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Part 1: Base Component (BAC)
Google Inc. is an American multinational public corporation invested in Internet search, cloud computing, and advertising technologies. Google hosts and develops a number of Internet-based services and products, and generates profit primarily from advertising. The company was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin on September 4, 1998, while the two were attending Stanford University as PhD candidates. On August 19, 2004, the company transferred to a public share holding company. At that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for twenty years, until the year 2024.
Google runs over one million servers in data centers around the world, and processes over one billion search requests. Google's rapid growth since its incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond the company's core web search engine. The company offers online productivity software, such as its Gmail email service, and social networking tools. Google's products extend to the desktop as well, with applications such as the web browser Google Chrome, the Picasa photo organization and editing software, and the Google Talk instant messaging application. Google-owned sites such as YouTube and Blogger are also from the top visited websites the world.
History of Google
Beginning in 1996, Stanford University graduate students Larry Page and Sergey Brin built a search engine called “BackRub” that used links to determine the importance of individual web pages. In 1997 and after some brainstorming, they go with Google - a play on the word “googol,” a mathematical term for the number represented by the numeral 1 followed by 100 zeros. The use of the term reflects their mission to organize a seemingly infinite amount of information on the web. By 1998 they had formalized their work, creating the company you know today as Google. Originally, Google ran under the Stanford University website, with the domain google.stanford.edu.
The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997 and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. It was based in a friend's garage in Menlo Park, California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee.
Since then, Google has grown by leaps and bounds. From offering search in a single language we now offer dozens of products and services - including various forms of advertising and web applications for all kinds of tasks - in scores of languages. And starting from two computer science students in a university dorm room, we now have thousands of employees and offices around the world.
Financing and initial public offering
The first iteration of Google production servers was built with inexpensive hardware. The first funding for Google was an August 1998 contribution of US$100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Google was even incorporated. Early in 1999, while still graduate students, Brin and Page decided that the search engine they had developed was taking up too much of their time from academic pursuits. They went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1million, but he rejected the offer.
Google's initial public offering (IPO) took place five years later on August 19, 2004. The company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share. The sale of $1.67billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23billion. The vast majority of the 271million shares remained under the control of Google, and many Google employees became instant paper millionaires. Yahoo!, a competitor of Google, also benefited because it owned 8.4million shares of Google before the IPO took place. The stock's performance after the IPO went well, with shares hitting $700 for the first time on October 31, 2007, primarily because of strong sales and earnings in the online advertising market.
Some people speculated that Google's IPO would inevitably lead to changes in company culture. Reasons ranged from shareholder pressure for employee benefit reductions to the fact that many company executives would become instant paper millionaires. Co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page promised in a report to potential investors that Google would not change the company's culture. In an effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google designated a Chief Culture Officer, who also serves as the Director of Human Resources. The purpose of the Chief Culture Officer is to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on: a flat organization with a collaborative environment.
In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, California, home to several other noted Silicon Valley technology startups. In 2000, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords. In order to maintain an uncluttered page design and increase speed, advertisements were solely text-based. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bids and click-throughs, with bidding starting at five cents per click.
During this time, Google was granted a patent describing its PageRank mechanism. The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor. In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased its current office complex from Silicon Graphics at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex has since come to be known as the Googleplex. Three years later, Google would buy the property from SGI for $319million. By that time, the name "Google" had found its way into everyday language.
Acquisitions and partnerships
Since 2001, Google has acquired many companies, mainly focusing on small venture capital companies. In 2004, Google acquired Keyhole, Inc. The start-up company developed a product called Earth Viewer that gave a 3-D view of the Earth. Google renamed the service to Google Earth in 2005. Two years later, Google bought the online video site YouTube for $1.65billion in stock. On April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick for $3.1billion, giving Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies. Later that same year, Google purchased GrandCentral for $50million. The site would later be changed over to Google Voice.
In addition to the numerous companies Google has purchased, the company has partnered with other organizations for everything from research to advertising. In 2005, Google partnered with NASA Ames Research Center to build 1,000,000square feet (93,000 m2) of offices. The offices would be used for research projects involving large-scale data management, nanotechnology, distributed computing, and the entrepreneurial space industry. Later that year, Google entered into a partnership with Sun Microsystems in October 2005 to help share and distribute each other's technologies. The company also partnered with AOL of Time Warner, to enhance each other's video search services. Increasing advertising reach even further, Google and Fox Interactive Media of News Corporation entered into a $900million agreement to provide search and advertising on popular social networking site MySpace.
In October 2006, Google announced that it had acquired the video-sharing site YouTube for US$1.65billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006. Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing. In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 YouTube revenue at US$200million, noting progress in advertising sales.
In 2008, Google developed a partnership with GeoEye to launch a satellite providing Google with high-resolution (0.41 m monochrome, 1.65 m color) imagery for Google Earth. The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on September 6, 2008. Google also announced in 2008 that it was hosting an archive of Life Magazine's photographs as part of its latest partnership. Some of the images in the archive were never published in the magazine. The photos were watermarked and originally had copyright notices posted on all photos, regardless of public domain status.
Products and services
The Google User Experience team aims to create designs that are useful, fast, simple, engaging, innovative, universal, profitable, beautiful, trustworthy, and personable. Achieving a harmonious balance of these ten principles is a constant challenge. A product that gets the balance right and will satisfy and delight people all over the world.
Co-founder Larry Page once described the “perfect search engine” as something that “understands exactly what you mean and gives you back exactly what you want.” We can't claim that Google delivers on that vision 100 percent today, but we're always working on new technologies aimed at bringing all of Google closer to that ideal.
When you type a query into the Google search box, your query is sent to Google machines and compared with all the documents stored in our index to identify the most relevant matches. In a split second, the system prepares a list of the most relevant pages and also determines the relevant sections and bits of text, images, videos and more.
As Larry said long ago, we want to give you back “exactly what you want.”
Online advertising has come a long way since the first banner ads appeared on the web. In the last 15 years, online advertising has evolved more than any other form of traditional advertising as the Internet and its users evolved. While Google's advertising programs have evolved with the industry, it provides ads that are so useful and relevant that they serve as a form of information on their own.
With AdWords, for example, advertisers select words and phrases that are relevant to their business as keywords. When people use Google to search for keywords, relevant ads may be displayed alongside the search results. We use an auction to price these ads, which runs automatically every time a user enters a query. Advertisers pay only when a user clicks on their ad, and our system guarantees that they pay the minimum amount necessary to maintain their ad position. They can also immediately track the results of their campaigns.
In the past, the computer applications that people used to connect, communicate and collaborate with others - like email, word processing, calendars and spreadsheets - would have to be “installed” on your computer. This software would live on your computer, jamming it up with old files and outdated versions of the same software. And you'd continually have to upgrade your programs manually whenever a new version came on the market. These are the kinds of problems that cloud computing technology avoids altogether.
With cloud computing, the apps themselves live “in the cloud”: on the web, so you don't need any special software or hardware to use them as long as you have an Internet connection. As a result, you can access your stuff from anywhere, using any device with a browser: smartphones, netbooks, laptops. You don't need to worry about whether an app is compatible with your computer or about upgrades and downloads. Your files are safe and you can invite anyone to share your files or keep them private. If you're collaborating on something, each of you can work in the same document, without having to save, attach and email version after version, risking the loss of important updates.
This is all possible because the applications and the data associated with them is stored on Google's machines, rather than on your desktop hard drive or on servers maintained by your company. Google will keep live copies of your data on multiple servers in each of multiple locations, meaning that there's no scheduled downtime and your data is backed up and secure.
Mobile and Android
Mobile devices are fast becoming the world's portal to information, and google is working to develop its own products so they can be used on these small computing devices. For many, a mobile phone is the primary or even the only means of accessing the web, so designing our products to be accessible on mobile devices is a key part of making information available to more people around the world. Google built mobile applications, such as Google Maps and Gmail that is working across multiple devices and locations.
Android is a free, open source mobile platform that any developer can use and any handset manufacturer can install.
Google introduced Google Chrome in September 2008 as they believe that a modern browser, designed to handle today's complex, dynamic web, would be better for users and would lead to greater innovation. Google Chrome built based on three ideas: speed, simplicity and security.
Corporate affairs and culture
Google has grown a lot since it opened in 1998, we still maintain a small company feel. At lunchtime, almost everyone eats in the office cafÃÂ©, sitting at whatever table has an opening and enjoying conversations with different teams. Google's commitment to innovation depends on everyone being comfortable sharing ideas and opinions. Every employee is a hands-on contributor, and everyone wears several hats.
Google is aggressively inclusive in our hiring, and favor ability over experience. They have offices around the world and dozens of languages are spoken by Google staff. The result is a team that reflects the global audience Google serves. Google is always looking for those who share a commitment to creating search perfection and having a great time doing it.
The corporate headquarters, is nicknamed as the Googleplex, is located in Mountain View, California. While Google offices are not identical, they tend to share some essential elements. Here are a few things you might see in a Google workspace:
- Local expressions of each location showcasing each office's region and personality.
- Bicycles or scooters for efficient travel between meetings; dogs; lava lamps; massage chairs; large inflatable balls are all available.
- Staff sharing cubes, huddle rooms and very few solo offices.
- Laptops everywhere, standard issue for mobile coding, email on the go and note-taking.
- Pool tables, volleyball courts, assorted video games, pianos, ping pong tables, and gyms that offer yoga and dance classes.
- Grassroots employee groups for all interests, like meditation, film, and dancing.
- Healthy lunches and dinners for all staff at a variety of cafÃÂ©s.
- Break rooms packed with a variety of snacks and drinks to keep staff going.
Part 2: Environmental Analysis Report (EAR)
Google Inc passed through several challenges since its establishment in 1998. They had several issues that they have to adopt with, success in, change and carry out. It started with programming, finance, productivity, innovation & initiatives, be a pioneer in the market, introduce new technologies, Acquisitions and partnerships.
Larry Page and Sergey Brin built a search engine called “BackRub” that used links to determine the importance of individual web pages. That was a challenge for them, because all the search engines was working at that time based on searching for “meta” - hidden keywords or phrases, programmers put at the top of each individual HTML page that describes what is in that page.ÂÂ In 1997 and after some brainstorming, they go with Google. The use of the term reflects their mission to organize a seemingly infinite amount of information on the web. That determines how intelligent Google search engine that match exactly what people wants to search with what is available in the internet web pages. As Larry said long ago, “we want to give you back exactly what you want”. The key points in developing the search engine are relevance, comprehensiveness, freshness and speed.
Since then, Google has grown by leaps and bounds. From offering search in a single language we now offer dozens of products and services - including various forms of advertising and web applications for all kinds of tasks - in scores of languages.
The first iteration of Google production servers was built with inexpensive hardware. The first funding for Google was in August 1998 as a contribution of US$100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Google was even incorporated. Finance is a challenge by itself especially with IT projects as it is most likely to be expensive and takes long time to get profit. Early 1999, Brin and Page went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1million, but he rejected the offer.
Google's initial public offering (IPO) took place five years later on August 19, 2004. The company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share. The sale of $1.67billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23billion. The vast majority of the 271million shares remained under the control of Google, and many Google employees became instant paper millionaires.
In order to grow in this fast growing world in the field of IT, Google has to enter another market other than its standard web search services. Google has released over the years a number of online productivity tools such as Gmail, a free webmail service provided by Google. Gmail was launched as an invitation only beta program on April 1, 2004, and became available to the general public on February 7, 2007. Gmail attracted users by having a simple and fast interface with 1 gigabite storage quota for free, while other competitors were limiting the users to 1 to 5 Mb only for free. Gmail currently offers over 7400 MB of free storage with additional storage ranging from 20 GB to 16 TB available for US$0.25 per 1 GB per year.
Google Docs, another part of Google's productivity suite, allows users to create, edit, and collaborate on documents in an online environment, not dissimilar to Microsoft Word. On June 6, Google created an experimental spreadsheet editing program, which would be combined with Google Docs on October 10. A program to edit presentations would complete the set on September 17, 2007, before all three services were taken out of beta along with Gmail, Google Calendar and all products from the Google Apps Suite on July 7, 2009.