Ghanas largest cities Accra and Kumasi


Accra is the capital and the largest city of Ghana, as well as being the executive, financial, and educational centre of Ghana. Accra stretches along the Atlantic Coast and north into the interior. The population of the city proper estimated at 1,963,264 as of 2009 [1] . Originally built around a port; it is situated on the Gulf of Guinea. Its architecture ranges from large and elegant 19th Century colonial buildings to skyscrapers and apartment blocks made of concrete, glass and steel in the 1970s.  In this city there are about 300 printing presses that can be found here.

With a population of 1,517,000 [2] , Kumasi is the second-largest city in the country. It is located near Lake Bosomtwe, in the Rain Forest Region about 250 kilometres (160 mi) (by road) northwest of Accra. Kumasi is approximately 300 miles (480 km) north of the Equator and 100 miles (160 km) north of the Gulf of Guinea. It is popularly known as "The Garden City" or "heart beat" of Ghana because of its many beautiful species of flowers and plants. Here also abound a quite a number of printing presses.

Population Target and Sample size

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The population of the research will comprise all printing presses in Kumasi and Accra which are privately owned. There are over 300 printing presses in Accra and a study by the Book Industry Department of KNUST in 2000 showed over 150 presses exist in Kumasi. To attain substantial sample size for data analysis, a minimum number of 60 firms will be approached. The printing presses in the sample size should have been in existence for a minimum of 3 years.

Research Design

An observational study that specifically talks about cross-sectional study will be used in this research. The cross-sectional study will help to observe a representative subset of the population at a defined time. Field data collection method will primarily be used to analyse the research. However, experts in the field of study in question will be contacted to seek information regarding this research topic.

Variables of study

The variables to be measured will taken from (Thi, 2009), and an extract of (Man et al, 2002). Variables also put forward by (Kohli et al,1993) will be used to measure market orientation.

Personal Profile; Position in business, age, sex, educational level and training, business experience

Company Profile; type of company; number of employees; business life span.

Other variables are put in the table below.

Table 3 Main variables to be considered

Dependent Variable

Independent Variable

Firm Performance

Entrepreneurial competences

Market Orientation


Table 4 Indicators to be considered

Dependent variable


1. Firm performance

Return on shareholder equity

Gross profit margin

Net profit from operations

Return on investment

Growth in market share

Independent variable


2. Entrepreneurial competences

Opportunity competencies

Ability to identify product and service best suited to customers.

Ability to recognise unmet customer needs.

Ability to actively search benefits to customers.

Ability to make use of business opportunities

Relationship competencies

Ability to develop long-term trusting relationship with others.

Ability to maintain a personal network of work contacts

Ability to communicate, interact and negotiate with suppliers, employees and customers.

Organising competencies

Ability to plan the organisation of different resources.

Ability to keep the organization running smoothly.

Ability to organize resources.

Ability to coordinate tasks.

Ability to lead and supervise subordinates.

Strategic competencies

Ability to determine long-term issues, problems, or opportunities.

Ability to redesign the organization to better meet long-term objectives & changes.

Ability to determine strategic actions by weighing cost and benefits.

Commitment competencies

Ability to dedicate to make the venture work whenever possible.

Ability to commit to long-term business goal.

Conceptual competencies

Ability to apply ideas, issues and observations to alternative contexts.

Ability to learn from a variety of means.

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Ability to keep up to date in my field.

3. Market Orientation

Intelligence generation

Interaction with customers to find out what service they will need in future

Pro-activity to detecting fundamental shifts in industry technology and

Inclination to in-house market research

Detecting changes in customers' product preferences

Poll end users to assess the quality of our products and services

Periodical review of the likely effects of changes in our business environment (for e.g. regulation) on customers

Intelligence Dissemination

Holding interdepartmental meetings to discuss marketing trends and developments

Pace at which a department quickly alerts other departments about competitors

Inform the whole business unit about changes concerning major customer or market.

Sharing data on customer satisfaction at all levels in this business unit.

Marketing personnel discussion with other functional departments in our business unit regarding customers' future needs


Response to competitor's price changes.

Reaction to changes in our customer's product or service needs.

Periodical review of product development efforts to ensure

customers' want.

Response by departments to Change in business environment.

Response by firm after a major competitor launch an

intensive campaign targeted at customers.

Coordination of different departments in the business unit.

Management of customer complaints.

Implementation of a marketing plan in relation to time.

Involvement of all departments to modify product or service.

4. Innovation

Service Innovation

Adaptation to technologyDerived from (Man et al, 2002 and Kohli et al, 1993)

Data Collection Methods and Research Instrument

The Questionairre will remain the main research instrument. It draws ideas from already asked questions in other researches and changes have been made to suit the printing industry in Ghana. It will be conducted in English since it remains the official language of Ghana. Closed-ended and Matrix questions will be used due to the nature of the questions to be asked. Personal information and company information will be conducted with closed-ended questions and all other variables will be conducted using Matrix questions because there are several questions which have a Likert scale response. Since there has not been a prior research in the context of the printing sector in Ghana, primary data will be collected from the field of study and it will combine both quantitative and qualitative data. Secondary data will also be collected by interviewing experts in the field and also assess literature that will be available at the time of the research.

Data Analysis

Data will be analysed using SPSS programme. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the basic features of the data in the study such as age, sex and the number of employees. They will be analysed by simple graphs such as pie charts and bar graphs. Correlation analysis will be used measure the degree of correlation between the dependent and independent variables to be used in the research. Since there are three independent variables, multiple regression analysis will be used to find out which variable is dependent on the other.

Schedule of research

The research starts in October 2010 and is expected to be completed in August 2011.

Table 5 Schedule of research




Pilot test of questionnaire and sample determination



Data Collection and Organization

Oct/ Nov/ Dec-2010


Analysis of data and field report writing



Submission of field report writing



Thesis Writing

April/ May/ June/ July-2011


Submission of Thesis

Aug- 2011

Research Partners

The Department of Publishing Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology will be main partner institution to collaborate with. The Ghana Association of Industries, The Ghana Printers and Paper converter Association, Chartered Institute of Marketing will also be contacted for support during the period of the research.

Department of Publishing Studies [3] 

Being the only degree awarding Department in Publishing and Printing in the West African Sub-region, this department trains and develops manpower need for the book Industry for national development. It produces graduates who have general and specialized knowledge and skill relevant to the practice of Publishing Management; Printing Techniques, Book Design and Illustration.

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Ghana Association of Industries [4] 

The Association of Ghana Industries, AGI, set up in 1958, is the leading business organisation in Ghana. It serves as a mouthpiece for the manufacturing and services sector and carries out proactive support services with the view to contribute substantially to the growth and development of industry in Ghana. AGI conducts surveys, collects data and develops policy papers for a more conducive business environment in Ghana. It conducts the AGI Business Climate Survey, it provides input into the formulation of the National Annual Budget and it consults with numerous public institutions on a wide range of issues.

The Ghana Printers and Paper converter Association [5] 

The Ghana Printers & Paper Converters Association was registered under the Companies code 1963 Art179 in the year 1980. The Association is the official mouthpiece of Ghanaian Industries using paper and paper provide products as their basic raw materials. The Association organises all Printers, Publishers, Paper Converters and allied service Companies for the expressed purpose of promoting the special interests of the paper industry, improve upon the standard of printing and paper converting industry in Ghana, seek on behalf of member companies' external trade relations and training facilities at home and abroad.

Chartered Institute of Marketing [6] 

Established in July 1981 the Institute seeks to promote the study and practice of modern scientific marketing, establish close co-operation among all persons engaged in marketing in Ghana, promote high professional standards among the Ghanaian business community, educate the general public on marketing concepts and their importance to the country's economy, establish close relationships with other professional bodies in and outside the country, so as to enhance national and international trade development