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In this modernized world where globalization is fast crating an effect, the workplace realities of the ancient organizations no longer exists. It has become past and needs to be revised very carefully before any aspect of it can be implemented nowadays. It has become increasingly important for the organizations to introduce new methods and meet the new needs of the employees to enhance the employee productivity and work commitment. The reality of workplace, the changing work environment has increased the end for the managers to reconsider the methodologies of developing durable and strong relationship between the employees and organization that ultimately leads to the achievement of the organization's goals and objectives (Rosner & Levius, 2001).
A thorough and complete understanding of the employees motivational need has became important for the management in order to accomplish what employees expect from the organization in order to return what organization expect from them. Therefore it becomes clear from the researches that a work-force is an instrument of success for full filling the needs of a rapidly changing work environment for both, the employees and the organization. It also becomes clear that a well- motivated workforce will eventually lead to the organization achieving its goals and objectives in a better an efficient manner in terms of productivity and work commitment. To serve this purpose of building a strong bond between the management and workforce, the role of the top management is very crucial in this respect. Human capital is capable of playing a pivotal role compared to financial capital, in the effectiveness of the organization. In modern times people are believed to me a source of competitive advantage and carry more importance in leading a company towards success, rather than finance (Adams 1993).
Employee commitment is comprised of work commitment, career commitment and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment, in turn, can be subdivided into affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment. As a combination of both attitudinal and behavioral approaches, organizational commitment is defined as employees' acceptance, involvement and dedication (AID) towards achieving the organization's goals. It is the willingness of employees to accept organizational values, and goals, and to work towards achieving these; to be fully involved, and participate, in all the activities, both work and non-work related, of the organization; and to dedicate time, and effort, towards the betterment of the organization (Champoux, 2001).
To study the effect of employee's physical health management practices on employee productivity and work commitment.
1.3 Research Hypothesis:
H1: Employee physical health management practices of the organization has a significant effect on employee work commitment
H2: Employee physical health management practices of the organization has a significant effect on employee productivity
1.4 Outline of the Study:
This study is based on the physical health management practices and its impact on employee work commitment and productivity. Workplace health promotion has generally focused on promoting worker health through reduction of individual risk-related behaviours such as tobacco use, substance use, a sedentary lifestyle, poor nutrition, stressors and reactions to them, reproductive risks, and other preventable health behaviours . These efforts have the potential to reach a significant proportion of adults who are employed. More specifically, WHP programs are an effective means of promoting a healthy diet and regular physical activity. Through the workplace, it is possible to influence health behaviours through multiple levels of influence; through direct efforts such as health education and increasing the availability of healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity or indirectly through social support and social norms promoting healthy behaviours. Employee productivity is related to health because Workplace health promotion has indicated that it has benefits both on organizations and employees. First of all, workplace health promotion program has demonstrated its effectiveness in developing employees' health and lifestyle. Workplace health promotion not only affects the productivity but also the commitment of an individual towards the organization. Employees who feel satisfied are more likely to stay with the organization and put efforts into their work
Commitment is defined as the totality of internalized normative pressures to act in a way that meets organizational goals and interests. Employee productivity is the rate or the efficiency of work. Employee productivity is a particularly important issue to the managers and supervisors as the primary purpose (Pogson, 2003).
The increasingly global economy and tougher worldwide competition are putting Ð° great deal of pressure on employees and employers alike to find better ways to get the job done. For employees, the challenge is not just at work, but also in their personal and family lives. For employers, the challenge is to find ways to both attract and retain skilled employees at all levels in order to remain competitive. It is clear from close studies of employee retention that organizations can be very successful by developing Ð° retention strategy that is informed by employee surveys and that relies on pushing responsibility for retention down the organization. Therefore, organizations must focus their efforts to improve the work experience of their employees. Such efforts should involve Ð° four-step process of diagnosing, planning, acting, and evaluating the changes that are designed to retain highly valued employees (Trice & Beyer, 1993).
Numerous scholars have defined organizational commitment; they view organizational commitment as the enthusiasm of workers to dedicate power and allegiance to an organization. Organizational commitment is the relative potency of an individual's recognition with and participation in a particular organization. Many previous circumstances of organizational commitment such as, organizational culture, management have been suggested in the earlier studies. Though factors are involved, commitment to organization is almost certainly reflective of how employees experience about leaders and the behaviors they display (Thomas & Kenneth, 2000).
Organizational commitment is the devotion and faith in and achieving of the purpose and ideals of an organization, it is a worker's enthusiasm to put forth effort on behalf of the organization, and a strong desire to preserve membership of the organization. As an approach, organizational commitment is positively related to organizational transform, because committed employees are more ready to recognize with and accept new instructions, goals or values of the organization than less committed workers. Understanding the values of employees is a condition for any company that wishes to function with energy and liveliness and it provides a reimbursement to the whole community as healthy organizations can translate into economically flourishing cultures (Malley 2000).
Key to the expected achievement of any company is its capability to supervise, train, develop, and recompense a satisfied and provoked personnel at all ranks of an organization. This is not proficient unless changes in occupational principles are understood. Most companies have rules and regulations that reflect the company's culture and are predisposed by the origin national culture; they are not always adjusted to the values of the altering workforce (Brook, 1998). The continuation of dissimilarity in the overall work ethic between recognized personnel and new employees is by and large acknowledged the quantity and degree to which they differ is not fully unspoken. The literature review capitulate a wide range of studies that found a contrast between the younger and older professional work ethic. Organizational commitment, originally idealize a person's internalization of the organization's objectives and values and the motivation to work toward accomplishment of those goals was later reinterpreted as a demonstration of numerous commitments to a variety of groups within an organization (Culliver, 1991).
Organizational commitment is of keen attention to many researchers since it has been connected to optimistic job performance However, opponent suppose that the build has insufficient theoretical foundation, which may explicate why it has been considered without acquiescent a agreement as to its dynamic processes. Some researches propose that an employee's commitment to the organization is obviously prejudiced by the perception of organizational fit. While this may be predisposed by a person's work ethic, it cannot be a determinant of work ethic (Mecklin 1996).
Generational clusters are encompassing of persons who share a set of comparatively steady noteworthy life experiences. Generational dissimilarity has been connected to variations in thoughts, values, and behaviors including the exhibition of respect for authority and faithfulness to institutions (Penny 2006).
This should also be noted that research regarding outcomes of commitment specifies that the behavioral outcomes showing the strongest relationships with commitment have been turnover and purpose to stay in the organization. The relationship between performance and commitment was found to be diverse and modest (Andrisanhi, 1981). Although some general trends could be distinguished from the gathering of research studies, the research effort as a whole has been too fragmented and unsystematic to provide a satisfactory understanding of commitment as an exclusive and expressively meaningful occurrence. The lack of a strong theoretical foundation probably is the major reason for this state of relationships (Pries, 2003).
As an intervening process, intervene between certain background and behavioral outcomes, commitment can be vision as a motivational incidence. Additionally, the middle part in most images of commitment, the acceptance of organizational view and values as guides to an individual's behavior, i.e., identification-represents a form of normative control over a person's actions. Thus, it seems useful to conceptualize commitment within a motivational structure that differentiates between normative and instrumental processes as determinants of human behavior (Gibson, 2001).
It is significant to begin analysis with an assessment of the formal, conceptual description of each commitment concept in conjunction with its operational definition or measure. The linkage among a conceptual description and a measurement process, expression the epistemic correlation, is a hazardous connection in that researchers have a tendency to assume that isomorphism exists once a concept/measure comes in to popular use and because succeeding theorizing about a concept tends to be resulting from the conceptual classification rather than its working (Halin, 1983).
Protestant work ethic support is defined similarly by the spirit of this concept is the belief that hard work is essentially good and an end in itself. Personal value and one's moral build are to be measure on readiness to work hard. One's job, career, organization, or union is simply an environment in which to put forth high levels of effort (Lee & Gillen, 1989). It is obvious that the subscales that career salience taps some characteristic of work promise that is superfluous with work ethic backing, job participation, and central life interest. The measures contend to hold attitudes on the way to a specific organization or union as unimportant to one's career loyalty (Andrisanhi, 1981).
Culture assimilator preparation might improve work ethic backing among blacks. Therefore, the Protestant work ethic is sight as a value subject to pressure only through cultural and social development and its concealed effects on persona formation. This is consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of work ethic backing (Gibson, 2001).
There has been rising interest among scholars in the notion of commitment and in empirical assessments of its reasons in a diversity of organizational settings. Most frequent have been studies of the commitment of such professionals as scientists, nurses, and teachers to their employing firms (Chinloy, 1980).
Successful management consequently assumes a proprietary concern, a sense of responsibility for and devotion to supporting the well-being of the organization. In the absence of ownership as a motive for such concern, modern organizations have a necessity twisted to the on purpose creation and protection of commitment privileged (Gordan, 2006).
Committed managers are shaped, imminent can be gained from empirically leaning studies of commitment which seek to identify its associate in organizational settings, e.g., establish that commitment was connected to social contribution with classmates and to such personal investments as length of organizational examine, age, and hierarchical position. Scholars found that organizational recognition was dogged in part by a sense of work achievement, relations with administrator, and length of organizational service (David, 2006).
In journalism, factors have been established in employee's obligation with the organization and career. Organizational dedication has received momentous concentration in studies of the place of work. This is due to the general acknowledgment that this changeable can be the major determinant of organizational performance and efficiency. When employees are disgruntled at work, they are less dedicated and will look for other chances to quit. If opportunities are occupied, they may expressively or spiritually withdraw from the organization. Thus, organizational commitment is a significant approach in evaluating employee's purpose to quit and the overall donation of the employee to the organization (Rosenberg, 2001)
The importance of recognition and rewards are to be addressed and to be considered in order to develop strong relation with the employees that makes them loyal to the organization .These added dimensions in the marketing mix will be found to be strong enough to cover most of the service marketing situations. The non wage compensations are becoming increasingly popular among companies, where managers consider innovative Human resources practices such as bonuses, are essential for competitiveness (Miller, 1983). At least the organization expects from its employees reliable their assigned tasks and set standards for them, and follow the rules has been established to govern the workplace (Carl, 2001).
Awards are a largely used to motivate workers in organizations and it is supported they derive their value from these kinds of social concerns. In the allocation schemes, an agent is given a token reward for good performance in combination with a positive performance feedback and social recognition of their superiors and peers (Carl, 2001).
Identity is an important supplement to monetary compensation; the only motivation is both costly and inefficient while monetary incentives for the people by increasing the premium associated with work motivation, but does not bind the employee with the organization. External opportunities as perceived by employees are an increasingly influential variable on intention to leave. Increased awareness of options in the labor market leads to greater movement and growth in the percentage of the workforce that is effectively available to the market. Perception of external opportunities are now playing at least Ð° role equal to job satisfaction in predicting turnover. The relationship between organizational commitment and external opportunities needs to be further explored to ascertain if the former acts as Ð° counterweight to the latter. That is, an organization may find that increased emphasis on building organizational commitment may reduce the impact of the external market (David, 2006).
Individual rewards may also be based on economic need. An example of need-based rewards is the across-the-board increase. Such increases are frequently tied to Ð° cost-of-living calculation. Need-based increases are viewed by employees as entitlements: They feel their salary or wage should at least keep pace with inflation. The idea that Ð° wage should be tied to economic need is the basis for establishing Ð° minimum wage law and the living wage movement. As organizations continue to move away from the concept of rewards based on economic need, Ð° result may be increased employee support for across-the-board increases and improving the pay of the lowest-paid employee. Health care organizations where there are large disparities between higher-level employees and lower-paid employees seem particularly vulnerable to the argument that pay should be sufficient to take care of basic economic needs (Gordan, 2006). The study of corroborates that the conventional protestant ethic work values and the modern work values are dissimilar and the tool used to measure the work values that persons actually support is valid and reliable. Work values have been exposed to be connected to the way people experience about their work, the way people perform on their jobs and their overall job fulfillment (Carl, 2001).
3.1 Method of data collection:
The method of approaching the respondents to collect data for this study was personal interviewing. The respondents were approached personally and were asked to fill self administrated questionnaire. Respondents were asked according to their ease and majority of the questions had check marks or scale options for the convenience of the respondents. Data also collected from some of the respondents through emails.
3.2 Sample size and sampling technique:
Sample size of this research was 280 respondents consist of the employees of the organizations belonging to the different industrial sectors of Pakistan. The Sampling technique in this study was Convenience based sampling technique which is one of the non-probability based sampling techniques because of the time limitation and the recourses are also limited.
3.3 Instrument of Data collection:
In this research, questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. This closed ended self administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents which would have ample number of questions to address all the variables.
N of Items
In any research, data is considered perfect for the study if the value of 'Cronbach's Alpha' is closer to 1. However, the data is deemed reliable if the value of 'Cronbach's Alpha' is greater than .6. Here in this research Cronbach's Alpha is 0.871 which shows that variables used in this particular study are reliable to measure the constructs.
3.4 Statistical tool used:
Regression Analysis has been used as a statistical tool in this research. The reason of using this technique was due to the categorical data and research has to find out the impact/effect of independent variables on dependent variable. Here Employee physical health management is independent variable and Employee productivity and work commitment are considered as Dependent variables. Statistical analysis was conducted separately.
4.1 Findings and interpretations of the result
H1: Employee physical health management practices of the organization have a significant effect on employee work commitment.
Adjusted R Square
Std. Error of the Estimate
a. Predictors: (Constant), Physical_Health_Mngt
The R-squared is 0.111 means that approximately 11.1% of the variance of Predictors is accounted for by the model.
Sum of Squares
a. Predictors: (Constant), Physical_Health_Mngt
b. Dependent Variable: Work_Committment
From the results it can be observed that the F-test is statistically Significant; model shows the significant value 0.000 which is less than 0.05 which means that the model is statistically significant. Value of F- Statistics showing the relationship between the variables indicated with high value of 35.795 and the strength of the regression. Here residuals is 41.291 which is known as model error
a. Dependent Variable: Work_Committment
The above table indicates that physical health management practices have a moderate impact on Work Commitment. The value of 0.493 shows the positive and moderate relationship and impact. Whenever there is a 1 unit change in Physical health management than this cause 0.493 unit change in Work Commitment. Significant value indicates that hypothesis is accepted
Regression Equation is: Work Commitment = 0.911+ 0.493 (Physical Health Management). Hence hypothesis is accepted that Employee physical health management practices of the organization has a significant effect on Work Commitment
H2: Employee physical health management practices of the organization has a significant effect on employee Productivity
Adjusted R Square
Std. Error of the Estimate
a. Predictors: (Constant), Physical_Health_Mngt
The R-squared is 0.201 means that approximately 20.1% of the variance of Predictors is accounted for by the model.
Sum of Squares
a. Predictors: (Constant), Physical_Health_Mngt
b. Dependent Variable: Employee Productivity
From the results it can be observed that the F-test is statistically Significant; model shows the significant value 0.000 which is less than 0.05 which means that the model is statistically significant. Value of F- Statistics showing the strong relationship relationship between the variables indicated with high value of 69.890 and the strength of the regression. Here residuals is 57.564 which is known as model error
Dependent Variable: Employee Productivity
The above table indicates that physical health management practices have a strong impact on employee productivity. The value of 0.817 (Near to 1) shows the positive and strong relationship and impact. Whenever there is a 1 unit change in Physical health management than this cause 0.817 change in Employee productivity.
Regression Equation is: Employee Productivity= 0.311+ 0.817 (Physical Health Management). Hence hypothesis is accepted that Employee physical health management practices of the organization has a significant effect on employee Productivity
4.2 Hypotheses Assessment Summary
Employee physical health management practices of the organization has a significant effect on work commitment
Employee physical health management practices of the organization has a significant effect on employee Productivity
DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATIONS, FUTURE RESEARCH AND CONCLUSION
The curse of accepting organizational goals and values and incorporating them into a system of own goals and values are vision by all researchers as "organizational identification." Some writers equate identification with organizational commitment. It is dispute that human resources perform fail to pleasure each people as a person rather than as a group typecast, the business will suffer numerous unconstructive consequences such as lesser organizational commitment, fewer motivation, and lesser performance. Persons will also have lesser overall job satisfaction. The organization features with the aging of its labor force should therefore put into practice that reproduces the requirement of professionals. Employee's commitment towards work and organization is scrutinized as a multidimensional concept acceptance employees want to remain in an organization, willingness to apply effort on its behalf, and belief in and taking of the values and goals of the organization. Exchange concepts in this domain are referenced as managerial involvement and organizational recognition. This gauge reveals a remarkably strong relationship to its conceptual description.
Commitment gauge is relatively self-governing of all but the job focus form of work commitment and does not rule out commitment to other life areas. The three items that comprise the belief in unionism factor like my loyalty is to my work, not to the union, partly cover with the job focus form of work commitment. It is significant to note that union commitment does not take on an opponent stance relative to organizational commitment. Several items, however, do be relevant to the union member's readiness to uphold the terms of the union organization agreement.
5.2 Recommendation and Implications:
It is observed that it is the organization and not managers that fail to hold managers responsible for creating motivation among the people. They fail to understand the role of motivation and its connection to job performance. One of the biggest challenges for HR is to persuade line managers to develop and manage people. These line managers should be able to build string and personal relationship with the employees through effective communication. There is a need for the line mangers to understand the nature of the employee and his subordinates and should be able to deal with the problems of workers effectively. A thorough understanding of the needs of the subordinates will eventually let the managers know what the employee aims for and what are their goals and objectives. They can then decide how to develop and implement strategies that will achieve the objectives of the company while letting the employees achieve their personal goals.
Conceptualization of values, reliable with many spiritual attitudes that people hold, is that values are continuing viewpoint of what is essentially right or wrong. Standards can be consideration of as predilection or need for exacting outcomes or states. Dependable with the latter viewpoint, suggested that work-related choices could be viewed as first choice for settings that allow or encourage appearance of particular values or value systems. Since job choice can be seen as an early pace one takes to put into practice a work-related option.
5.3 Future Research
In future prospectus, research is to identify the impact of non monetary compensation on employee's performance which will examine the impact of non monetary compensation on employee's performance. This research can give the better understand of those elements that have a greater impact on the performance of employees and provided the knowledge about the relationship between employee's performance and non monetary compensation.
It is concluded that Employee physical health management practices of the organization has a significant effect on employee Productivity and work commitment.