Fu-Wang ceramic industry limited facing increasing demand

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

As an emerging nation, the housing industry in Bangladesh have progressed significantly in recent years, that inspired the ceramics industry also to expedite investment into the industry. Fu-Wang Ceramics Industries Ltd. is a BBB rated company in the ceramics industry of Bangladesh. While there are other players in the industries playing competitive, the rating reflects the established position of Fu-Wang Company in the tiles industry in Bangladesh with its prospective domestic markets. While the rating factors significant experience of the promoters reflected in marketing success of the company and good credit history, the rating is constrained by weak financial position. This maybe a reason of increasing investment in technology and in manufacturing process optimization phase.

Fu-Wang Ceramic Industry Ltd. (FWCIL) was incorporated in May 1995. FWCIL is engaged in manufacturing & marketing of various types and sizes of Floor Tiles and Glazed wall tiles. As quoted by the chairman of the company, Mr. Hsu Chin Hua, "The Management of Fu-Wang Group is always followed QSP (Quality, Services and Price) for their each & every product". Fu-Wang industry limited is facing increasing demand of the consumers countrywide. The company is using imported raw materials, Italian machineries and highly experienced Taiwanese technicians and engineers in production who are vigilant to meet the changing taste and choice of the consumers by providing the touch of superb technical excellence in physical construction and appearance of tiles. Fu-Wang already has a well-equipped studio for design development which enabled to introduce the luxurious glazed floor and wall tiles by using latest printing technology first ever in Bangladesh and using laser cut technology for all Homogeneous tiles. The types of tiles produced and supplied by Fu-Wang Ceramics are Glazed Floor Tiles (31cm X 31cm), Glazed Floor Tiles (20cm X30 cm), Design Glazed Floor Tiles (31 cm X 31 cm), Glazed Wall Tiles (20cm X 30 cm), Luxury Ceramic Wall Tiles (25cm X 36cm), Homogenous Floor Tiles (30cm X 30cm), Homogenous Floor Tiles (40cm X 40cm), 20 Series Split Type Exterior Tiles, Border Tiles, Luxury Ceramic Wall Tiles (31cm X 45cm), Luxury Ceramic Floor Tiles (31cm X 31cm), and Luxury Ceramic Floor Tiles (42cm X42cm).. The sister concern Hua-Thai produces premium quality Hua-Thai tiles, which grabs significant market share in Bangladesh alone. The case intends to investigate the various methods that are used by Fu-Wang and its sister concern Hua-Thai in running their production and manufacturing operations and quality control measures.

As mentioned before, Fu-Wang has five separated lines for production; it works hard to make all variety of tiles available in the market. Fu-Wang introduces the luxurious glazed floor and wall tiles by using the latest printing technology first ever in Bangladesh and using laser cut technology for all Homogenous tiles. Deploying advanced mechanism and technologies Fu-Wang is producing same quality as European tiles and offering affordable price to all valuable Bangladeshi consumers for comfortable hygienic and fashion exotic house living. Because of its excellent quality Fu-Wang has achieved the ISO-9002 certification in 1998. Thus Fu-Wang makes a revolution in respect of tiles market and among the users of Bangladesh. At present Fu-Wang tiles are exported to India, Pakistan. Bhutan and Taiwan due to quality color and variety.

The Fu-Wang Management Team is committed in leveraging their experiences to take Fu-Wang to greater heights by ensuring top line revenues with dynamic capabilities. This Management Team is unique in being able to envision the need of the business by bringing in a mixture of advanced technology solutions know-how and revamping the organizational make- up for maximum profitability. The corporate management of the Company is consisted of 7 directors. The Managing Director of the Company is the Chief Executive, who assumes all responsibilities for planning and controlling of the Company. Other directors and highly qualified and experienced personnel assist him. This mix of people of Fu-Wang Ltd. are persistent to provide unparallel service to their customers, come up with timely and innovative products and services and to enhance the capabilities of their people while emphasizing on the latest technology.

To realize the process optimization landmark, set by Fu-Wang Ceramics, the detailed production process is necessary to be laid out. Taking Fu-Wang(Wall-tiles) manufacturing process into consideration, as a benchmark. Fu-Wang tiles purchase the raw materials from Mymensingh. Then white clay and red clay are crushed and put in the ball mills. in this stage(W) crushed clay is mixed with water to produce ceramic clay. Once the ceramic clay is produce, it is then stored in the slip (X). It can store 30-ton clay. Magnet extractor(Y) extracts the magnets form the clay. Spray dryer(Z) dries the clay and gives it a powder form. This factory has 6 silos. Each silo can contain 70 tons of clay powder. Silos are used to store the clay powder for pressing. 6 silos are connected to two pressing machines (A). A pressing machine is a hydraulic machine. Under this machine there is a plate. This plate contains the surface design of the tiles. Clay powder from silo is poured into this plate. This machine presses the powder with 250 ton hydraulic pressure. Then the powder gets the required shape. Then it is delivered to the conveyer belt. The factory has one 3-layer dryer (B). Dryer is used to dry excess moisture from the surface of the raw tiles. Startup time for this dryer is 20 minutes. The capacity of this dryer is 645 square feet. After drying the raw tiles are delivered to the conveyer belt and it reaches to the duster. Manual surface dusting (C) is a manual process. One person is in charge to clean the upper surface area of the tiles. The next phase (D) pours color on the surface of the raw tiles. Glaze spray (E) is used to glaze the surface of tiles. In the following stage (F) side glaze is minimized. This factory has five roller printing machines (G). These printers print the surface design one by one in five stages. After cooling the manual inspection takes place where the quality controller inspects (H) each and every tiles and look for textures problems, distortion, spot, edge break and color using their own judgment. The Accumulator (I) reserves the tiles for firing. After glazing, the tile must be heated intensely to strengthen. Kiln (J) fire the tiles. Cooler fan (K) used to cool the fired tiles. Then finished tiles are inspected (L) to look for any edge break. Tiles are then manually packed (M). Each pack contains 10 tiles. Then the packs are taken to the inventory.

Table 1: Precedence Relationship for Fu-Wang Wall Tiles

Task

Time (Sec)/SFT

Task must follow

W

0.43

-

X

0.34

W

Y

0.58

X

Z

0.69

Y

A

2.35

Z

B

1.16

A

C

1.74

B

D

1.16

C

E

0.87

D

F

0.58

E

G

1.16

F

H

1.16

G

I

0.87

H

J

2.49

I

K

1.00

J

L

1.16

K

M

0.58

L

Figure 1: Precedence Diagram of Fu-Wang Wall Tiles

Findings of Fu-Wang Wall Tiles production process:

a) CT (Cycle time) = 2.49 Sec

b) Output = Total Time Available/Cycle Time

=24*60*60/2.49

=34699

c) Total Activity Time = 0.43 + 0.34 + 0.58 + 0.69 + 2.35 + 1.16 + 1.74 + 1.16 + 0.87 + 0.58 + 1.16 + 1.16 + 0.87 + 2.49 + 1.00 + 1.16 + 0.58 = 18.29 Sec

d) Total Idle Time = 2.06 + 2.15 + 1.91 + 1.8 + 0.14 + 1.33 + 0.75 + 1.33 + 1.62 + 1.91 + 1.33 + 1.33 + 1.62 + 0 + 1.49 + 1.33 + 1.91 = 24.01 Sec

e) % Idle tile = Total Idle Time / (CT x No. of Stations)

= 24.01 / (2.49 x 17)

= 56.72 %

f) % Utilization = 100 - 56.72

= 43.27 %

The precedence diagram of Fu-Wang Wall Tiles manufacturing process shows a straightforward diagram as form the precedence relationship it is clear that each task has to go after the earlier one. This process starts with task W that is the Ball mill step and split ends with task M that is the packaging step. We have calculated all the time based on one SFT of tiles output basis. We know that Cycle Time is the longest processing time of the process. At this point Cycle Time is 2.49 sec, highest processing time at task J (Kiln). Total activity time is the summation of the entire task time and at this point it is 18.29 sec. Obtainable output of the process is 34,699 SFT tile per day. Idle time in each station is the variation between the task time of that exacting position and cycle time. In this process total idle time is 24.01 sec, which provides 56.72% idle time. And utilization of this process is 43.27%.

Proposed production process of Fu-Wang Wall Tiles:

Desired Output = 60,000

Required CT = Total Time Available/Desired Output

= 24*60*60/60,000

= 1.44

Figure 2: Proposed Precedence Diagram of Fu-Wang Wall Tiles

Findings for proposed process of Fu-Wang Wall Tiles:

a) CT = 1.24 Sec

b) Output = Total Time Available/CT

= 24 * 60 * 60/1.24

= 69,677 square feet per day

c) Total Activity Time = 0.43 + 0.34 + 0.58 + 0.69 + 1.17 + 1.17 +1.16 + 0.87 + 0.87 + 1.16 + 0.87 + 0.58 + 1.16 + 1.16 + 0.87 + 1.24 + 1.24 + 1.00 + 1.16 + 0.58 = 18.3 Sec

d) Total Idle Time = 0.81 + 0.9 + 0.66 + 0.55 + 0.07 + 0.07 + 0.08 + 0.37 + 0.37 + 0.08 + 0.37 + 0.66 + 0.08 + 0.08 + 0.37 + 0 + 0 + 0.24 + 0.08 + 0.66 = 6.5 Sec

d) % Idle tile = Total Idle Time / (CT x No. of Stations)

= 6.5 / (1.24 x 20)

= 26.20 %

e) % Utilization = 100 - 26.20

= 73.79 %

As of the preference relationship it is apparent that grouping of task is not feasible. Bottleneck of current process is step A, C and J. As a result our suggestion of this process is to insert one Pressing machine, one manual duster and one Kiln as parallel stations at step A, C and step J. This projected process will provide a Cycle Time of 1.24 sec. As a result it will lessen the total idle time. This anticipated process will provide 26.20% inactive time and Utilization of 73.79%. Therefore this proposed process will provide about 30% additional utilization level than the existing process

Problem solving session 1

Hua Thai (Floor Tiles) Manufacturing Process: The main raw material of the floor tile is ceramic clay. Fu-Wang tiles imports ceramic clay form Malaysia. Each bag of ceramic clay powder contains 1.05 ton. Ceramic powder is lifted to silos. This factory has 3 silos. Silos are used to store the ceramic clay powder for pressing. Out of three, two of them run continuously and one of them is kept as a back up. Each silo can hold 42 tons of ceramic powder. The description of the process follows. Each silo is connected to one pressing machine (A). A pressing machine is a hydraulic machine. Under this machine there is a plate. This plate contains the surface design of the tiles. Ceramic powder from silo is poured into this plate. This machine presses the powder with 250 ton hydraulic pressure. Then the powder gets the required shape. Then it is delivered to the conveyer belt. The factory has one 3-layer dryer (B). Dryer is used to dry excess moisture from the surface of the raw tiles. Startup time for this dryer is 20 minutes. The capacity of this dryer is 645 square feet. After drying the raw tiles are delivered to the conveyer belt and it reaches to the duster. The duster (C) is used to clean the upper surface area of the tiles. Blower is used to remove light dust from the surface. Glaze spray (D) is used to glaze the surface of tiles. This factory has two roller printing machines (E). These are optional and it is used if there is any extra printing needed. Before firing anti adhesive coating (F) is pasted under the tiles. This coating is used so that tiles do not stick in the kiln (oven). Alumina is used as an anti adhesive material. Accumulator (G) reserves the tiles for firing. Capacity of this accumulator is 360 square feet. In phase (H) the tile goes through a low-temperature firing called bisque firing before firing. Glaze dryer removes extra glaze of raw tiles before firing. After glazing, the tile must be heated intensely to strengthen it and give it the desired porosity (I). This is a firing machine specially designed to fire the raw tiles. The body and glaze are then fired together in a process called GLOST firing. Both firing processes take place in a tunnel or continuous kiln, which consists of a chamber through which the ware is slowly moved on a conveyor on refractory BATTS-shelves built of materials that are resistant to high temperatures-or in containers called SAGGERS. Output of this kiln is 16 square feet per minute. This is the process where the soft raw tiles are transformed into hard tiles through different layer of firing. Cooler fan (J) is used to cool the fired tiles. After cooling the manual inspection takes place where the quality controller inspects each and every tiles and look for textures problems, distortion, spot, edge break and color using their own judgment (K). And they categorize the tiles in the following way:

Grade A: Zero defects.

Grade B: one or two defects.

Grade C: More than two defects.

Once the tiles are inspected then they are kept in a place for continuous 8 hours cooling at room temperature (L).Then the cooled tiles are taken for squaring and scaling Water is sprayed to the surface of the tiles before cutting the edges (M). This is done so that the tiles do not break while the cutting process occurs. There are 2 cutting machines. This machines cut the tiles to give it a required size, called the squaring and scaling phase (N). Water Dryer (O) is used to dry the water that was sprayed earlier. Heater (P)heats the tiles and dries it for packing. In Final physical inspection (Q) process finished tiles are inspected to look for any edge break. Finally in packaging phase (R) tiles are then manually packed. Each pack contains 10 tiles. Then the packs are taken to the inventory.

Task

Time (Sec)/SFT

Task must follow

A

2.18

-

B

1.16

A

C

0.58

B

D

0.77

C

E

0.87

D

F

0.77

E

G

0.87

F

H

1.00

G

I

2.32

H

J

1.00

I

K

1.16

J

L

1.16

K

M

0.87

L

N

0.77

M

O

0.87

N

P

0.1

O

Q

1.16

P

R

0.58

Q

Table 2: Precedence Relationship for Hua-Thai Floor Tiles

Figure 3: Precedence Diagram for Hua Thai Floor Tiles

If cycle time is 2.30 seconds (longest processing time), and if output = Total Time Available/CT

Question 1: Find total activity time, total idle time, percentage of idle tile and percentage of utilization. Comment on your finding.

Moving to the proposed production process for Hua Thai Tiles, if Desired Output = 70,000 SFT

Required CT =Total Time Available/Desired Output

Figure 4: Proposed Precedence Diagram for Hua Thai Floor Tiles

Question 2: Find total activity time, total idle time, percentage of idle tile and percentage of utilization. Comment on your finding.

Question 3: Comment on the Bottleneck in the system. How the Bottleneck can be removed ? Comment what machineries can be added to reduce bottleneck.

Question 4: Examine the system and recommend process optimization.

QUALITY CONTROL

Most modern tile manufacturers now use statistical process control (SPC) for each step of the manufacturing process. Many also work closely with their raw material suppliers to ensure that specifications are met before the material is used. Statistical process control consists of charts that are used to monitor various processing parameters, such as particle size, milling time, drying temperature and time, compaction pressure, dimensions after pressing, density, firing temperature and time, and the like. These charts identify problems with equipment, out of spec conditions, and help to improve yields before the final product is finished. The final product must meet certain specifications regarding physical and chemical properties. These properties are determined by standard tests established by the Bangladesh Standard Testing Institution (BSTI). Properties measured include mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, water absorption, dimensional stability, frost resistance, and linear coefficient of thermal expansion.

Fu-Wang ceramics (wall tiles) and the Hua-Thai (floor tiles) Ceramics, our study companies are registered with ISO 9002. In our factory visit we hardly find quality control measures taken except some manual inspection. No Statistical record has been maintained other then the total batch output and the no of Grade A, Grade B and scrap tiles no. Quality control inspectors look for the possible defects like texture, distortion, spot, color, flatness, etc. We have provided 36 data seta about the number of Grade A, Grade B and scrap tiles from one line of Hua-thai ceramics. Based on the information we have done our Analysis. Rest of the lines of the company didn't provide us any information so we don't know whether they have maintained any kind of record or not.

Quality control Data of Hua-Thai Floor Tiles:

We have considered the Grade A as main product and the Grade B as well as scrap as our defective product and have done the analysis based on that. Were Grade A represents no defects, Grade B represents 1-2 defects, Scrap represents more then 2 defects in the tiles output. The batch size is 2180 SFT of homogenous floor tiles.

SL #

Batch Output SFT

Grade A SFT (0 Defects)

Grade B SFT (1-2 Defects)

Scrap SFT (Wastage >2 Defects)

1

2180

2111

37

32

2

2180

2132

20

28

3

2180

2105

30

45

4

2180

2095

49

36

5

2180

2142

15

23

6

2180

2116

28

36

7

2180

2102

42

36

8

2180

2124

26

30

9

2180

2113

38

29

10

2180

2101

40

39

11

2180

2087

28

65

12

2180

2058

37

75

13

2180

2048

89

43

14

2180

2145

16

19

15

2180

2122

29

29

16

2180

2095

48

37

17

2180

2089

46

45

18

2180

2136

21

23

19

2180

2113

32

35

20

2180

2091

50

39

21

2180

2124

26

30

22

2180

2113

38

29

23

2180

2101

40

39

24

2180

2058

79

43

25

2180

2138

23

19

26

2180

2119

30

31

27

2180

2094

49

37

28

2180

2087

48

45

29

2180

2047

60

73

30

2180

2042

88

50

31

2180

2139

35

6

32

2180

2122

34

24

33

2180

2106

40

34

34

2180

2112

39

29

35

2180

2114

37

29

36

2180

2101

43

36

Sample Size n=2180 SFT

Relationship diagram between different Grades of output:

The following diagrams are shown between different types of output

Grade A vs Scrap

Grade A and Scrap has a negative relationship. As Grade A increase the scrap decrease. It is also visible in the linear line drawn.

Problem solving session 2

Question 1: Using quality control data, construct and define relationship among grade A vs grade B. Comment on your findings.

Question 2: Using quality control data, construct and define relationship among grade A vs grade B and scrap. Comment on your findings.

Question 3: Explain your findings and recommend means to expedite efficiency by controlling the Grades.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.