Herzberg and Maslow's Motivational Theories Asssignment

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TASK 1

The essay discusses about two motivational theories one is Herzberg and another is Maslow. Herzberg theory is called two factors theory and Maslow’s theory is called Maslow’s needs (Mullins, 2010). The essay is also discusses about how the supermarket manager motivate his staff by using these two motivation theories.

Herzberg two factor of motivation theory was established in 1959 by Frederick Herzberg one is hygiene factors such as; salary, job security, working conditions, level and quality of supervision, company policy and administration and interpersonal relation. Another is motivators it can be; sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, nature of the work and personal growth and advancement. Hygiene factor demotivate an employee if no present. Dissatisfaction could be barred by improvements by hygiene factors but these improvements cannot provide motivation alone. On the other hand Herzberg claimed that to motivate an employee there were certain factors that a business could present directly that makes him or her feel satisfied in the workplace is called motivators. In job sector motivators are more anxious. For instance how interesting the work is and how much opportunity it provides for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion. On the other hand hygiene factors are setting the job. For example a worker will only improve at work if a business give him a reasonable level of pay and safe working conditions but these factors will not motivate him at his job once he is there needs (Mullins, 2010).

Herzberg believed that there are some certain systems through the actual job that can motivate business employees by accepting an independent tactic to management and by improving the nature and content. That’s are; job enlargement means workers being given various tasks to perform which make the work more interesting. On the other hand job enrichment that involves worker being given a wider range of more multifaceted, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement. Finally empowerment means giving rights to the workers to make their own decisions over areas of their working life. The manager of a supermarket can motivate his employees by giving attention to hygiene factors and motivators. For example; pay might be one source of happiness but if employees are happy at their workplace then they can be motivated because staff can being get more important services in their fulfilling working environment. However empowerment can motivate staff in work place. For instance; manager can give rights to his worker for taking decision and also giving responsibility. Manager can holds forums every year in which staff can be part of the discussions on pay rises. This shows respect of the work supermarket manager do and rewards them. Staff can even influence what food goes onto its restaurant menus. Employees thus become motivated to make choices that will increase their use of the restaurant’s needs (Mullins, 2010).

Motivation is the procedure to fulfil individual needs and indicates to engage in certain specified behaviours. The characteristics of motivation is it can be an individual fact or multifaceted. However sometimes it is claimed, normally, as international. Moreover motivational theories are forecast behaviour. To motivate people at first need to know what motivates them it can be economic rewards such as pay, pension rights, bonuses etc. On the other hand it can social relationships such as friendships, group working, and status and so on. Maslow’s motivation theory motivated human being by unsatisfied needs. It happens when the lower needs are satisfied before the higher needs. According to Maslow there are some basic needs which human being must need to achieved otherwise they cannot motivated. These needs are called ‘deficiency needs’ by Maslow (Steers and Porter, 1991).

Those needs are maintain human life are called physiological needs. These needs are; water, food, sleep, air. If a person is not fulfil his physiological needs he or she cannot be motivated. On the other hand a person can fall into serious health condition. When a person satisfied with physiological needs then he or she goes for safety and security needs. These needs help people from any emotional and physical harm. These needs are; job security, medical insurance, financial reserves, health and safety etc (Steers and Porter, 1991). The supermarket manager should give his staff according to their preferable places. He also need to provide his worker regular monthly pay and provides some kinds of facilities like personal locker or restaurant. The manager have to provide the security of formal contracts of employment for example sickness and pension. He also need to confirm about the health and safety in his work place. Then when a person fulfil his or her lower two basic needs then he or she can move into first level pf higher need which is called social needs. These needs are also help a person to communicate with others. Some example of social needs are; love, friendship, belonging to a group etc (Mullins, 2010). The supermarket manager have to encourage his staff about team and group working. It helps his worker to work as a team and it is also helpful for his supermarket needs.

However esteem needs are two types like internal motivators and external motivators. Accomplishment, self-esteem and self-respect are called internal motivating needs. On the other hand reputation and recognition are called external esteem needs (Mullins, 2010). The manager have to value emphasise self-respect and also he need to respect his workers. However the manager have to appreciate his staff for hard work. Sometime he need to give them feedback and give judgement to acknowledge individuals influence and importance and celebrate achievement. He need to offer his staff for Personal Development Plans to identify skills and talents. The manager give opportunity for promotion and career progression programme. Finally self-actualization is the higher level of needs of Maslow’s theory. When a person fulfil his four basic needs then he or she reach for these needs. These needs are never fully satisfied there are always some new opportunities to grow for these needs. Self-actualization person have a habit of like wisdom, truth, justice and meaning etc (Mullins, 2010).It is about how people think about them self. The manager need to measure his staff success and also their challenge at work. When the manager can find about his staff reached he can give them awards by doing this he can motivate his staff’s needs.

These two motivational theories are very helpful for manager to motivate his staffs. These two theories help his worker to work in his company as a team and also help to run his supermarket properly. However these theories are must require for any other organisation.

TASK 2

In this task the essay discusses Belbin team roles and Tuckman theories. This essay also discusses how manager can apply Belbin team roles to motivate his workers. However the task also discusses about Tuckman theories and how manager can apply this theories in his work place.

Black (2009) clams about Belbin’s team role means a systematic way to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a specific way. Plants created ideas or new proposals. It also solve difficult problems in a work place. The monitor evaluator are analysing problems, evaluating ideas and always make the right decisions. However co-ordinator clarify goals, promote decisions and involve others in appropriate ways. Then implementers they are disciplined, systematic and love structure. Moreover completer finishers are perfectionists who ensure that every details is correct. Then resources investigator they are good at exploring and reporting back on ideas, communicative and explore opportunities outside the group. On the other hand shapers are generate action and make things happen. But team worker are diplomatic, popular and avert friction. Furthermore specialist they are professionally dedicated, single minded and are prepared to build up their knowledge (Black, 2009).

According to Belbin (1993) and Black (2009) shapers are shapers are generate action and make things happen. The manger always need to take challenge to improve his team. He has to be self-motivated and demonstrative person. He enjoy while motivating his workers and finding the best way for solving problems. The manager shakes things up to make sure that all possibilities are considered and that the team does not become complacent. He need to often see barriers as exciting challenges and he manage his worker who faces problems. There are some weaknesses that may be argumentative, and that he may upset people's feelings managers have to look at this problem. Then completer finishers are perfectionists who ensure that every details is correct (Black, 2009). The manager should be a complete finisher. He can complete his project at any critical condition. The manager make sure that there have been no errors or lapses and he give attention to the each and every single task. He will be all time worried with deadlines and all time push his worker to make sure the job is completed on time. He described as perfectionists who is respectively, conscientious, and anxious.

However team worker are diplomatic, popular and stop friction (Belbin, 1993). The supermarket manager give support and make sure that people within the team are working together effectively. He also has to fill the role of speaker within the team. He has to be very capable in his own right, but sometimes he needs to give priority to his team unity and help his worker who is getting along. The weaknesses of teamwork may be a tendency to be ensure, and to maintain uncommitted positions during discussions and decision-making. The supermarket manager need to focus on that otherwise his team cannot perform well and his supermarket cannot earn profits. Moreover plants created ideas or new proposals. It also solve difficult problems in a work place (Belbin, 1993). The manager should be a creative innovator and he needs to come up with new ideas and tactics. He has to succeed on compliment but criticism is especially hard for them to deal with. He always introverted and prefer to work apart from the team because his ideas are so novel, but he can be impractical at times.

Belbin (1993) claims implementer’s means who are disciplined, systematic and love structure. The manager have to trying all time to get his task done properly on time. He has to support his team's ideas and concepts into practical actions and plans. The manager has to be typically conservative and disciplined. He needs to work systematically and efficiently and are very well organized. On the downside, Implementers may be inflexible and can be somewhat resistant to change so manager have to focus on this and need to avoid this weaknesses. Finally coordinators in this role the manager can take on traditional team-leader roles and have also been discussed to as the chairmen (Black, 2009). He or she then can guide his team to what they can perceive are the main objectives of the team for its benefits. Co-ordinators are always excellent listeners and they are naturally able to recognize the values that their own team members can bring on board to the sector. The role requires her/him calm and good-natured and delegate tasks very effectively to suitable members. Their potential weaknesses can be that the giveaway too much personal responsibility, and can be seen as manipulative (Black, 1993).The supermarket manager need to guide his team to what they can perceive are the main objectives of the team for its benefits. He should be a good listener and he should able to recognize the values that his team members can bring on board to the sector. The role requires of the manager should be calm and good-natured. However he need to delegate his tasks very effectively to suitable members.

Dr Bruce Tuckman published his Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing model, this was in 1965. In terms of team development and behaviour, The Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing model provides a helpful explanation into these sectors. As a team develops in maturity and ability, relationships begin to establish, and also the leadership changes due to the leader, this is suggested by Tuckman’s model. Opening with a directing style, then moving through coaching, after that participating, then finishing delegating and almost detached. At this point a new leader can be appointed by the team who provides success. The previous leader can now move on to develop another team (Tuckman and Jensen 1977).

Tuckman and Jensen {1977) claims according to Tuckman theory that forming help to create a team it helps to accept person’s attitude that they want from others and avoid conflict. This stage is very important because team member can know each other, make new friends, sharing personal information etc. The manager of the supermarket can give direction and guidance to his staff. Manager have to prepare answer lots of questions about the team's purpose, objectives and external relationships. Then storming help to grow the team. To perform well as a team the members of the team need to tolerate each other and also need to keep patience. When they keep doing these things they can perform well. The team needs to be focused on its goals to avoid becoming distracted by relationships and emotional issues. Compromises may be required to enable progress.

However norming is the process for team to set up their goal and ambition. All team members have only one goal and same ambition. Sometimes they give up or unwilling to share ideas because of their different goals and ambitions. But they have to avoid it otherwise they cannot work as a team. The manager need to set up goals and ambition for his staff. Finally performing stage it helps teams to do their job properly without any problem. In this stage members are motivated and acknowledgeable. They can make their own decision and handle their problems without supervision. At this phase all supervisors are participative. Most decisions which are necessary will made by the team. Sometimes the team can resort back to earlier stages in certain circumstances, this can be true even for the highest performing teams. The long standing teams are the ones that go through these steps and can react to changing circumstances. For example, a change in leadership may cause the team to go to the ‘storming’ stage, this is mainly due to people challenging the existing norms and team dynamics (Tuckman and Jensen 1977).

Belbin team roles and Tuckman theories are very helpful for manager to motivate his worker. These roles help his staff to work as a team and perform well. By applying these roles company can also perform well and get profits.

REFERENCES:

Belbin, R. M. 1993.Team roles at work. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Black, A. (2009).The Belbin Guide to Succeeding at Work. London: A&C Black.

Fall, Kevin A., and Tamara J. Wejnert. (2005) "Co-leader stages of development: An application of Tuckman and Jensen (1977)."The Journal for Specialists in Group Work30.4, pp. 309-327.

Mullins, L. J. (2010).Management and organisational behaviour. 9th ed. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Steers, R. M. and Porter, L. W. (1991). Motivation and Work Behaviour, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill.

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