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Shortest definition of organizational politics could be termed as unsanctioned influence attempts that seek to promote self-interest at the expense of objectives, goals and growth of an organization. Cropanzano and Grandey, in press; Drory and Romm, 1990; Ferris, Frink, Beehr and Gilmore, 1995; Ferris and Kacmar, 1992; Ferris and Judge, 1991; Ferris, Russ and Fandt, 1989; Kacmar and Ferris, 1993).
Organizational politics is a subjective experience and state of mind which cannot be measured exclusively on objective state (Gandz and Murray, 1980). According to Gerald R, Farris (1992) mentioned that perception of organizational politics influenced by organizational, environmental and personal factors in turn influences organizational outcomes such as job involvement, job anxiety, job satisfaction and physical and psychological withdrawal from the current working organization. Organizational politics perception also could be due to variability on job, age, sex education as well as the hierarchal level in an organization resulting impacts in job satisfaction, anxiety, employee promotions. In the same way other causes could be job environment influences (Graen, Novak and Sommerkamp, 1982), wok group cohesion (Price and Muller, 1986), span of control (Ferris, 1990), Feedback and advancement opportunities (Ferris, Frink, Galang, et al, 1996).
Every organization have human resource with a different age, income, education, gender and hierarchal level, and they all respond or participate differently in the organization politics, so we can say that status level, economic conditions and personalities are effects the organizational decisions (Vigoda, 2000). Employees with a low hierarchal level think that organizational policies are the main source of unjustified decisions and employee's frustration and these unfair decisions and frustration simulates negative and unhealthy attitude (Vigoda, 2000). For the top level of organizational human resource, organizational politics works as centrifugal force which pushes them to physical withdrawal and they find a new job place which they think or perceive less political. So we can clearly understand that organizational politics strongly correlated with the organization commitment. Bozeman (1996) and also depicts that this relation cab be a negative relationship.
Every organization provides some rules and policies for employees who are engage in political behavior for guidance. In the organizations where these rules are not available to prescribe how to act, there are more chances of the occurrence of political activity. In the circumstances where rules and policies are not defined and available for the guidance of employees then circumstances allow individuals to define a situation and fit their own wants and needs. This redesign of situation is often called political behavior. (Kacmar, 1995).
Ferris et al (1989) and Fandt, and Ferris (1990)found that, political behaviors are found more in the organization where uncertain conditions and ambiguity exist in work place. According to Ferris (1992) job autonomy, job variety, and feedback can be a helpful tool to reduce uncertain condition from the work place, low uncertain environment leads to reduce political activities in the organization and provide healthy space to achieve organizational goals. According to Daft, 1989. Job autonomy and low variety of tasks could be helpful factors to reduce political situation and environment.
Ferris et al 1989 identified that age, gender, tenure, race play very vital role in perception of organizational politics, human resource with a different demographics sound differently in the way to organizational politics.
Mintzberg (1983, 1985) identify another important factor of organization politics which is Formulization, organizations who are highly formalized, they have very less rate of organizational political activities. It is also an outcome from the research of Mintzberg (1979) which tell us political activities are lowest in highly formulized organization. According to Mintzberg (1979) he indicates that professional organizations have more political environment then other organizations. Ferris also highlighted the same points and fact in his researches that opportunities (Smith et al, 1962) also reduce the political situation or political behavior from the organization and organizational opportunities have negative relation with organizational politics and peoples involved more in politics when they see they have lesser opportunities of growth and betterment. According to (Madison et al, 1980; Ferris and Buckley, 1990) employees performance is linked with the employee's promotion and if the organizational decisions regarding promotion are fair and transparent the ratio of politics in organization at very lower level. Employees promotions is also a most essential and basic ingredient of organizational politics. Every employee in the organization have a different personality so personality traits also an important factor of organizational politics Machiavellianism.
According to Cropanzano in 1997 he found that there are so many other factors of organizational politics which could be countless. In the organization where politics exists, there employees think that they are working hard and their hard work will not be rewarded properly, timely and consistently. Since Employees think that power is a key to success and more powerful employees and groups and affiliation with these groups provide more benefits to the employees. In these situations employees have options to quit or withdrawal, (Mobley, 1977) stated in his study, withdrawal process means, the process in which employee want to quit from the organization if a person dissatisfied from the organization he will be start thinking about the switching of job and think about leaving the organization. (Mobley, 1977) these withdrawals could be physical and psychological. In physical withdrawal peoples quit the organization and another one or physically withdraw their self from organization and in the case of psychological withdrawal is quit different with the physical withdrawal, in psychological withdrawal process employees mentally unable to present their self on the work place and do add any value in his or her job responsibilities and they spend lot of time in day dreaming and detracted others and also involved in non productive works. So we can infer that Psychological withdrawal positively correlated with the organization's politices. (Ferris et al, 1993; Randall et al, 1994). Similarly as Ferris et al, 1993 also depicts that organizational politics have a positive relationship with the employee's turnover intentions. This situation could be happen where employees become more isolated and do save themselves from political situations then they take a step towards turnover.(Price, 1977) "Turnover" means the ratio of the number of employees quit from the organization during the period and divided these employees by average number of employee in the organization during the period (Price, 1977).
This research focus on voluntary turnover means turnover from the side of employees. Turnover intentions are the inclination or the attitude of the mind. If the organization noticed that the employee are having attitude of turnover the organization must find out the problem, because these problems making a mind of employees towards quitting. (Wanous, 1979). Organizational commitments, turnover intention and job satisfaction are interlinked with each others, but according to study, organizational commitments had strong relationship with turnover intention, though the employees satisfaction are directly related with the turnover intention, unsatisfied employee always searching new and better opportunities.(Peters, Bhagat, & O'Connor 1981) and all kind of organizations are focusing on these problems and take it seriously to reduce the turnover ratio from their organizations (Lucas, Parasuraman, Davis & Enis, 1987).
Another point of view which was presented by Pfeffer (1981) about organizational politics is organizational politics can be use for the improvement of an organization's processes. Pfeffer (1981) also argued that organizational politics also helps organization in betterment of processes, execution of plan, implementation of new strategies and for running of business. Employees who are skillful in doing politics they can get maximum rewards in his professional career and get maximum benefits from his or her organization.(Wayne & Farris, 1990). According to Pfeffer (1989) he further suggest that political focus is very much important perspective in sympathetic of career growth. He also found that lower levels of employees are highly involved in job rotation or turnover.
220.127.116.11 Impacts of Organizational Politics on Employee's Physical and Psychological Health.
Here it is very much important to understand the impact of perception of organization politics on the employee's physical and psychological health because organizational politics creates number of problems for the organization's human resource. In this regards many researchers explore relationship between organizational politics and employee's health physical or psychological. Organizations where higher level of political environment exist, it will increase or generates the level of stress in employees (Valle & Perrewe, 2000) and it will also increase level of tension for the organizational human resource and this will creates anxiety anxiety (Ferris, Frink, Galang, Zhou, Kacmar, & Howard 1996) job and somatic tension and level of employee's energy is low in these circumstances (Cropanzano, 1997). Political environment effect overall productivity of an employee and political situations are also creates conflicts between employees and organization. Similarly tiredness and burnouts creates number of problems which are known as physical problems like headaches, backaches, lingering colds, gastrointestinal, etc (Maslach and Jackson, 1981).
The basic out come of organizational politics is work stress. Work stress is subjective feeling of an employees which can be take place when employees feels that he or she do not have sufficient capabilities to perform and complete the organizational work and task and he feels he unable to achieve his or her goals and objectives. (Folkman & Lazarus, 1991; Edwards, 1992). Work stress drops negative impact on the employee's performance as well as organization and economy performance because these all things are inter linked with each other. Due to work stress organizations face number of costs like wastage of time, reduction in production processes, physical accidents and in the shape of lost (Ganster and Schaubroeck, 1991; Holley and Frye, 1989; Joure, Leon, Simpson, Holley and Frye, 1989; Minter, 1991; Murphy, 1988) and these all motives also indicates work stress and organizational politics. If employees feel or perceived, organization have political environment or politics involved in every matter of organization and also involved in decision making process of an organization then employees reports low resistant power, work tension, general health problem and negative attitude (Cropanzano, 1997).
Cropanzano mentions in latest book that, organizational politics badly effects on the organizational formal decisions and politics involved in organizational formal decisions then the decisions are tend not be transparent and this non transparency pushes the employees towards turnover intention and mental withdrawal. Non transparency of decision also increase stress level of employees because employees are unable to execute their decisions as they thought and plan. Political environment and stress will also creates uncertain conditions and situations and politics and stress also involved how peoples understand uncertain situations and where necessary actions can be taken for the removal of politics and come out from stress (Cropanzano, R., & Li, A. in press). Some researchers describe stress, it is internal resistance power of peoples in which they under estimate their self against demands and they think these demands are exceeded from their capacities, some others researcher depicts that "Politics as Stress" (Dipboye & Foster, 2002).
Kahn and Byosiere (1992) categories the responses which will be the creation of stress, according to him there are three kind of responses or outcome of stress, physiological, psychological, and behavioral. Stress damages peoples physically in reduce their physical strength, physical outcome of stress involve, high blood pressure, high heart rates, and high cholesterol level (Fried, Rowland, & Ferris, 1984) here the researcher mentioned very limited outcomes but these should be more then these. Psychological outcomes of stress involved anxiety, burnout, confusion, depression, job dissatisfaction, health problems, and fatigue (Beehr, Walsh, & Taber, 1976; Cooper & Roden, 1985; Davidson & Cooper, 1986; Fisher, 1985; Kobasa, 1982). At the last but not the least final outcome of stress is behavioral damages like absence at work, late arrivals, negative attitude, early going, low motivation level, low work productivity counterproductive behavior, job performance, turnover, and drug use on the job9192 (Blau, 1981; Mangione & Quinn, 1975).