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The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven states, termed emirates, situated in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia. These states are Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Umm al-Quwain, Dubai, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah and Fujairah. The capital of the United Arab Emirates is Abu Dhabi and it is also the second largest city. It is the country's hub of political, industrial, and cultural activities.
The UAE is one of the most developed economies of the Middle East, and has the world's sixth largest oil reserves. Being the thirty sixth largest economy, the UAE has a high GDP of $46,584, per capita, according to the International Monetary Fund, which is as good as those of top west European nations.
The UAE is situated in Southwest Asia, with the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf as its borders, between Saudi Arabia and Oman. It has a 530 km border with Saudi Arabia on the south, southeast, and west, and a 450 km border with Oman on the southeast and northeast. Abu Dhabi is the largest emirate of UAE, and it covers 87% of the total area.
During the nineteenth and twentieth century's, the pearls were exploited and the pearling industry, supporting the civilization with income as well as employment to the people of the Persian Gulf. It gradually emerged as significant an important good economic resource for the local people. The First World War had a severe impact, but the Japanese invention of the cultured pearl, combined with the following economic depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s, destroyed it.
The discovery of oil reserves in Abu Dhabi and the other emirates in the 1960s led to a quick unification of the states, and the UAE was formed as a consequence. The following increase in the oil revenue thereby lead to the Ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, to undertake a large and massive construction program, which involved building of schools, housing, hospitals and roads. Dubai's oil exports commenced in 1969, and the then defacto ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, summoned up all his oil revenue resources to improve the quality of life of his people.
Dubai's geographical proximity to Iran made it an important location. The town of Dubai was an important port of call for foreign tradesmen, chiefly those from Iran, many of whom eventually settled in the town.
The UAE has, hence, had a cardinal advantage in terms of its geographical location; its strategic location along southern approaches to the Strait of Hormuz provides for one the most important transit point for crude oil of the world. (Tra10)
Renewable and non-renewable sources
A renewable source is one which is being continuously replaced faster than the resource is being consumed. A non-renewable resource whereas is one that is not being replaced with its consumption.
Common examples of renewable sources of energy are solar, hydro, wind, geothermal, ocean and biomass. Most common advantage of these is that they are renewable and therefore cannot deplete. They are clean energy as they do not contribute to polluting the environment, nor do they contribute to global warming or production of greenhouse gases. The cost of operation with these sources is also low as their sources are natural. A common disadvantage however with renewable sources is that it is often difficult to produce large quanta of energy with these. Also, as the use of these sources is a more recent phenomena and a new technology, initiation of such projects can be expensive. Using renewable sources implies depending on natural sources of energy. Solar energy for example can be used only during daytime. Wind mill is another example of depending on nature for energy. Of all the renewable sources, hydroelectricity is the most reliable. However, it is disadvantageous given the fact that it effects ecology and causes downstream problems.
Advantages & Disadvantages
The primary advantage with non-renewable sources is that of cost and ready availability. A few examples of non-renewable sources are coal, oil, gas, nuclear, biomass and wood. Coal and oil are readily available sources that are extensively used in all fields of life, especially in transportation. In nuclear power, even a very small amount of radioactive material can produce a lot of energy. Wood again is a very cheap and most readily available source of energy, which if the trees can be replaced, can be a renewable source too. The primary disadvantage however with these sources is that they are depleting and cannot be renewed. These sources leave behind harmful byproducts on combustion which is harmful for the environment, as it results in the evolution of harmful greenhouse gases. These resources shall eventually run out, which implies that their cost will only increase with time, as the demand doesn't seem likely to fall, while the supply is sure to go down as the sources run out.
Move to the world that relay on renewable resources
The world must be persuaded to move to a generation relying on renewable sources of energy. It is clear from the advantages and disadvantages that for sustainable growth and development of all nations, our environment must be placed right on top of our priority list of things we would like to work on in the coming centuries. The onus is on the governments, the powerful developed and developing countries to initiate a trend of clean energy. For example, a new Chinese law requires power grid operators to buy all the electricity produced by renewable energy generators, in a move that will increase the proportion of energy that comes from renewable sources in coal dependent China.
Labor cost (Switzerland and India)
Labor cost influence our choice of locations & production
The key factor for employers is not the salary they pay but rather the unit labor cost. Even though Swiss offers higher salary, the non-wage labor costs that employers must account for in addition to net salary (social security contributions for employer) sums up to just 15%. The hourly wage ($/hr) in India on an average approximately was 1.2$ in the year 2009. The same in Switzerland would be around 20$. The choice of location for production may or may not depend on the labor cost. For products that require a particular kind of raw material available only in particular regions and parts of the world, labor cost factor may not be the primary factor when location is being considered. However, in industries requiring large scale production, labor cost is estimated and compared with other factors such as transportation of the raw material, production and distribution, along with the laws and regulations the employer might have to abide by in that particular region.
Regions with low labor cost are generally the developing nations, which tend to get industrialized and become a hub for foreign investment and industrialization. India is such an example. Labor costs were not such a major issue in Switzerland impending large-volume production. Developing manufacturing expertise could have consequently resulted into a tendency for technological development to follow manufacturing to East Asia. Opportunities still exist for Swiss companies to successfully enter potential markets, those with medical, military, or space applications. Techniques and various ways for the effective working together of the government with the academia, and the industry need to be implemented to ensure the success of advanced materials technologies with the full resources.
Companies run their business in a cheap country
The major factor luring companies to start business in cheap countries is the availability of skilled and unskilled labor in these places. The largest price of a connected starting or the starting of any kind of business is labor. In India you have people with degrees like PhDs and Masters who will work hard, with creative and bright minds for 5$ an hour. Will anybody do that in Switzerland or Denmark or even France? People's tax rate is 21% on business, with tax breaks for new and foreign businesses, while the USA, Britain, France, Germany its 40%. Poland has discontented other countries bye not “according” their tax rates with the west. High taxes are painful while it doesn't hurt to have low taxes. (2010)
Changes in the nature of population
Among the global employment trends, one of the most startling and pertinent issues is the rising unemployment of the young in the Middle East. Rising unemployment seems to have hit the youth the hardest, --particularly women-- making them increasingly dependent on their families and susceptible to exploitation of various kinds. Youth unemployment rates were highest in the Middle East and North Africa, 25.6% and sub-Saharan Africa 21%.
Young in the Middle East
The growing population, combined with the rapidly changing structure and nature of population in the Middle East and North Africa is one of the most significant and contributing factors in this puzzling increase in youth unemployment. Reports show 37 % of the population of the Middle East and North Africa was below the age of 15 in 2000, and 58% below the age of 25 years. The working-age population is increasing by three percent a year. Moreover, the unemployment rate in this region has been around 13 % since the last decade, which means an additional 50,000 every year.
The reasons that this data is startling and puzzling is the fact this has been happening despite rapid economic growth and increasing GDP, which is a consequence of the low and stagnant productivity of workers in the Middle East, and North Africa.
Reports show that the growth in youth is speedily surpassing the ability of economies to provide jobs. The educated part of the youth, with secondary educational qualifications, finds it extremely hard to secure employment mainly because of the disturbing fact that their skills mismatch with those required by the industry, and that trying for public sector jobs eventually land them in long queues. Such high rate of employment, which has been persistent, has resulted into many educated young people seeking opportunities outside their countries. Reports have shown that 36 % of Europe's 380 million people, are presently in their 50s and this figure is set to rise to a stunning 50 per cent in the next twenty-five years.
Old in the Europe
A growing population enjoys many advantages of dependency ratios, but very high numbers of births or deciding migrants would be needed in an ageing population. Hence, the ageing population has a dramatic effect on the social and economic structure of a country.
Increase in the elderly population of a country like Europe suggests a shift from increasing GDP to personal well-being. It also indicates high life expectancy. Several areas in the community will benefit from the surge in numbers of retirees who are active and healthy, independent and with time on their hands. Previously, women have provided much of the volunteer work performed in the community but today, women are in the work force in increasing numbers. At a time when the contribution of
volunteers is increasingly important given the rising demand for such services, many health and welfare agencies are seeking to recruit from the growing numbers of retirees.
Cost jobs to be occupied
Volunteering is considered as a measure of social capital and thus an indicator to a healthy civil society. Hence, an increasing elderly population and an increase in the cost of living suggest not only more jobs for the awaiting youth, it also leads to more nursing and volunteering jobs. Thus, in this way too, an ageing population increases job avenues in the healthcare department of the economy.
Thus the ageing population in the Europe is no t a crisis, but a transition, it is now being seen as a chance of intergenerational as well as emigrational competition which can prove to be very productive for the economy. (Fin10)
Every year, thousands of immigrants flock to the UAE for jobs. These workers, mostly low post laborers are referred to as ‘guest workers'. When the global economic scenario all over the globe and in the UAE shone bright, these guest workers contribute to the working class for the country, bringing in more man-power, production efficiency and success to the nation. Though a lot has been going around in the written and television media about the condition of these guest workers, some going even to the extent of calling them ‘virtual prisoners' in a foreign country, it was here that they were presented with the opportunity to work and learn abroad. However, when the tide turned and times got rough in the international market, hit with the greatest recession in recent times, the country had no option but to let go of these ‘guest workers', obviously giving preference to the natives over the immigrants. While in other countries, it was a question of work ethics for companies to let go of their work force, UAE greatly benefitted as it had the perfect strategy to dodge being hit. The UAE is a rags-to-riches story on a nation-state scale. Until the discovery of oil in the late 1950s, there was little here but Bedouins and sand. To extract the oil and build a modern economy, the rulers imported a multinational labor force that quickly outnumbered native Arabs. However, despite the fact that that UAE has greatly benefitted from ‘guest workers' and the concept has really seen the country sail through the good times, as well as breeze past troubled shores, the concept of temporary employment has not gone down well with certain sections. Some argue that the concept of visa loans and confiscations of passports makes these poorer guest workers virtual prisoners.
Culture can be defined as an integrated pattern of knowledge, belief, which humans possess, with their behavior in totality, which depends upon the ability for social learning and symbolic thought, or the combined entity of practices, mutual values, beliefs and goals that sets apart and identifies definite characteristics and traits of an institution, group or an organization. The twentieth century saw the emergence of culture as an idea around which anthropology revolved around, and that involved all human aspects which did not result from pure genetics of human beings. The term culture, particularly, had two separate interpretations and meanings:
Human's developed and evolved capability, to represent , with characteristic imagination and creativity, his experiences with symbols and the different ways in different parts of the world through which distinct people have classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively.
Note that although this definition of culture has been traditional and is only restricted to humans, many anthropologists of the world have accepted it, and thus elide that important qualification from the broader definitions that later emerged, simply making any type of learned behavior and culture as synonymous. Since during the years of formation of modern primatology, some primatologists were trained in anthropology (and hence, referred to culture as any type of learned behavior), and others were not, this presumption creates a problem. The argument that since chimpanzees have learned behaviors, they have culture still continues, and is debated upon even today by anthropologists. Today, anthropological primatologists argue that non-human primates have culture, while on the other hand many also argue that they do not, hence dividing them on this argument.
Ethical matters and scrupulous principles have further heated up the ongoing debate. Primatology has non-human primates as its subjects, and human activities have threatened in a grave manner all the culture of these primates.
Any kind of behavior which is specific and characteristic of a group and that is obtained and takes form from the influences of society to some extent, is considered culture. Units typical to species, which can be a horde, subgroup, even a lineage, or so on is considered a group here. When the difference and distinction across various groups and lineages cannot be understood or comprehended by factors of the ecology, the suggestion or implication of culture becomes stronger and effective. Islam and traditional Arabian culture have been central to the culture of the Emirates. The UAE's culture owes it multiculturalism and diversity to the invasion of ethnic groups and nations. The small, flourishing, self-sufficient and ethnic pearling community was changed in 1900s by the Iranians, and further deeply influenced by the Indians and Pakistanis in 1960s.(2010)
Expertise (Guest workers professional)
What we offer them
Expertise management involves knowing what the expertise in the organization knows, and making that knowledge available to users so that they can be problem solving creatures. That exceeds personal or workgroup capabilities. People pursuing MBA degrees apply for positions and offer their advice and business knowledge for free, allowing them to get a better understanding of the business world while they are still in the security of an MBA program. Managing the expertise calls for a variety of tasks.
How to manage them
Identifying the experts is the first and foremost to the whole task of managing them, and it entails participation on the expert, user and manager levels. Experts can volunteer to serve as experts and point out and nominate other experts, in which the users can also participate. Describing the expertise of the experts is cardinal to management also, creating expertise taxonomy, and capturing their description of expert knowledge by ways such as maintaining databases is both important and efficient. Managers manage the operation and proper functioning of such created taxonomy and maintain links with the taxonomy's areas and the identity of the experts. The purpose of enabling users to locate experts who possess the required knowledge can be fulfilled by a process ensuring an expertise matching mechanism, so that both users and experts effectively participate in the system. Enabling users to communicate with the experts is equally essential and fundamental to such a system, so that experts receive requests for expertise, (or when appropriate, forward those requests to other experts) and users register their request. Managers here would be also essentially required to oversee system performance, and proper allocation of responsibilities and expenditures, and minimize overload on experts by rerouting certain requests. Providing a feedback mechanism serves as a conclusive process that would ensure the main objective of the whole system, thereby supporting the ongoing generation. Experts evaluate performance of related systems and processes and simultaneously update expertise profile to improve matching of requests and expertise. In this area, users evaluate quality performance, and the managers monitor measurements of request outcomes in relationship to resources devoted to the proper functioning and the maintenance of the whole system. Managing the process takes effort from all experts, users and managers, to consequently cooperate in the ongoing evaluation and improvement of the overall system and processes. This, effective management of the expertise can be achieved. Moreover, the management of guest workers offering their expertise fundamentally differs from managing full-time staff in basic ways.
Where they live
Guest workers live in the premises of the facility where they are providing their expertise, and where they are provided standard luxuries and adequate amount of resources for their functionality in their field of expertise.
When they are going to leave
It is imperative to have a beforehand and a comprehensive knowledge of length and the scope of the project, and to know in a detailed manner about all the aspects the project would entail. In addition to this, a guest worker who is unfamiliar with the organization must be totally equipped with all the knowledge and information so that the proper role is played by him. A clear and articulate conveying of this enables the guest worker to do what is required of him efficiently. If the worker is unaware of the facts above mentioned or kept uninformed of them he can leave the organization. Remuneration policies and the perks from other companies may be another reason of leaving.
With Families or not & How can locals take their place
The guest workers might not be with families, owing to their low wages and 3-4 year work Visa. During the great economic recession that the world has just underwent, these immigrant low wage guest workers simply lost their jobs as a result, and a large part of them were unable to return to their native lands.
Local workforce can take their place if they are provided with job security. Why immigrants are preferred over them is cause of cheap labor. However, the immigrants get a working visa for not more than 3 or 4 years, after which period, depending on the global economic scenario, they might lose their jobs if the visa doesn't exceeded.
How we can benefit from the climate
Economy can be leveraged by the climatic condition prevalent in different regions. For example the solar power in UAE and Southern Asia, winds in Holland, water bodies in coastal areas. The climate plays an important role in judging a country's economic background. Moreover, the energy harnessed from climatic resources is renewable and pollution free. Various energies available from the climate are: solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy.
ADVANTAGE FROM THE SUN:
Solar energy can be beneficial to a great extent in the Torrid Zone region. Solar energy can be used to heat fluids such as water. A short list of solar applications includes heating and cooling through solar energy, making water potable by distillation, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and very high temperature process heat for industrial purpose. Solar panels are commonly used to harvest the solar energy. Solar energy is considered as one of the few forms of feasible, renewable energy resource that can save the world from the much talked about imminent energy crisis. Tapping the energy of the Sun has been successfully achieved, the only challenge that remains for the solar scientists is to do it in a cost effective manner, so that it can be used by the public.
ADVANTAGE FROM THE WINDS:
Wind energy is in abundance in coastal areas which can be efficiently harnessed using wind mill, pumps and turbines and thereafter converted into useful energy. It is also available both during day as well as in night unlike the solar energy. Denmark, Spain, Holland, Germany etc use wind power for commercial purposes. Major wind farms are used for power transmission; smaller wind mills are used to supply electricity to separated locations. Public Utility companies used to keep backup electricity produced by small turbines. Wind energy is a power source and is attractive as an alternative to fossil fuels, because it is in abundance, renewable, and eco-friendly. Wind farms are not welcomed everywhere because of their impact and other effects on the environment.
ADVANTAGE FROM THE RAIN:
Energy can be harnessed form water resources such as seas and oceans or naturally as rain, which is called the rain water harvesting. Climatic conditions favouring rains can do much for an economy. Rains occur regularly in the tropical and evergreen forests of Africa and South America. This water can be harvested into useful forms. Rainwater harvesting has been very useful in the region. It is been used to fulfil the supply of drinking water, for livestock, and water to refill aquifers in a process called groundwater recharge. Rainwater is collected from the roofs of houses, local institutions; even grounds are especially prepared for collecting the rainwater that makes an important contribution in the drinking water supplies. Most of the times in many cases rainwater are the only available and most economical water resource. Rainwater systems can be easily constructed from easily available local and cheap local resources, and are significantly successful in most habitable locations. Rainwater obtained from house roofs is generally of very good quality and it does not need any discourse before consumption.
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