direction of behaviour and the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. It is a group of phenomena which affect the nature, strength and the persistence of an individual's behaviour. Motivation is a crucial element in setting and attaining goals, as one can influence his or her own levels of motivation and self-control.
The manager has a task of motivating individuals and teams in order to achieve the organisation's goals and objectives. People work for different reasons ranging from satisfying own wants, needs, desires and may be more interested in satisfying own personal goals than those prescribed by the manager, thus making motivating a difficult task. There are a number of theories that governs the study of motivation at workplace. For the purpose of this assignment, a number of motivational theories will be discussed in order to see how they affect employees' performance and also how they can be used to develop employees in the organisation. Self-motivation is more important as other methods of motivation are only temporary.
Maslow - hierarchy of needs
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According to Maslow, there are five levels of human needs as illustrated above which employees need to have fulfilled at work. All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy and when one need is satisfied, it is replaced by another. For instance, an hungry person will be motivated to achieve even the lowest of wages to buy food before worrying about having a secure job contract or the respect of others. People are not motivated in the same way and do not all move up the pyramid at the same pace, therefore incentives being given to employees should vary so as to assist them in fulfilling each need and move up the pyramid.
Herzberg's two-factor theory
According to Frederick Herzberg, motivation at work is based on two factors.
1. Motivators: factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to better. These factors are more concerned with the actual job itself and its responsibilities as well as prospects for promotion, recognition and achievement. Such factors include career advancement and the achievement.
2. Hygiene factors: factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder. These factors 'surround the job' rather than the job itself, examples include salary and the working condition.
Herzberg believed that jobs do not motivate people but the environment that the organisation gives them to work in and to get the best out of people, employers should facilitate work environments that are conducive to employee satisfaction, harmony and productivity. Managers can however use the following methods to achieve this:
Job enlargement - giving a greater variety of tasks to employees to perform. This will make the work more exciting.
Job enrichment - involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement.
Empowerment- conveying more authority to employees to make decisions over areas of their working life.
Reiss Theory (Intrinsic motivation)
Professor Steven Reiss proposed a theory that found sixteen basic desires that guide nearly all human behaviour, motivates individual's act and define personalities as:
Acceptance, the need for approval
Curiosity, the need to learn
Eating, the need for food
Family, the need to raise children
Honour, the need to be loyal to traditional values
Idealism, the need for social justice
Independence, the need for individuality
Order, the need for organized, stable, predictable environments
Physical activity, the need for exercise
Power, the need for influence of will
Romance, the need for sex
Saving, the need to collect
Social contact, the need for friends (peer relationships)
Social status, the need for social standing/importance
Tranquility, the need to be safe
Vengeance, the need to strike back/to win
In this model, people differ in these basic desires because they represent in-built desires that directly motivate a person's behaviour, and not aimed at indirectly satisfying other desires.
Incentive theory of motivation
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A reward is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behaviour) with the intent to cause the behaviour to occur again. Motivation comes from two sources: oneself (intrinsic motivation), and other people (extrinsic motivation)
Reinforcers and reinforcement principles of behaviour differ from the hypothetical construct of reward. A reinforcer is any stimulus change following a response that increases the future frequency of that response. Reinforcement can either be positive or negative. Negative reinforcement involves stimulus change consisting of the removal of an aversive stimulus following a response. Positive reinforcement involves a stimulus change consisting of the presentation or magnification of an appetitive stimulus following a response.
The role of leadership and management in employee motivation
High performance is achieved by well-motivated people who are prepared to exercise discretionary effort (Armstrong, 2009). As leaders and managers who wants to motivate employees, it is essential to understand how motivation works first before motivating others. It is also essential to motivating oneself and set the direction independently followed by taking a course of action that ensures the achievement o set goals. Motivation is a goal-directed behaviour because employees are motivated when they look forward to a course of action that leads to the achievement of a goal and a valued reward which in-turn satisfies their
needs and wants.
A leader has the power to influence motivation. The following principles is a guide to motivating others.
Be motivated yourself: be positive and be enthusiastic.
Select people who are highly motivated: be on the lookout for employees who show eagerness for the business and steady commitment in their actions.
Treat each employee as an individual: observe each employee individually to identify motivates them the more.
Set realistic and challenging targets: set goals and targets that achieve the task and develop the workforce at the same time.
Encourage feedbacks: ensure that there is a steady feedback from both employees and clients in order to know if progress is being made. A positive feedback is needed to show that everyone is moving in the right direction towards the achievement of the set goals.
Create a motivating atmosphere: as leaders, it is expected that one work together with others in order to create an interesting and stimulating and challenging workplace.
Provision of fair rewards: even though it is not always possible to ensure equity in pay, salaries and bonuses, however, the perception of unfair rewards does have a demotivating effect on the workforce. Rewards generally should match the value of contribution of work done.
Recognise achievers: as a good leader, there is a need to always show recognition to all employees. Where the work of people is valued there is always motivation to do it and do it well.
Performance management is a systematic process for improving organisational performance
by developing the performance of individuals and teams. It is a means of getting better results
by understanding and managing performance within an agreed framework of planned goals,
standards and competency requirements (Armstrong, 2009). The following performance management techniques will be analysed to see how they may be used to motivate employees to take actions which in-turn leads to the attainment of goals and achievement of organisational performance.
Goal setting: there is a need to focus on a goal(s) in order to maintain motivation. Goal setting is essential to guiding one through a process of change and achievement of success. It can be used to self-influence own motivation. Achievement of goals leads to satisfaction and non-achievement leads to less or non-satisfaction. This achievement must be reinforced by guidance and advise as well as feedback to maintain motivation.
The relationship between motivation and goal setting as well as the achievement of goal is very important in the achievement of organisation performance and management.
Reward: is the provision of financial and non-financial incentives and recognition for
successful innovations, it is one of an organisation's approach for managing its employee. Rewarding the input of each employee/team or group for reaching goals is paramount in order to manage the workforce as employee are motivated by the reward they believe will be received for completing tasks.
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Job design and characteristics: Intrinsic motivation can come from the work itself. People become motivated when provided with the means of achieving their goals. Work provides the means to achieve these personal goals, earn money needed to satisfy basic needs. Intrinsic motivation which leads to high performance can be enhanced by job design which should provide a considerable level of intrinsic satisfaction. Each job should be designed in a way such that it ensures flexibility, commitment and motivation and also be able to make employees feel that their work is important, interesting and challenging and provides them with a reasonable degree of autonomy (freedom to act), opportunities to achieve and advance, and scope to use and develop their skills and abilities.