cause before taking an action. There is the congruence between what one feels, says and does. It is reflected in owning up ones mistakes, and in unreserved sharing of feelings. It is closer to openness.
Overall Managements have to develop a conducive environment for the organisation to become a learning one which survives on the OCTAPACE values.
Finally, this study results in the above said findings. On the basis of those findings, some recommendations for the company are as follows:
To condition all employees to realize their full potential, Programs on problem solving, decision making, creativity and innovation, team-building encourage openness, trust and the spirit of collaboration as does interacting informally.
In order to encourage authenticity, there should be an environment created where trust can be developed among employees. The organisation should create a pattern of accountability, where every employee should be accountable for his/her work and should own up to his/her mistake.
According to the study, the employees cannot rely on one another at the time of crisis. For this the employees should be made to work in a team and also weekly team activities should be done, so that they learn to rely on one another.
There should be regular and constructive feedback given to the employees to keep them motivated and encouraged. Rewards and recognition should be awarded for excellence in service. To promote experimenting, the organisation should organize brainstorming sessions which will generate new and innovative ideas.