Full AT System Board

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Most popular types of Motherboards

Full AT System Board

The first type of motherboard that we want to talk about is the full AT motherboard. The full AT motherboard is 12 inches wide and 11 inches long. The full AT suffered from a problem with accessing some of the items on the motherboard because the drive bays hung over the motherboard. This situation made installation and troubleshooting of the components on the motherboard very difficult.

Another problem with the layout of the full AT board is that the expansion cards, once inserted into the systems, would cover the processor. This situation led to cooling problems due to the fact that ventilation was insufficient to keep the chip from overheating.

Baby AT System Board

The baby AT system board form factor has been one of the most popular motherboard types until recent years. The baby AT board is 8.5 inches wide and 10 inches long. This motherboard can be easily recognized because it usually has a DIN keyboard connector in the top-right corner of the board.

The baby AT board was about two-thirds the size of the full AT board and incorporated a socket 7 ZIF slot for classic Pentium processors. The baby AT board usually had a mixture of ISA/EISA and PCI slots located on the system board and included a plug and play BIOS.

Take a minute to consider some of the key components on the baby AT motherboard The socket 7 ZIF slot is usually situated at the bottom of the motherboard where the processor is to be installed. Also notice the SIMM and DIMM sockets on the right side of the motherboard, which are used to house RAM memory. To the left of the SIMM and DIMM slots, are the primary and secondary EIDE controllers for connecting the hard drives to the board. To the left of the EIDE controllers, notice the types of expansion slots that are used: There are four PCI slots and three EISA slots. Above the PCI slots, there is a silver circle, which is the CMOS battery.

ATX System Board

In 1995, Intel wanted a system board that would be used to support the Pentium II processor and the new AGP slot, so the ATX form factor was built. The ATX board is 7.5 inches wide and 12 inches long and has all the IO ports integrated directly into the board, including USB ports. The ATX board introduced a 100 MHz system bus, whereas older Pentium boards ran at 60/66 MHz and had one AGP slot for video cards. The ATX board also had soft power support, which meant that the system could be shut down by the operating system. The ATX form factor rotated the baby AT components by 90 degrees so that any cards inserted into the bus architectures would not cover the processor and prevent proper cooling.

Reference: http://e-articles.info/e/a/title/Types-Of-Motherboards/

For example,

1. Asus P5Q Desktop Board

2. Gigabyte Technology GIGA-BYTE GA-EX58-EXTREME Desktop Board

3. Gigabyte EX58-UD3R Socket LGA1366 Motherboard


1. Asus P5Q Desktop Board

Processor Compatibility: Celeron, Pentium 4 - Memory Type: DDR2, SDRAM - Graphics Card Interface: PCI, PCI Express, PCI Express x1, PCI Express x16

The P5Q is an Intel P45 chipset-based motherboard that combines powerful performance with great energy efficiency and supports DDR2 1200MHz dual-channel memory architecture and one PCI Express 2.0 x16 lane for extreme graphics performance. It also comes with the world's first ASUS EPU-6 Engine, allowing the CPU power supply to be digitally monitored and fine-tuned with improved VRM efficiency in heavy or light loadings attaining the best possible power efficiency and energy savings to help save the environment. The P5Q also supports ASUS Express Gate-an Linux OS bootup for instant access to the Internet in 5 seconds.

Part #:


Sellers Found: 2

Available Since: Jun 12, 2008

Lowest Price: $117.00

Reference: http://www.nextag.com/Asus-P5Q-Desktop-Board-611585135/prices-html?nxtg=8ec60a240532-D75123DC2E2ABEC7

2. Gigabyte Technology GIGA-BYTE GA-EX58-EXTREME Desktop Board


Memory Type: SDRAM - Graphics Card Interface: PCI, PCI Express, PCI Express x1, PCI Express x16

The EX58-EXTREME is the latest high performance X58 Series motherboards of GIGABYTE, designed from the ground up to unleash the awesome power of Intel's new Core i7 processors. Equipped with a host of new features including the new QPI interface, 3 channel DDR3 support, 3 Way SLI and CrossFireX support, Ultra Durable 3 technology and the industry's most extensive range of overclocking features, the EX58-EXTREME is bringing excitement back into the high performance motherboard industry.



Sellers Found: 2

Available Since: Nov 5, 2008

Lowest Price: $345.00

Reference: http://www.nextag.com/Gigabyte-Technology-GIGA-BYTE-630804841/prices-html

3. Gigabyte EX58-UD3R Socket LGA1366 Motherboard

The Gigabyte EX58-UD3R motherboard was designed from the ground up to unleash the awesome power of Intel’s Core i7 processors. It comes with a host of features including the new QPI interface, 3 channel DDR3 support up to DDR3 2000+, CrossFireX™ support, Ultra Durable 3 (Classic) technology and the industry’s most extensive range of overclocking features. The Gigabyte EX58-UD3R Socket LGA1366 motherboard is able to deliver an amazing performance break through from past processor generations. Replacing the Front Side Bus is the new Quick Path Interconnect, or QPI, whose 25.6 GB/sec transfer rate (double the bandwidth of the 1600MHz FSB) eliminates the communication bottleneck between the processor and chipset.

Reference: http://www.tigerdirect.com/applications/searchtools/item-details.asp?EdpNo=4410099&SRCCODE=NEXTAG&cm_mmc_o=2mHCjCWw0fzTCjCVqHCjCdwwp

Purpose of CMOS memory

Short for complementary metal oxide semiconductor. Pronounced see-moss, CMOS is a widely used type of semiconductor. CMOS semiconductor use both NMOS (negative polarity) and PMOS (positive polarity) circuits. Since only one of the circuit types is on at any given time, CMOS chips require less power than chips using just one type of transistor. This makes them particularly attractive for use in battery-powered devices, such as portable computers. Personal computers also contain a small amount of battery-powered CMOS memory to hold the date, time, and system setup parameters.

Reference: http://mylaptoplist.com/CMOS.html

CMOS contains

Standard CMOS features

Advanced BIOS features

Advanced Chipset features

Integrated peripherals

Power management setup

PC Health Status and etc.

Task 2 (iii)

Two different types of printers are laser printer and inkjet printer.

Ink-jets printer

Ink-jets (bubble-jets) printers spray ionized tiny drops of ink onto a page to create an image. This is achieved by using magnetized plates which direct the ink's path onto the paper in the desired pattern. Almost all ink-jets offer a color option as standard, in varying degrees of resolution. Ink-jet printers are capable of producing high quality print which almost matches the quality of a laser printer. A standard ink-jet printer has a resolution of 300 dots per inch, although newer models have improved on that. As a rule color link-jet printers can also be used as a regular black and white printer.


Laser printer

Laser printers operate by shining a laser beam to produce an image on a drum. The drum is then rolled through a pool, or reservoir, or toner, and the electrically charged portions of the drum pick up ink. Finally, using a combination of heat and pressure, the ink on the drum is transferred onto the page. Laser printers print very fast, and the supply cartridges work a long time. Color laser printers use the same toner-based printing process as black and white (B/W) laser printers, except that they combine four different toner colors. Color laser printers can also be used as a regular black and white laser printer.

Reference: http://www.cleverace.com/Printer_types.htm

Task 2(iii) (a)

Printer Technologies

There are several different types of printer technologies that are made available the to customer today. We have provided you with the most popular of these printer technologies to make your job a little easier.

Basically all the existing printer technologies fall under two main categories, which are known as Impact and the other in known as Non Impact. Each of these categories has several members. The first of the two main Impact types is called the Dot Matrix printers

The second kind of printer technology is known Non Impact. Printers that fall in to this category are those that do not have any kind of contact with the paper while printing out any sort of text or image. The very popular ink jet printers’ come under the category of Non Impact printers. However, there are several other types of printers that complete the list of Non Impact printers.

The first on the list are the ink jet printers. These kind of printers make use of a group of nozzles whose function is to spray tint droplets if ink straight on to the page.

The second on the list and equally popular as the ink jet printers are the laser printers. These printers are slightly more complicated and make use of toner, heat and static electricity in order to fuse the ink on to the page.

Reference: http://www.cartridgesave.co.uk/printer-ink-articles/various-printer-technologies.html

Task 2(iii) (b)

Problem of using the printers

Paper Does Not Feed From Sheet Feeder

Sheet feeder overloaded Please Check sheet feeder capacity. And check that you do not exceed the sheet feeder capacity. If you exceed the specified number of sheets, Paper will not feed correctly.

Loading Paper

We can stack paper in the sheet feeder to load it automatically, or you can manually feed one sheet at a time through the sheet feeder.

We can stack approximately 20 sheets of transparency film or 10 glossy photo cards in the sheet feeder. Nevertheless, these special media may not advance correctly under unusual environmental conditions (such as extreme temperatures or humidity).

If you have trouble with special papers becoming skewed or feeding multiple sheets, it don’t stack them in the sheet feeder. Load them one sheet at a time.

You can place approximately 50 sheets of plain paper (20lb or 75g/m2) in the sheet feeder at a time.

Paper support not attached

Always attach the paper support. The media will not slide fully into the paper feed slot and will not feed into the printer correctly, if the paper support is not attached.

Paper wrinkled or curled

Check that you are using appropriate media. Paper that is folded, curled, or crumples will not feed into the printer correctly, and may also cause paper jams.

Paper does not thin

Thicker paper could not be used.

We should use these Papers within the range of 17 to 24lb could be loaded in the sheet feeder