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No doubts that any investment company in business sector is seeking for increasing revenue, minimizing expenses in general visualisation, (Fontaine 2004) using tens of theories, concepts, and models, acquiring exact styles and methodologies, consequently from such multipart and complex topic, this paper examines motivational tolls which are used in the given organisation, from the launch date till current time, and to what extent its efficiency, reflect and support employee performance, as well, it is crucial to examine; employment selection & recruitment, Training, Quality Control, performance monitoring, Human Resources / Employee services, competition, organization culture, nation culture, further, as claimed by (Chew & Horwitz 2004:33)
"High performance work systemsâ€¦ include targeted and rigorous recruitment and selection procedures, performance-contingent incentive compensation systems, management development, flexible benefits and training activities aligned with a firm's business and strategic initiatives"
And other aspects have a direct and indirect influence into this direction.
Recently, As per Kim (2009:430)
"new quality is the management quality, which includes process, systems, structure, and cultureâ€¦. quality will become more diverse and complex than ever before. Consequently, quality measurements will vary depending upon the nature of a service: satisfaction, performance, maintenance, adaptation, trustworthiness, etc"
For now, Case study in this document is for Etihad Etisalat Telecommunication Corporation 'Mobily' Head Quarter located in Riyadh, capital of Saudi Arabia '2,000,000 sq km- population in thousands 24,807' (World Health Org. 2008).
Mobily provides mobile voice services' and data solutions', Its start is back to March, 25th 2005, as a 2nd operator in the country, after 7 years establishment of the 1st governmental operator 'Saudi telecommunication Company-STC' in Telecommunication industry, moreover, before 2 years of inflowing the 3rd and last operator 'Zain' to the field, till time of writing this document, Mobily has got the working license only 6 months prior to the official launch, which is considered an outstanding record in speech of readiness to come on air in that time, then, within 6 months later; to establish 1500 cell towers and work base stations' covering 34 cities against 14 cities had committed to gain the license, regularly, this work takes years, while Mobily has grew rapidly by working round the clock to meet its objectives, especially after signing 4 major contracts in that time with Motorola, Ericsson, Alcatel, and Huauwai to build up a high convenient infrastructure (Rasooldeen 2005). The bid has seen a high competition between 9 conglomerates; Oger -Saudi, Telefonica -Spain, Orascom-Egypt, Telecom-Italia, MTC -Kuwait, Vodafone-UK, Telekom- Austria, T-Mobile - Germany, and finally Etisalat- UAE, the winning bidder for running the second operator in Saudi, as well, the mother company of Mobily (Cousins 2004).
Subsequently, Performance Management has started to employ different collection of employment for various functions, as well, they fussily have succeeded in mixing between fresh graduated, and expert from different fields from local market, focusing on very important factor should be available, which is a self-confident candidate, as cited by Shane et al (2003:267)
"An individual with high self-efficacy for a given task will exert more effort for a greater length of time, persist through set backs, set and accept higher goals, and develop better plans and strategies for the task. A person with high self-efficacy will also take negative feedback in a more positive manner and use that feedback to improve their performance".
Furthermore, they targeted multinational expert candidates using a third certified employer working in the designated foreign country, to head-haunting specialists, with high adaptability characters, as argued by (Mol et al 2005:612)
"Within the expatriate context, it thus seems that extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness contribute to successful job performance: being assertive, stable, dutiful, not shy, easilyworried, or nervous seem to be indicators of success in the foreign assignment"
As well, Mobily has reached almost 3666 employees within 4 years life of the company till time of producing this subject, Alsheikh (2009).
While Taylor has identified measures for workers rates combined to their productivity as known by scientific management which depend on job requirement, administrative management according to Fayol is about assessing performance depending on job enlargement, obtain subordinate more authority, initiatives, in short, working within teamwork spirit (Amaratunga & Baldry 2002), in fact Mobily management has tried hard to build up such skilful team.
Generally, It was well functioned to pursue using a directive management in beginning of company kick off, as discussed by Cruz et al (1999) directive management is a task focused, monitoring control, has less tendency for discussion, strong dedication to meet targets, and dominate communication, thus, management has harnessed a charismatic domination to deliver certain objectives to be achieved as mentioned by (Linstead et al 2004:12), charismatic character is more or less to be similar to a military environment, though, top management has got the reins of power, in a way to establish a quick and informative ground base of customers, also, to build a trustful reputation, between the company, employee, and customer, unitary, as cited by (Meyer et al 2004:1004)
"If empowerment practices are ineffective, they could be replaced by directive leadership practices that, by emphasizing the instrumental nature of the relationship, would promote continuance commitment. Thus, the effects of empowerment practices on behavior may depend on the nature of the commitment they produce".
Clearly, that was appeared in producing different and variety of services, products, bundles, and promotions, which gave customers lots of choices, but by time, from author point of view, that has led to some ambiguity in vision, where everything was going so fast, also, uncertainty of where we are going? What we are looking for? That was due to lack of communication and transparency between middle management and subordinates, caused by boundaries of subsystems and hierarchy of authority, which forbid in some times the positive feedback from associated followers, and especially if it is opposite status quo, using one way communication from top to bottom, consequently, the gab has getting bigger and bigger, precisely, some department focused on results rather than humanity, and reference to theory X/Y as argued by Douglas McGregor (Kopelman et al 2008), if the management assumption towards subordinates, worthless, unreliable, and has the trait of closed monitoring, employees will perceive and meet these perceptions, adversely if the management provide support, reflecting trustful attitude, employee's behavior would react accordingly and positively in a productive approach.
From author standpoint, this issue could be conquered by producing more workshops for co-workers besides clear communications about company objectives` and vision, with more clarity and disclosure of management plans, start addressing employee requirements and concerns individually.
later, management has concentrated more on employee satisfaction and benefits, to fulfil increasingly employee`s escalated issues', which emerged in some actions such as; scholarship for both high education and post graduation stages, which encourage sufficient number of employees, motivate them, and retain others in the same time, in addition, expansion of the medical coverage for expatriates to include their home country, besides education allowance for employee`s children -starting from first line of supervisory level, underneath middle management- altogether, these tangible and intangible benefits made Mobily has a challengeable environment which make it attractive for labour market in the region, this diversity in treatment, is back to the changes happened in the management to mix between charismatic and traditional organisation, openly, more tendency to the latter than the former, wherein clearly appeared in some major actions such as decentralisation of management, and establishment of regional administration with competent authority and empowerment, shortly, making work atmosphere more enjoyably, which has effect strongly on employee`s satisfaction and productivity, rising company performance up (Krames 2003), besides saving time and effort which enhance competition position and quicker reaction in many situations.
Specifically, management has a tendency to pursue a transformational type, where argued by (Scates 2003, p.42):
"Visionaries with an inspirational approach. They have the ability to communicate a coherent and acceptable goal, that the organisation can identify with and which provokes intense emotion in employees".
From such, the most anxious issue that some individuals would undertake this diversity of management, in inappropriate assumption for normative and political concerns' which prevent from its equity evaluation, especially, that very little evidence has introduced a connection between diversity and organisation performance (Pitts 2006)
In the same time that most of the companies worldwide were going for cost cutting, to maintain the recession period, for example Vodafone as announced by Vittorio Colao the Chief Executive who`s prepared for a fresh round of cost deduction as articulated by Parker (2009), Mobily has believed in humanity, its power, and skill`s investment, consequently, management has approved a huge budget to supply each employee with 2 training courses annually, albeit, here author viewpoint, it isn't enough for a strong organisation, recently, still recall what was claimed by (Echols 2009:60) about high expenditure for annual training in an organisation, when he said
"The assumption is that this number is an indication of the willingness of the organization to invest in employees, but it is actually a measure of financial activity, not a cultural measure about attitudes and values. This financial measure also fails to deal with the motivational and behavioral components of employee involvement".
On top, give the subordinate the choice to decide, what subject to take, freely, to what he/she is preparing him/herself to, Therefore, as cited by (Boselie et al 2005) that employee development and training provisions', as well, flexible of job design are in a challengeable situation to the organisation performance and employee motivation, furthermore, as mentioned by Dysvik & Kuvaas (2008) within work environment the intrinsic motivation is mediating and moderating the relationship between perceived training and employee performance, which justify sought of Mobily management for training people.
Additionally, and according to Hardre (2003:63)
"failure to support autonomy â€¦ of individuals within an organizational or instructional hierarchy reduces the potential for quality learning and skills mastery".
afterwards, an intranet forum has been created following to management instruction's to discuss numerous of subordinates`, concerns, and issues, moreover, further actions have been taken towards subordinates` ideas, in author opinion, it does really enhanced the work environment, Consequently, packets of restricted processes have been taken to ensure high standard of performance quality, which emerged by expansion of internal audit and business continuously departments along with external auditors, and mystery shopping reports, in which, all of that have taken a considerable place on the strategic plans of the senior management and their performance assessment, also included in the balance scorecard.
as well, the management has implemented CEO certificate as a rewarding motivation, hence, from author point of view, the negative effect came from the sudden implementation without a prior explicitly notification, or a clear communication even more, it was declared by management in a late time with retrospective effect, for both awarding and punishment records', which cause remonstration in some groups, therefore, grievance process has been modified to face increasingly number of complaints, again, a suggestion here that management should intensively conduct awareness communication, then, seeking for subordinate feedback to ensure a satisfactory level of knowledge, asserting preponderance of positive affect than the negative one.
Rapidly, management has identified in an early stage the necessity for the change and innovation, but what to change? and what to innovate? and why?
For such multinational corporation as Mobily, gathering numbers of different cultures having their own traditions, and from different places all over the world, thus, the management has contracted a partnership with Dale Carnegie one of the world`s leading consultation training centre, aiming to assist in building up an unique organisation`s culture and values, sustain constantly a unified direction, synchronisation, comfortable, and satisfactory environment, especially in confront of turnover, and to retain qualified people, hence, the program has started concurrently with the entering of the third operator in 2007 into the field continuously till the current time, as said by Peter Handal CEO of Dale Carnegie
"We are delighted to recognize Mobily for its ongoing commitment to the development of a corporate culture based on their six values: Open, Respect, Energy, Progressive, Contemporary and Success, that foster trust-based empowerment at all levels of the organization" (Arab News 2009).
From author viewpoint, it was a value added point to the company profile, introducing all employees an ongoing training, emphasis on organisation`s six values, which reflect positively on internal environment and performance, also influence on extrinsic motivation for the most of subordinates, and here, a question arises; why would any company go for taking such effort and expenses to recognise its own culture? and to maintain the answer, it is important to denote and identify the meaning of high performance culture, and according to (Rosenthal and Masarech 2003) the main components of organisation culture is an organisation`s behaviours and practices, it is about clear organisation`s vision which reflect on its decisions, inspiring employees, influence on stakeholders, and sustain customer`s loyalty as well, in which, to constrain a high organisation performance on both levels; organisation`s results, and organisation`s culture establishment, where it enhance employee`s commitment, as well, to pull together individual interests` around mutual objectives and unified goals, again, back to the diversity occurred in management style, where has shown in Weber`s opinion as cited by (Adair-Toteff 2007) that basically revolve about ethics of responsibility wherein Mobily has been adopted without tendency to favouritism or antagonism. reference to Herzberg theory argued by (Linstead et al 2004:143), where categorise influence on employee productivity in two factors; motivators and hygiene, extraordinarily, expected funds in return has placed in hygiene group, on the contrary of scientific management, where it has considered to be the major factor of the expectancy for the individual's performance, further, as identified the motivation in the machine theory according to Reis & Pena (2001:672)
"Motivation theories in general present a carrot and a stick...incentive pay and promotions for those who produce above the norm, and a stick the omnipresent threat to fire people if they do not perform".
While Maslow hierarchy theory has came to generalize human needs, as well, to apply on professional occupation with 5 levels serialized; physiological, safety, needs for love, self esteem, and self actualization, still Mobily need to focus on the last two aspects (Linstead et al 2004:141).
Combine the above with organisation performance and productivity from side, and an attempt to identify competition to what extent Mobily has went through from another side, we can figure out increasingly the revenue, for the 3rd quarter of 2009, Mobily has achieved 49.7% increase with net revenue 807 M. Riyal '$215.2 M' (Karam 2009a), while STC the first operator has scored 20% drop for the same quarter 2.4 B. Riyal '$640 M' (Sedarat 2009), and finally Zain the third operator has posted 26.3% net loss 820 M. Riyal '$218.7 million' (Karam 2009b), which clearly shows the effort exerted to maintain such high percentage of net revenue, hence, these statistics overtly illustrates the increasingly growth of Mobily revenue, and market share, therefore emerges a successful and reputable company, surely, that this issue is very considerable on employee psychological condition's positively, specially, while the 2008 crisis cast a shadow on the global economy, which made BBC culls more than 100 of senior managers and cuts their pay as announced by the BBC Trust, aiming to reduce their total annual payment, further to attract best candidates for the job internally Sweney, M (2009)
While competition is a crucial aspect to any industry, there is another factor not less important, additionally, in author perspective it has an equivalent importance, it is the early absorption of the nation culture; what will give any company the continuity of business, sustain an indirect communication bridge between its activity and products from side and customer`s tendency and emotions from another side, what influence circumstantial to be reminded ever as a first choice whenever required for by customers, as argued by Max Weber about his understanding of social science and values by his probability character as referred by (Eliaeson 2000) the main component of ideal-type for a culture in a most simply concept is; a mix between language, religion, and habits, further, Mobily should recognise it very well, also, Mobily should prioritise and give in an early stage, a high attention to the organisation portfolio. Further, and according to (Ministry of education 2009) Saudi has shown a big diversity, about 3 decades ago and during Oil discovery, Saudi has build up its own culture, keeping in the same time its heritage, customs, and traditions, in the meantime, utilizing the technology where helped a lot in achieving marvellous development level of economy stability among the region, taking additional steps towards modernisation and globalisation, accordingly, what made Saudi now contemporary in many fields operating advanced technology.
Therefore, Mobily has jumped a big time in this way, by following lots of procedures in multi directions, relatively, one of them targeting social activity, and being an integral part of the local community, seeking for a deliberated contribution, such as open free contact for wireless access within Mobily`s network in Hajj 'pilgrims' season where about 2.5 million people are presented in the same time and same place, which enhance company residence in such important religion event (Saudi Gazette 2009a), on the other hand and in terms of sports Sponsorship, Mobily has sponsored exclusively Hilal club, most popular football club in Saudi, furthermore, Hilal club has chosen the club of the century for Asia continent, and has a huge spectators among the kingdom and middle east, where Mobily targeted this segment, though, in author standpoint there is some percentage of expected customer where Mobily lost them due to their support for other clubs naturally, moreover, Mobily has a charitable record stems from its high sense of responsibility to the society, and it does appeared for example in last Jeddah floods crisis occurred in November 2009, where hundreds of people where died and lost, in addition, its donation campaign for disabled children (Saudi Gazette 2009b), in another direction and in words of getting Saudi people the most advanced technology; Mobily has succeeded to make a diversity in the market, mainly, after a strive and rigorous competition to win at the end monopoly rights in Saudi for iPhone device the most compelled product nowadays all over the world (Saudi Gazette 2009c), which enable customers to connect to the internet with high speed connectivity, from anywhere no cables or wires but the handset, furthermore, many of applications and programs can be explored 'Compass, facebook, YouTube,...Etc', in addition to BlackBerry handset enterprise as well.
Even so, less price, variety of services, in addition to quality, all practitioner competitors', in majority, believe it or not, will be equivalent, and what will last, is the reliability in maintaining promises and organisation's behaviour, that, cannot be done without a faithful staff in organisation and leader`s behaviour, in his definition of insanity Einstein quoted by (Hyden 2009:7)
"Doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results".
in the same view, proper communication with employees and customer will uphold a positive word of mouth, hiring superior, and maintain them with appropriate training, are the most experiment effective tool for motivation, and as said by Mohammad Hassan Omran, Etisalat Chairman the mother company of Mobily "Today, Etisalat is ranked 19th among service providers around the world", in addition he added "Etisalat is proud to have 85 million subscribers now and is planning to increase the number to 100 million by next year" (Rasheed 2009).
From above vision which Mobily follows, and in terms of contribution to the national society in connection to employee motivation, the author standpoint here, is to what extent Mobily activity has went through inherently, enhance the value of the company which has significant an indirect influence on psychological state of the employee, which make the large base of the employees having more tendency to synchronise treaty with themselves firstly, and secondly environment around, thus, Mobily has introduced its six values to merge between its internal organisation culture and nation culture, as well, to unitary and improve employee`s loyalty, and in the same time develop staff performance, making work environment more comfortable and restful, identifying how to reach globalisation through localisation, as articulated by (Hofstede et al 2002),that the expected objectives for any successful company or leader suppose to demonstrate a local target is actual and solid, further as mentioned, that there are no universal goals, and globalization to leader is near to be wishes and catchwords than reality.
After all, as to aim of being Mobily heading towards a learning organisation, and from author's perception, here is an outline of some recommendations may take a place for a better future to Mobily.
First; just proclaim the organisation`s values with the mission is not the aim, while exploring them with stakeholders 'employees, customers, providers, partners..Etc' is a crux of the matter, according to (Washburn 2009) If a management focused on profit as primary goal, subordinate will perceive a short term vision, and a depressing reaction, thus, resulting in decreasing motivation, while if they experienced kind of equilibrium between task-achieved, and socialism of community, they would go for sacrifice, loyalty and extra miles.
Second; middle management requires an ongoing coaching to keep an acceptable level of implementing organisation`s believes, that`s because they've tendency of being basically result's oriented, in which to maintain their positions and keep a good record of achievement (Kominis & Emmanuel 2007).
Third to focus on enhancing intangible goals within internal competition, and encourage casual groups, for example; setting recognition programs` for a better team work achievement, also, awarding system for best department in terms of fewer results of turnover, what`s more, circulation of announcement 'based on survey or study' for all company with departments` ranking in speaking of employee satisfaction`s, where argued by (Osterman 2009:7)
"Middle managers should be valued for what they contribute and be seen as a resource to be developed. Such a perspective is more accurate, healthier, as well as one that would be more productive for all concerned".
Fourth; from author's viewpoint, technology based organisation nowadays, should concentrate on process motivation's theory, precisely, the one where leaded by senior management in building organisation`s culture within a proper vision via; trust, transparency, justice, fairness of individual`s income 'money wise, authority, job description,...Etc', as well, to recognise coaching, punishment, awarding, recognition, and task distribution in a team work portray, depending on human-relations and better workplace for subordinate, according to Mayo as cited by (O'Connor 1999:242)
"If there is conflict or tension, it's the worker's problem; and it's the manager's job to fix it".
All in all, above actions would participate in enhancing the controlling of motivational tolls positively, bearing in mind there isn't one best practise could fit all, vice versa it depends on very detailed data as shown above, even more, there isn't consensus on linking performance to motivation as mentioned by Reis & Pena (2001:667) in reporting March & Simon research
"Satisfied workers are motivated to participate but not necessarily to produce"
More researches are required for such complex motivation topic, importantly, conducted in different regions using dissimilar industries to overflowing valuable throughput.
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Sedarat, F. (2009), "Saudi Telecom's Q3 net profit falls 20 pct" Reuters, available on line at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL342211320091019 accessed on 24/12/2009
Shane, S. & Locke, E. A. & Collins, C. J. (2003), "Entrepreneurial motivation", Human Resource Management Review, Vol.13, issue 2, pg. 257-279.
Sweney, M. (2009), "BBC culls managers and cuts their pay" The Guardian Weekly 6th November pg16.
Washburn, N.T (2009), "Why Profit Shouldn't Be Your Top Goal", Harvard Business Review, Vol. 87 Issue 12, p23.
World Health Organisation (2009), available on line at http://www.emro.who.int/emrinfo/index.asp?Ctry=saa demographic indicators, accessed on 17/12/2009
END OF STUDENT SUBMISSION
THE FORMS ON THE FOLLOWING PAGES ARE ONLY USED IN INCIDENTS OF PLAGIARISM AND/OR THE AWARD OF A FAIL GRADE FOR THIS PIECE OF WORK. STUDENTS SHOULD NOT DELETE THESE FORMS.
School of Management
PLAGIARISM FORM (Student Assessed Work)
This form should only be completed where a case of plagiarism (inc. 'poor scholarship') has been identified. It should be attached to the student's submitted work that contains the plagiarised material.
PART 1 - TO BE COMPLETED BY FIRST MARKER
Programme of Study &Year:
Nature and Extent of Plagiarism (please highlight or underline plagiarised text):
What, if known, is the source of plagiarism? (e.g. peer plagiarism, single or multiple texts, websites)
What proportion of the submission is plagiarised?
Any other comments?
What mark should be awarded?
Name of 1stmarker:
PART 2 - TO BE COMPLETED BY SECOND MARKER
Comments (please indicate agreement or disagreement with the first markers assessment and recommended action):
Name of 2ndMarker
PART 3 - TO BE COMPLETED BY DEPUTY HEAD OF SCHOOL
Recommendation (following, where appropriate, a student interview and consultation with the Director of Postgraduate Studies and the Director of Undergraduate Studies)
Name of Deputy Head of School
School of Management
Second Marker Feedback Form
Date of Enrolment
Is resubmission automatically permitted?
Your assignment has been subject to a system of second marking. Unfortunately the markers have concluded that your assignment has not met a satisfactory standard.
You should follow the advice offered on the AGC form and consider the information below.
REASON(S) FOR THE FAIL GRADE
ACTION TO TAKE
You have not adequately answered the question set.
You need to check carefully that you have understood the question set. Please discuss your interpretation of the question with a Tutor on Blackboard and use the support materials on writing assignments found on Blackboard.
You have not adequately explained what you have done.
Please discuss the expectations of the assignment with the Tutor on Blackboard.
Your answer is too descriptive - it lacks sufficient analysis to address the question set.
Please refer to the support material on Blackboard.Please discuss your plans for the resubmission with a Tutor on Blackboard.
Your answer is too brief or exceeds the word limit set for this assignment.
Please keep to the word count stipulated in the assignment question. For advice on developing an essay please see your Programme Handbook and Blackboard.
You do not make sufficient use of the concepts and theories that are relevant to addressing the assignment question.
Please discuss any plans for a resubmission with a Tutor on Blackboard.
You have made use of literature/study materials without fully acknowledging the sources.*
Please read the guidance in your programme handbook on referencing. There is further information on how to avoid plagiarism on Blackboard.
You have simply reproduced the information contained in the module and other readings. You must use this material to answer the question in your own words.*
Please read the guidance in your programme handbook on referencing. There is further information on how to avoid plagiarism on Blackboard.
Your answer is too similar to that of another student.*
Please read the guidance in your programme handbook on referencing. There is further information on how to avoid plagiarism on Blackboard.
Other: Please specify:
Items marked with an * are serious academic offences and amount to plagiarism or cheating. Please see your Programme handbook about the regulations governing plagiarism.